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Full text of "Appletons' Cyclopedia of American Biography Volume 4"

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 P P LET 0 
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01TCLOP-LEDI-L
 OF L
l\fERI01
N 


BIOGR,1\Pl I Y 


EDITED BY 


J .A. 
l E S G H 
\. X T 'V I L ð ú N 


AXD 


J 0 II X F I ð 1{ E 


A
 it is the commendation of a good hunt
man to find game in a "ide wood, 
80 it is no imvutation if he hath not cau1!ht all, PLATO, 


VOL[)IE IY, 


LUI>GE-JJICK EXS 


KE'Y YORK 
D. APPLETOX AXD CO)lPAXY 
1, 3 AND 5 BOXD STREET 
lððð 



1 



 


COPYRHiIIT, IB'R, 
By D. -\'PI'J,ETON .\XI> CO
[P
\XY, 


- 



LIST OIi"' l>OTIT'RAITB O
 brrEEL. 


ARTIST E"GItA\'ER PAGE 
LOXGFELLOW, fIEXRY "TADSWORTII H arr(:lt llullyer Front i.piece 
)frCLELLAX, (.EORGE flRIXTOX Brady Ginsch Pacp 'i9 
:\IACDOX \LD, ,TOIlX ALEX.\XDl-R .1Yotmal& Holl.l/er 102 
:\I.\DI
OX, .J .HIES Stuart lIall 1 (j,) 
)L\RSIIALL, ,TOII
 Inman Jackmml 222 
l\(OXROE, J.A)IES J "anderlgn lIall 3;;
 
:\loRsE, S.\)n-EL F, B. Sarong Hall 424 
PE-lBODY, GEORGE Gurney Klligld bt\1; 
PEDRO II" Do" BfJga I'd U8 lIall G!'., 
PEXX, WILLIAM ]{nellf'l' lIall 'i12 




SO)IE OF TIT E CITIEF OO
TRTnU
rOR8 


TO A\.PPLETO
S' UYCLOP ..:EDL\ OF A)lEIUUAX BIOGltAPll Y. 


Adams, Charles Kendall, 
Prc15ident of ('ornell University, 
Agassiz, Alexander, 
_\uthor and Prof"....or, 
Allan, Col. William, 
Aidl'-de-Callll' to .. 
tone\\all" Jackson, 
Allibone, S, Austin, 
_\ uthor .. DictlOnllry of Authon!." 
Amory, Thomas C" 
\uthor .. Lift' of Ul'neral Sullivan," ete, 
Bancroft, George, 
-\uthor ,. lIi15tory of the United SUtcs,' 
Bayard, Thomas F" 
"'ecretary of 
tate, 
Beehler, William H" 
Lieutenunt 1 , :-;, Xlny, 
Bigelow, John, 
.\uthor .. Lift, of Franklin;' ete, 
Boker, George H" 
Poet. lfite :\1 iuistcr to HUS15ia., 
Bradley, Joseph p" 
,J u,.tice Lnited States Supreme Court, 
Brooks, Phillips, 
Author" :-Ol'rmon" iu Englboh Churchcs," 
Browne, Junius Henri, 
.\uthor aud ,Journalist. 
Carter, Franklin, 
Pn....illtlllt of \\"illiams Colle
e. 
Chandler, William E" 
Ex-Secl'Ptluyof the Xavy, 
Clarke, James Freeman, 
,\uthor ., 1'l'n (;reat Ul'Iigions." ete, 
Cooper, Miss Susan Fenimore, 
. \uthor .. Hural nour
'" etc, 
Conway, Moncure D" 
:\1 h-cellaueous Writer, 
Coppée, Henry, 
Profes,.or iu Ll'high Univerl'ity. I'll., 
Coxe, Arthur Cleveland, 
p, E. ßj,.hop of We"tern 
ew York, 
Courtenay, William A" 
'Iayor of Charll,,,ton, :-;, ('. 
Cullum, Gen, George W" U, S, A" 
Author .. RI'
i"ter of \\' e,.t Point Graduates," ete. 
Curtis, George Ticknor, 
Author" Life of .Jan1\''' Buchanan," etc, 
Curtis, George William, 
Author and Editor, 
Custer, Mrs, Elizabeth B" 
Author" Tenting- on the Plain8," 
Daniel, John W" 
rnit('d "'t;lt('" Senator from \ïrginia, 
De Lancey, Edward F" 
E
-Prc"idl'nt (;enPlllo
iculand Biographical Society, 
Didier, Eugene L" 
Anthor .. Life of Edgar Allan Poe," 


Dix, Morgan, 
Hector of 'l'rinity Church, New York. 
Doane, William C" 
p, E. Bishop of AI1.>any, 
Drake, Samuel Adams, 
.\uthor .. lIibtoric Pl'r8onfiges of Boston," etc, 
Draper, Lyman C" 
Secrl'turyof Wil'conbin lli15torical Society, 
Dupont, Col. Henry A., 
Uf Helu\\are. late U. S, .\rmy. 
Eggleston, George Cary, 
Editor X ('w Yorb. .. Commercial Ad vertil5er." 
Fiske, John, 
Author und PrOft'''80r, 
Frothingham, Octavius B" 
Author" Lift' of (;eor
(' HiJlley," 
Gayarre, Charles E, A" 
Author" lIit'tory of Louil:!iana." 
Gerry, Elbridge T" 
:\lem1.>l'r of Xew York ßar. 
Gilman, Daniel C" 
Pre...ideut of Johns lIopb.in
 'l'nÍ\ersity 
Gilmore, James R" 
.\utho.' ., Henr-( ;ufird of the Revolution," cOO, 
Gleig, George Robert, 
Ex,( 'haJlluin.( ;('n('ral llriti!'h Army. 
Goodwin, Daniel, 
:\It'mh('r of Illinnis Bfir, 
Greely, Gen, Adolphus W" U, S, A" 
Author" Three Y l'firs of Arctic Service," 
Green, William Mercer, 
Lfit(' p, E. Bi"IIOJI of 'li

i..."ipJli. 
Greene, Capt, Francis Vinton, 
l"nit('d Statl'f1 Enl!inel'r Corps, 
Hale, Edward Everett, 
Author" Frnnkliu in France," ete, 
Hart, Charles Henry, 
:\Iemher Pcnn...,vhania Bar, 
Hay, Col. John, 
Author " Life nf Lincoln," etc, 
Henry, William Wirt, 
Of the \ïru:inin JIi"torical Sodety, 
Higginson, Col. Thomas W" 
Author "lIifltory of the United States," ete, 
Hilliard, Henry W" 
Late :\Imistpr to Brazil. 
Holmes, Dr, Oliver Wendell, 
Author finel Po('t, 
Hoppin, Prof, James M" 
()f '\ all' f'olleu:e, 
Howe, Mrs. Julia Ward, 
Author" Lutpr Lyric!<," etc, 
Huntington, William R" 
R('ctor of Grnce Church. "Xew York, 
Jay, John, 
Late }Ijllj
t('r to _-\uBtria, 



viii 


S031E OF TIlE CHIEF CO
TRIBCTORS, 


Johnson, Gen. Bradley T " 

Iember of lIaryland llar, 
Johnson, Rossiter, 
Author" Hif;tory of the "Tar of 1812," etc, 
JohDston, William Preston, 
President of Tulane University, 
Jones, Horatio Gates, 
Vice-President of Pennsylvania Historical Society, 
Jones, John William, 
Secretary of 
outhern llil:5torical Society, 
Jones, William Alfred, 
Author " Character and Criticism," etc. 
Lathrop, George Parsons, 
Author " A Study of 1Im\ thorne," ete, 
Latrobe, John H, B" 
)(ember of )Iaryland llar, 
Leach, Co1. J, Granville, 
)(ember of the Philadelphia Bar, 
Lincoln, Robert T" 
Ex-Secretary of War, 
Lodge, Henry Cabot, 
Author" Life of Hamilton," 
Long, Co1. Charles Chaillé, 
Late of thp Egyptiau Army, 
Lowell, James Russell, 
Late )linÎ:5ter at Court of 
t, James, 
MacVeagh, Wayne, 
E'i:-Attoruey-Geueral, IS, s, 
Mathews, William, 
Author" Oratorl5 and Oratory," ete, 
McMaster, John Bach, 
Author" History of the People of the United States," 
Mitchell, Donald G" 
Author" Re\ erie::: of !L Bachelor," etc. 
Norton, Charles Eliot, 
Profe:::sor in Hanurd Univer8ity. 
O'Connor, Joseph, 
Editor Rod\l'
t('r, 
. y" .. Post-Exprcs::I," 
O'Neal, Edward A" 
(
overnor of Alabama, 
Parker, Cortlandt, 
)(pmber of New ,Jer!'ey Bar, 
Parkman, Francis, 
Author" Frontenac," .. French in Canada," ete, 
Parton, James, 
Mii"celiaIll'ou" "-riter, 
Phelan, James, M, C" 
Editor )h'mphis, 'renn" .. Avalanche." 
Phelps, William Walter, 

(ember of ('on
rci"s from Xew Jersey, 
Pierrepont, Edwards, 
E"i:-Attornpy-(;!'ncral Lnited States, 
Porter, David D" 
AcImiml Unitprl States 
avy. 
Porter, Gen, Horace, 
Late of (
pn, (;rllnt's Staff, 
Preston, Mrs, Margaret J., 
Author and Poet, 


Puron, Dr, Juan G" 

panh,h Author and Editor, 
Read, Gen, J, Meredith, 
Late 
lmil:5ter to Greece, 
Reid, Whitelaw, 
,Editor 
ew .... ork .. Tribune," 
Ricord, Judge Frederick W" 
l'ew Jer"ey 1Ij,'torical 
ociety. 
Robinson, Ezekiel G" 
Prel!ident of Bro\\ n LnÍ\'erli'ity. 
Romero, Mattias, 

Ie
ican )(iui"ter to the rnited 
tlitel!, 
Scharf, Co1. J. Thomas, 
Of the Confederate _-\rmy, 
Sch urz, Carl, 
EX-
t'cretary of the Interior, 
Sherman, William T" 
Late (
eneral of ('nited Statt',. Army, 
Smith, Charles Emory, 
Editor Philadelphia .. Pre
s," 
Spencer, Jesse Ames, 
Author lIud l'rof,',,"or, 
Stedman, Edmund C" 
Author ('Ot'ts of America," etc, 
Stiles, Henry R" M, D" 
.\uthor" lIi,.tory of Brookl)n, );, ï," 
Stoddard, Richard Henry, 
Author" ::;ongs of Summer," ete, 
Stone, William L" 
Author" Life of Hed Jacket," ete, 
Strong, William, 
Ex-Ju"tice Llllted StatelS 
upreme Court, 
Stryker. William S,. 
AdJutant-(it'!It'ral of 
t'\\ Jeri"ey, 
Tenner, William Christian. 
Graduat!' of tht' l"niven-ity of Paris. 
Tucker, J, Randolph, 
)lembcr of ('ougre,," from Virginia, 
Waite, Morrison R" 
Chief Ju!'tice ('uited State." Supreme Court. 
Warner, Charles Dudley, 
Author aud Editor, 
Washburne, Elihu B" 
[ aÍl' )(ini"tt'r to France, 
Welling, James C" 
Pre
ident of ('olumhian Cniversity, 
Whittier, John Greenleaf, 
Author uncI Poet. 
Wilson, Gen, Jas, Grant, 
Pet'sidCII t (icnealogicalaud BÏ<'gruphical 
ociety. 
Winter, William. 
Poet and Tht'lttrical Critic, 
Winthrop, Robert C" 
Ex-United 

ate" St'nator. 
Wright, Gen, Marcus J" 
Of tht. f'onfcdcrau
 Army, 
Young, John Russell, 

(i:::ccllancoul5 \\Triter. 


To this lüt other names will be added as the 1cork progl'e..'1,
es, 



Among the Contributors to thð {mll"h l'(Þfume of "A}Jpleton-
' rydopædia of 
lmerican Riogra,. 
phy " are the follmring , 


Richard Meade Bache, 

IE-\DE, GEORGE (;ORDOX, AXD FAMILl, 


Henry Carey Baird, 
)[ ERCIIA "1', ('IIA RLr.S 
pEXCER, 
'IL'L,LAXY, JA'IE
 HOBERT :\l.-\l>I
OX, 


Prof, William M, Baskervill. 
LOXGSTREET, AnH"
TL'S BALDWIX, 
:\IcFFRRI
, ,JoHX BERRY, 
Lieut. William H, Beehler, U, S, N, 
ARTICLES OX U, S, X A VAl. OFFICERS, 


Prof, Henry Augustin Beers. 

IIT(,IIELL, I)OXALD GRAxr, 


Marcus Benjamin, F, C, S, 
)loRsE, S DIL'EL !<" ll., 
PEXX, WII.LIA
I, 


S!lmuel G, W, Benjamin, M, A, 

\RfICLES ox P AIXTERS AXD 
(TLPTORS, 


Arthur Elmore Bostwick, Ph, D, 
)II"l-IT, PETER, 
PE
IBERTO
, JOIIX ('LIFFORD, 


Joseph P. Bradley, LL. D, 
M-\HSIIALL, JOHX, 
Junius Henri Browne. 
PERKIX
, ,JA
IEs IIAXIHSYD, 
Rev, James Buckley, D, D, 

\RTIf'LES ox BISHOP
 OF TIlE 1'1 ETHODIST EPISCO- 
PAL t'IICRCII, 


Mrs, Isa Carrington Cabell, 
:\IAxx, HORACE, 
THE XEL
OX FA'IILY OF '-IRGI:\IA, 


Prof, Henry Coppée, LL, D, 
)IcCLELLAX, GEORHE BRIXTOX, AXD FAmL\, 


Edward Floyd De Lancey. 
THE 
ICOLL FA
IILY OF LOXG ISLAxD, 
KICOLLS, SIR RICHARD, 
Eugene Lemoine Didier, 
)IAGRUDER, JOHX BASKHEAD, 
X EAL, J OHX. 
William,Henry Egle, M, D, 
l\!oXTGmIERY, JOH
, 
KEAD, BEXJAmX MATTHIAS, 


Prof, John Fiske, 

IADISOX, J A
IES, 
)L-\RIOX. FRAXCIS. 
OTIS, J.UIES, AXD F A
IILY, 
Rev, Octavius Brooks Frothingham. 
PARKER, THEODORE, 


Elbridge Thomas Gerry, 
Xon::-, \VILLU'I CL'RTIS, 
Daniel Coit Gilman, LL, D. 
l\lo"RoE, J.un:s, 


James Roberts Gilmore. 

IcU ILLI\'RA Y, .ALE
A:\"DER, 
O\'ERTOX, JOIIX, 
Rev, George Robert Gleig, 
PAKEXIIA)I, 
IR ED'\AIW )IICII\EL, 


Rt, Rev, William Mercer Green, D, D. 
OTEY, JA
IES HERVEY. 
Capt, Francis Vinton Greene, 
)ld)IIER:-OX, JUlES BIRDSE\ E, 


Rev, William Elliot Griffis, D, D. 
PERRY, )IATTIIEW ('.\LBR-\ITII, 
l)ERRY, C)LIVER IIAZ.\RD, 


Reuben Aldridge Guild, LL, D. 
)I-\XXIXH, JA'IES, 


George J, Hagar. 
p \I.
I ER, H no, 
PEABOD\, . \ XUREW PRESTOX, 


Jacob Henry Hager, 
LOGA", ,JoHX .\LEX \"DER, 
TilE :\IA
OX AXD )IoRlus FA.
IILIES 


Charles Henry Hart, 
:\IALBOXE, EDWARD GREE"E, 

EAGLE, ,JOIIX, 


Oliver Wendell Holmes, M, D. 

IOTLE\, ,JOII
 LOTHROP, 


Cecil H, C, Howard, 
PE"IIALLOW, S,\ 'IL'EL, 
I'll ELI'S, .J OHX \Y OLCOTT, 


Frank Huntington, 
Lyox, 
 A TH -\ XIEL, 

lOTT, \
ALEXTIXE, 


Abram S, Isaacs, Ph, D, 
ARTICLES OX IIEBREW CLERGnlEY, 


Gen, Bradley T . Johnson. 
LOX(;
1'REET, J A 'IE8, 
:\IL.;RDOCK. \VILLU
I, 


Col. William Preston Johnston. 
)r.-\R
IADl-KF., JOH" SAPPIXGTOY, 
:\IAXEY, 
.DIL.;EL BELL, 


Horatio Gates Jones, D, C, L. 
:\IoRGAx. ABEL. AXD F A
IILY, 
U\\ EX, GOROXWY, 



x 


CO
TRIllUTOHS TO TIlE FOCRTII \TOIJU:\IE, 


William Alfred Jones, 
MATHEWS, l'OltXELHTS, 
Charles Penrose Keith, 
PAL)IER, AXTHOXY, 
ARTICLES OX THE PEXY F A:\IILY, 


Eugene Coleman Savidge. 
PAGE, Sun'EL DAVIS, 
PAXCOA
T, .Jo
EPH, 


Col, J, Thomas Scharf, 

IALLORY, STEPHE:\ IÜ:ssELL, 
.:\1 Al'RY, :\IATTlIEW FOXTAIXE, 


Rev, James Ryland Kendrick, D, D. 
ARTICLES ON BAPTIST CLERGYMEN, 


Rt, Rev, Edmund de Schweinitz, D, D. 
ARTICLES ON :\IORA VIA '1 ('LERGnlEX, 


Rufus King, 
ARTICLES ON THE ODELL F A:\IILY, 


Charles Lanman, 
PERIXCIIlEF, OCTA VIFS, 


Miss Esther Singleton. 
)11 \XTOXO:\lO, 
PAIXE, HOBERT TREAT, 
Prof, T, O'Conor Sloane, Ph, D, 
O:<:OXOR, !:"ARLE
, 
o COXOR, IIIO)IAS, 


Samuel Archer King, 
ARTICLES ox _\ËROXAUTS, 


Co!. Josiah Granville Leach. 
ARTICLES ox XOTED PEXXSYLVAXIAXS, 


Rev, Jesse Ames Spencer, D, D, 
..\.RTICLES oX CLERGY\IDI OF TilE PROTES1AXT 
EPI
COPAL ('Hl'ReH, 


Col, Charles Chaillé-Long, 
IJOIU:IIH. \\TILLI UI \YIXCi, 
1\1oTT, TIIADUEl"S PHELPS, 


Neil Macdonald, 
ARTU'LES ON C.AXA.DJ..\ '\" STATE
)IEX, 


George Stewart, D, C, L, 
:\1 \C[lOX.\LII, SIR JOHX _\LEX .\XIJI':R. 
)IAC
AB. SIR .\.LLAX XAPIER, IhÚ. 
William Leete Stone, 
:\kCRE,\. ,1.\XI':, 
:\1..\ RKII.\ 'I, ,J .\RED ("LARK, 


Gabriel Edward Manigault, M, D, 
.\RTICLES ox TilE l\L\XWAULT FAMILY. 


Frederick Gregory Mather. 
ARTICLJ:S ox THE 1\L\TIIER F.DIILY, 


William Christian Tenner, 
:\1 LïtAT, X .\l'OLÉO" .\CIIILLE, 
I'FJlRO II. 


William Mathews, LL, D, 
PAIXE. IlEXRY W, 


William H, Walter, Mus, D, 
,.,\ RTH'LES ox ('RGAXISTS, 


Prof, Charles Eliot Norton, 
LmwFELLow. Ih:XRY \V ADSWORTII, 
XOItTOX, .JoH'1, 


Charles Dudley Warner, 
LOWELL, ,J.UIES HI'

ELL, 


Rev, S, E, Ochsenford, 
ARTICLES OX LUTIIER.\X l'LERGnlEX, 


John William Weidemeyer. 
:\L\CRE.\JlY, 'YII.Ll DI ('II -\RLES, 
PIIILlP, },",XG, 


Frank Weitenkampf, 
.. \ RTICLI:S ox . \ RTI
T8 AXD :\1l"SIeIAXg, 


Joseph O'Connor, 
1\ld'LOSKI:Y, ,J OIIX, 
MOORE, EUWAIW )[OTT, 


Everett p, Wheeler, 
PEPI'ERRELL, SIR \\'II.LLDI, 


Prof, Francis Parkman, 
l\loxTCAUI. 
IAR<lns DE, 


Gen. Jas, Grant Wilson, 
PU'LIII'W, .T.DII:
 KmKE, 
PAYXE, .JOIIX 110\\ \RD. 
PEABOUY, (.FORGE, 


Mrs, Jenny Marsh Parker. 
:\hLLER, 'YILLL\:\I, 


Frederick Eugene Pond, 
.:\kLI;LL\X, ISAAc, 


John Laird Wilson, 
:\loRRI
, HOBERT, 
OGLETIIORI'L:, .J \)IE!', 


Rev, Alfred p, Putnam, D, D. 
..\RTIt'LES O
 TilE Low F.UIILY, 
Whitelaw Reid, 
Plll:LPS, WILLLDI \VA.LTER. 


Gen, Marcus J, Wright, 
PEI;RHI, ,TOIIX, 
PEXUER, WILLI DI nOR
EY. 
John Russell Young, 
l\LU'K,\\, .J 011 X \V ILLLUI, 



--L\J? l) LJ
TONS' 


C'TCT
orAI
J)I-L\ OI{ J\)I

I:rCA
 I
IOG]t
\PIIY. 


LODGF 


LO))(a:, Hiles Hrlll'f, translntor, b, in Boston, 
::\Ia<:s" liJ )Iarch, 11-CO.j, He Wlt
 
rIlduated ut 
Ilarvanl in 11-C
,j, filltl at the medical 
chool in 
11-C:.?S, allli has pa

ed his life in Bo
ton, )Ia

, Ill' 
is an enthu-;iustic stwlent of the Url'ek luntruage 
and art, und h:!.. puhli
hed tI'ILnslations of Johann 
\nneklenlllI1IÙ
 .. lli...tory of . \ nl'Ïpnt _ \rt lunon,g' 
the Greeks " (4 vol
" Bo
ton, 11-C-t!I-'7:J), allll Hamn 
yon Steinberg's .. B1'eughel Brothers" (11-C,i-t), III' 
is the uuthor of 
e\ l'I'IL1 nWlli('al e

uvs, amI ha
 in 
manll
cript u .. Dictionary of .\rbtùphane<'-Ilis 
nephew, lIenl'f ('ubut, Ilut!lor, h, in Bosto!l, 
:\la
s" 12 :\la\". 11-C.il!, was g-radllutl'llat Harnu'd 111 
l1-C.1. und at . the law-
d\()ol in 1
7 -t, filll I in 1
,,') 
was gi \ en the degrl'c of Ph, D, for his t hp
i-; on 
the .. Land Law of 

 \n
lo-Sa \':on
" (Bos- 
ton, 1
,7), Ill' was 
unÏ\ er
ity lel'turf'r 
on 
\mel'il'an hi
tory 
inl H 7{)-'!J, ellitell the 
.. Xort h . \ mel'Ìl'1I n 
Hevil'w" in 1
73-'U, 
find the .. Interna- 
tional Heview" in 
1S,!)-'R1. and seI'\'ed 
two tenns in thl' 
)Ia

a('husetts legi
- 
latllre in 1ti
0-'1. 11e 
Was a dplegate to the 
Hl'puhlican lIational 
com entions oÏ 1b
U 
alld 1b'î4, allt! was 
for two vear
 chair- 
man of the Repuhli- 
can 4ate committee, 
He was unsuccessful as a candillate fpr congress in 
1

-t. hut Was ele('terl in 1

6. )11', LOII"I' has he('11 
an over
eer of Ilan"anl since 1

-t. IUlJ is a mem- 
bl'1' of mrious scientific awl hi..torieal societies, 
Ile was \'Ïce-pre
idellt of the commi
sion that su- 
perintended the celehration of the framing' of the 
G, S, con
titution, in l1-C:;7, lIe has published" Life 
anrl Lettl'rs of Geor,g'e Cabot" (ßo
tun, 18.;): 
"Short IIistorv of Endish Colonies in 
-\merica " 
(Xew York, 1

1): livès of Alexander Hamilton 
(Boston, It)
:.?) and Daniel W ch4er (1
":
) in the 
.. 
\mericltn Statesmen" series: and .. ::-;tudie
 in 
HistoQT" (l

-!), lIe has edited two serie.., of ., Pop- 
ulal' Tales" und a volume of select<
(l " llalhul" and 
LyrÏ<:'s " (Boston, 1881), amI ,. The Works of Alex- 
ander Hamilton," including his private corre- 
VOl.. 1\".-1 


- .,.....
 _b.. 


,..... 



. 



} 



 


,
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"'- 
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PlI
 


LOE"
EXTlI.\L 


sl'oIHlence uwl many hit herto un l mhli
}1f'11 docu- 
IIlent
, \\ it h an intrOlluction lUll notes (U ,"ok, 
Xew York, llo:1-C,)}, 
LOE.'LI
G.l)('ter, 81 ' uni"h-AIIlericHn hotalli:-t, 
b, in Toll
foJ'
hl"o, Sw('cll'n, :H ,Tan" 1,:'?!I: d, in the 
IIlis
i()n of . \ 1I11lrneu fl" SOli t h . \ IIll'rica, 22 Fd)" 17,'i1i. 
lie "as It pupil of Linna'lIs, and, when the :"'\panish 
ambas
ador re'l"e
te(l the laUeI' to 
l'lel'Ì It hotanist 
for :"l'rviee in the 
\n\prican eolollip
, the profp

or 
at onee HaIlled Lrlt'lling-, \\ho Jeft 
tol'JdlOlm in 
17,11. I1eI"l'IIlaiIlPd two 
ears in Spain, and then 
l'mharket! \\ith oth(,I' s('il'lIti
b for South 
\nll'l"iclt 
in Fehruary, 1,,')4, Ill' had l'ntire ehaJ'ge of the 
department uf natul'IIl hi
tory, and wa
 a

i
tpd 
hy t\\O young- Spanish doet/)rs, lIis prpmature 
dl'at h wa"l'on
id('rl'11 a great loss to natural hi
tory, 
awl l'
pe('iull
 to hotany, LinI1lPus believed the 
lo

 irI'f'l'urahle, Thl' IIlllIluscripts of Lol'fling, 
\\ hil'h \\ en' found after hb death, were IJI'l'
I'J'n
d 
hy his two a

istants, TIll' \\ork that gi\l'
 1111 
uccount of hi
 S('il'ntitic labors in Spani"h Anll'rica 
is l'nt it led .. Iter hi
panil'IlIll" (Stof'kholm, 1,.')1'1; 
S\\ï'lli
h trnn
lation hv Limul'us; (iel"llHlII tnwslll- 
tion hy Kolpin, llerliil, 17tiH: Eng-1i
h tran
llltion 
hy J, (;" A, For
ter, 1771), Linnll'us gU\e the 
name Loeftingiu to It plant of the caryuJlhillaeeuus 
fumily, one :;pecie
 of whil'h grows in :->paiu and 
the other 111 Spani
h .\IIlerica, 
I.OEWE
ST}:U
, hidol'(" Au
trian traveller, 
b. in Viemm in 1
07; d, in Constantinople, () :\Iay, , 
lS,,)(j, After completing his studiC's in Germany, 
hf' tmvelll'd e
ten
in'l\' in the Cnited Stutes, 
)Ie
ico, and the W('
t lìl
lies. UlHI on his return to 
.Europe puhli
hed .. Les Etats-rnis et la Havane, 
SOIl\ enirs d'un voyag-I'ur " (Pllri
, 1
-t2), and .. Le 
'1,'xirlllP, 
O\l\ enirs d'un \-oyag-eur" (110:43), 
U)EW..:XTHAL, hidor. missionarv, b
 in Po- 
sen, Pru

ian Po 111111 1. in 1tì:'?(j: d, in !'p;hllwur, In- 
dia, 27 .\pri!. ]xfl-t, Ill' was educate(l in the Jewi
h 
faith, and, after compldillg- his stud:es in the gym- 
nasium of Po
en, entered a mel'cantile e
tabli
h- 
ment as a clerk. In con
equence of a I'OhtIl'ul 
poem that he puhli
hed he \\ a" compelled to flee 
the countr\", lie arriw<I in Xew lork in the au- 
tumn of Ìt)-!Cì, and attracted the attention of a 
clergyman in Wilmington, Del., through whose 
effort" he wa" appointed prllfes:,or of (ierman in 
Lafayette college, Ill' quickl
T masterpd the Eng- 
Ibh lun
uage, enteJ'ed the sl'nior class in the fol- 
lowill,g 'yea'r, a"ting- at the !-'ame time as tutor of 
Frenr'h, (;erman, and Hebrew, and \\ as grarluatecl 
in 18-!
, lie then taught for four years at 
[ollnt 



2 


LOGAN 


LOG A
 


TIoIlv collegiate school, 
, .T., while pursuing philo- assured. a messenger arrived from f'01. Bowman 
llwièal studies. which he aftt'rward continued in with urders to retreat, Logan's men were 
oon 
cO
lllection \\ ith theology at Princeton seminary, found, aUlI united themselves to Bowman's parh', 
where he obtained a scholarship in 1
3
, After who, from snme 
trange panic of their commamle'r. 
graduation in IH53 he offered his services to the fwd stoorl all night near the spot \\ here Logan had 
Presbyterian board of missions, was ordained an lpft them, By great exertions some lle
ree of 
cvangelist in Ì\ew York, and depal'ted for India in order \HlS re
tured and the rptreat hegun, The 
August, 1S:')Û, with the object of e
tahlishing a mis- JndiuJls surrounlled and as:-ailed them furiously on 
sioìl among the Afghans of the Punjaubo lie ac- all 
ides, Logan and his aides formed the meil in 
quÏIwl with readiness the Pu
htu or Afghan lan- a larJ,re hollow square, and after seYerol combnts 
guage, and learned to preach also in Persian, Ambic, druve off till' :"avages, A part of Chillicnthe, \\ ith 
amI HiUllustani. In the seven years of his mis
iun- lIluch property, wa
 destroyed, and lGO horses 
arv life at Peshawur he published a translation of brought away, The lll'
t important llffair in 
the New Te
tament in Pushtu, and nearlv com- which Gen, Logan engaged was to lead the lIlßin 
l'leted a dictionar
 of that language, 111' èontrih- bOth- of volunh'er re-enforeements to the relief 
uted to American and British quartcdies,collectmi of Üryan's station, amI the pur
uit of the savages 
a valuable lihrorv of oriental literature, and ac- under 
imon Girtv, The haste of the adnlllced 
quired such acqlÎaintance with the life and man- guard in not \\aiting for Logan's party led to the 
ners and the rf'ligious fiIul political sentiments of fatal battle of the Blue Licks, In 1';S; JJoganled a 
the peoples of northern India that his sen-ices \\I're force of U()O men against the nort}l\\'(.
tern Indian 
sometimes solicited by the Indian government. He towns, engaged in several skirmishes. and destroyed 
\\ as accidentally slain, in his gardf'n at night, by many house:- and large fields of gro\\ ing crops, 
an attendant, who mistook him for a rohher, For the remainder of his life he quietly pursued 
LOn.\
, Benjamin. pioneer, b, in Augusta his favorite occupation of farming in Shelby 
county, Ya" ahout 173
; d, in Shelby county, Ky" countv, \\herf' he hml removed, He took an active 
11 Dec" 1802, He was the son of Irbh parent:s interest in puhlic affairs, and was a membcr of the 
who had removed to Virginia from Pennsylvania, con\"('ntions that framed the fir
t constitution of 
His fnther died intestate when the son was fourteen l';fI
 and that of 17ml. Ile repeatedly held a 
eat 
years old, and left the family to his eare, He wa
 in the legi
lltture, Logan is descriLed as six feet 
the eldest son, and by the laws of England, \\Lich two or three inellf's in height, powerfully framed, 
were then in force in Virginia, was heir to the of iron ner\'C
 and \\ ill, and great courage,-Ili!' 
entire estate; but he divided it with his motllf'r, brother, J olin, for years his comrade and friend, 
brother
, and sisters, lIe then went wesÍ\\ard, was a !l'ader in the militarv events of his day, 
purchased and cultivated n farm on 1I0bton river, 8e\'Cral tillles a legislator, añd secretary of state 
and soon afterward married, \Yhen t\\entv-one of Kentllf'ky,- Dl'njamin's elde:-t son. "ïl1hllu, 
years old he accompanied Co1. Henry BouqlÎet a::s jurist, b, in Harrod's Fort, Ky" 
 Dec.. 1';,U; d, in 
sergeant in his e
pedition against the northern Shelby county, Ky.. S 
\ug"I

2, \\as probably the 
Indians, and in 1774 he sen'cd in the Dunmore first white child horn in Kentuckv, nen, Logan had 
\\ ar, In 17,,3 he joined Daniel Boone and othf'rs, brought out his wife fmm Log-nit's Fort hiit a ff'W 
who were then on their way to IÙntuchy, \nlen months before the birth of William, and plaeed her 
they were near their destÜiation, Logan'separated at the :-<afer station, lie remowd with his father'
 
fmm the main party and Legan the construction familv in em'lv life from Lincoln to Shelbv counh-. 
of the stockade that was known afterward as Lo- whf'rè he resided until his death, .At tweÎ1tv-thrèe 
gan's Fort, whither in 17'j() heremo\'ed his family, he \\a<; a member of the second ConstitutiolÎal con- 
I t was one mile east of Stanford, Ky" and its site \-ention of 1.\,)9, lIe \\ as educated at the best schools 
is styled to-day St, A
aph's Spring, On 20 .:\lay, of the country, prepared himself by a course of stUlly 
1777, Logan's Fort was invested b) Indians in am- for the practice of law, amI rapidly attained emi- 
bush, and at the morning's milking the men \\ ho nence in the profes:o<ion, Ill' was a legislator from 
stood guard \\ere fired upon, and one killed and ShelLy count
, ami twiee appointed judge of the 
one mortally and a thIrd helplessly wounded, appellate court of lÙ'ntueky, under the powers 
The others escaped \\ ith the \\ omen to Fort Ilarri- conferred on the governor before the adopt ion uf 
son, The third wounded man \\as rescued by the present constitution in 1849, In 1

0 he was 
Logan, who took him in his arms and bore him elected to the U, S, senate, but resigned belore his 
within the walls, amidst a showpr of bullets, The term expired to accept a nomination fur 1;0\'Crnor, 
garrison \\ as thirty-fi ve-men, women, and children in which f'ontf'
t he was defeated bv J onn 
\dair, 
-and the defence was now but twelve guns, The 1.()(;A
. ('oru('lius Amhroshis, dramatist, b, 
siege lasted for "eeks, and the ammunition ran in Baltimore, l\Id" 4 )la\-, 1
0(j: d, on Ohio riYer 
low, Logan 
elected two trusty comrades, crept near WIll'eling, Ya" 23 Fèh" 1833, lle was of Irish 
out of the fort at nightfall, leaving Lut nine parentage, and wa:,; educated for the priesthood at 
guns to defend it, and, pur
uing unbeaten paths St, 31ary's college, but entered a shipping--house, 
through the forest. reached Holston, 150 miles dis- made sl'\Oeral trips to Europe as supereal'go, and 
tant, where he oLtained supplie
, At last, in suh
equently assisted Paul Allen in editing the 

eptember, a re-enforcement of 100 well- armed .. Baltimol"
 .:\Iorning Chronic-Ie:' Aften\ ard he 
mounted men raised the siege, Afterward Logan beeanw connected with WiIliam Leggett in an un- 
repeatedly led his men in pursuit of predatory succes
ful attempt to l'
tahlish a penny paper in 
bands of 
avagps in his vicinity, On one oceasion X ew York city, and then became a dramatic critic 
hi,.; right arm WaS hroken by a hullet, amI he barely in Philadelphia, Soon aften\ard he adopted the 
eseaped with his life, Logan \\ as second in com- I stage as a profession, appearing in tragedy in Phila- 
mand under Co1. John Bowman of an e
pediti()n delphia in .July, H.:a,ì, hut later preferred comedy, 
against the Shawnees, and with 130 men inYe"ted which he played in the first Dowery theatre, .Kew 
the to\\ n of Chillicothe on one side, while Bow- York. in IH2H, amI. Rfter appearing in Canada, was 
man, with an equal number, was to attack the called to Philadelphia after the death of Jeffl'r
on 
opposite side, .After waiting all night for the to fill his placf', lIe lmilt here a theatre, which 

ig-nal, Logan's part
. asstulted the village in the \\io.S dl'
troyell by fire, He then removed to Cin- 
morning; lmt at this moment, \\ hen victory 
l'emed . cinnati in ItJ40, where he uee1llne a pioneer theatri- 



LO(j.\X 



nl manl1g-er, residing- there until his dmth, I1f' 
wa:, It boil! dl'fpndl'r of the !'tagf' ag-ain:"t pulpit 
nttack
. und his rpply to a 
l'rmon by Lyman 
Bepeher wa:, widl'ly copil'd, I h- wrote sPH-ml 
uc- 
('l'

ful pluys, including ., Yanlü'e Land" (18:J4): 
h The \\ ng of :\Iaine" (I
3.:;): ., The Wool-Dealer:' 
"rittl'n for Dan )Iarhle; .. Hl'mO\-ing- the Depos- 
its." .. 
htarte:' nn adaptation of Shelley's ,. ('enei," 
.. . \ II undretl Y l'ars 11 enee:' u burle
que, and a 
comedy pntitlpd .. Chloroform," Ill' al
o wrote 
nlril'us talps nn,! poem:", one of which, h The ::\Iis- 

i:,sippi." attmctl'd fa,'omble noti('e,-lIis daugh- 
ter, l
lizn, actres
, h, in Philadelphia, 18 Aug" 
1829; d, in Kew York ('it", 1,) Jan.. IHi2, v.asedu- 
('ated at Lancastpr, Pa,,' und made her el{'hut ut 
thp age of elm-en in Philadl'lphia, In H;,jO she np- 
ppared in X ew York as .. Pnuline " in "The Lady 
of Lyon!'," In It!,)f' she married George \"ood, a 
theatrical manager, bought \V ood 's thpatre. Cincin- 
nati, Ohio, and. retiring from the stage, relI1O\ed to 
that city, Subsequently :.\Ir, Wood bought Wood's 
mu
eum in Xf'W York.-lIis :,-ùn, COrJH'lius 
.\m. 
hrost'. physician, b, in DeerfiplcJ. :\Iass" Ii Aug" 
11-.t
li, v. liS educated at .\ uburn aca<lenl\', and sel"\'ed 
as IIledical superintpndent of S1. John:s hospital in 
l'irlr'innati, and subsequent 1) as profe:-:
or in the 
ho:-:pital in I..eavenworth, Kan, In IH7
 he wa.;; ap- 
pointPd U, S, IIlini
ter to ('hili. and he wa:, after- 
war,! mini:-:ter to Guatemala, and al.:'ain to Chili in 
1

1, remaining there until 1&3;3, ' lIe \\IIS editor 
of the" )Iedical Hernld;' Leavenworth. Kan.. for 
twelve veal'S, and he has edited the worh of Uen, 
John A', fJoglm (ISHß), and contrihuted to the Lon- 
don" Lanc('t." His Pllblieations are" HqlOrt on 
the Sanitary Helations of the State of Kan
a
" 
(Lawrence, U:H)li); .. On the Climntolol.:"- of the 
)Iissouri Yalley"; and" Physics of Infe
iïou:, Dis- 
eases '. (Chieago, l
ì
),-.\n()ther daughter, Ct'lia, 
journali:,t, b, in Philadelphia, Pa.. 17 Dec.. H<:m, 
acted with her sister Eliza at an early age, and ww; 
subsequently educated in London, She hecame a 
corre
pondent of American journals and wrote for 
magazines, During the c1\'il war of IHI.il-'5 she 
resided in )[iJan, Italy, translating the \\ ar new
 
for newspapers, After\\arù she 
l'ttled in Wash- 
ington, \\ here she became nssociatc editor of .. The 
CapitaL" She has written several dramas, includ- 
ing .. An American :.\Iarriage" (It{t{-t), In l
i
 
she married James F, Connelly,-
\nother daugh- 
ter, Olin'. actress. b, in Elmira, 
, y" 1G April. 
1
-!1, made her début in Philadelphia in 18,j4, and 
went to England in 1
;ji, where she was graduated 
at a female college, She married Henry A, Delille 
in 
\pril. It!,)i, but was divorced in December. I
li,), 

he reappeared in 
ew York at Wallack's theatre 
in l
li-! in .. E"eleen," a play of which she \\Wi the 
author, She retired in 18(;8, and 
ince then has 
been a ledurer. principally on woman's rights and 
'}ther social topics. and has contributed largely to 
newspapers, After hl.r retirement from the stage 
she married William \Virt Sikes in 1871, who died 
in 1

3, and while he was p, S, consul at Cardiff, 
\Vales, corresponded with American periodicals un- 
der her maiden name, She has written plays, lec- 
tures, and books, the latter inc1U1ling- .. Chateau 
Frissac" (Xl''' York, l
GO): .. Photog-raphs of Par- 
is" (London, It<GO); "\V omen and Theatres" (K ew 
York, 18(9); and .. Before the Footlights and Be- 
hind the Scenes: a Book about the ::;how Busi- 
ness" (Cincinnati, 18iO), 
I..OCL\X, (:eorg(', surgeon. b, in Charleston, S, 
(',,4 Jan" I..I'!; d, in Xew Orleans. 13 Feb" 1801. 
He was graduated in medicine at the Lniyersit,. oj 
P.enns
 lvan.ïa in 1802, and for fifty years practÌseù 
his professIOn in Charleston, S, ('" where he was I 


IJOG
\X 


3 


nppointf'd surgf'on in thf' r, S, navy. 
1 
-\ pril, lRIO, 
and re:-:igned. 1li ,J une, It<
U, lIe sf'rwd a:-: ho
pital 
surgeon to the navr-yar,l. Ill' was the authol' of 
a popular work on disea:,es of children, 
I,()(
 .\X,.I a lilt'S. statesman. h, in IJUrgan. County 

\rmag'h, h'f'land. 
O Uct" 1ßi4: d, near Germmi- 
to\\n,' Pa" 31 Or't,,1751. HI" was of Scotch-Irish 
parentage. and des('f'nded from TJog-arl of Hf'stalrig. 
Scotland, who!':p l"states \\ere confiscated for eonnef'- 
tion with tlw Gowrie conspira('y against James VI. 
Before the age of 
thirteen he had a('- 
quirpll Latin, (iref'k. 
amI Hehrew, and he 
ilfterward studied 
mathematics and 
model'll languages, 
Hc wa
 sent to Lon- 
don, and apprenti,'ed 
to a linen - drup('r. 
hut, the campaign 
that ended in the 
hattle of the Boyne 
ha,"ing lwgun,' he 
\\ as recalled to ac- 
company his parents 
in their flight to 
Edinhurgh, 
ubse- 
quently they settle,l 
in nristol. England. 
where Jnmes resumed his studies and assisted his 
father in his school. He engaged in commerce in 
lIi!J8. and in WUlI came to this country \\ith Will- 
iam Pmn, as his secretary, arriving in i>ltiladelphia 
in De('ember.1li!l!I, lIe re:,ided with Penn in ,. the 
slate-roof house" on 
e('ond street. and continued 
there after Penn returned to England in 1.01. Ill' 
became prm incial secretary, eommissioner of prop- 
erty, and l"('cei ver-general, and \\ as the business 
ugl-nt for the Penn famil
', and the champion of 
their interests in the colonv, In 1702 he enfl-red 
the provincial council. of" hÍdl hody he was a mem- 
her untill.-!7, In 1704-'.3 he became emhroiled in 
(.ov, John Evans's disputes with the assembly, In 
October, 1;-/),), he 'Tisitl-d the Indians ut Conestoga, 
and in 
uh:,equent embas
ics gained their esteem 
and confidence, and as a te:-:timony of their l"l'gard 
the chief, Logan, was named for him, Un 2(; ]<\.h" 
1.{)j', he "as impeached by the assembly, which 
charged him. among other things, with illegally 
inserting in the governor's commission certain 
clauses contrary to the royal charter, and with il- 
legfilly holding' two incOlllpatible offices, the sur- 
ve)'or-general
hi p amI the secretaryship, Logan's 
ans"er was filled with personal abu
e, and on 
;j 
Koy" when he "as preparing to sail for England, 
the house ordered that he should be detained in the 
county jail until he should make satif'faction for his 
reflections on sundry members; but the sheriff re- 
fuse,l to obey, and Logan sailed a few days after- 
ward, returning in 1712, In 1715 he 'HIS com- 
missioned a justice of the court of common pleas, 
quarter sessions, and orphan's court, and in 1723 
bee-ame presiding judge of the common pleas, In 
1 i23 he became mayor of Philadelphia, and at the 
close of his term went ahroad again to consult with 
Hannah Penn, Frolll 1.31 till 1739 he filled the 
office of chief-justice of the supreme court, and us 
pre
ident of the council, after the death of GO\', 
Gordon in 17:JG. acted as gm'ernor for two years, 
The latter years of his life were spent in retire- 
ment at his countn'-seat .. Stenton," now in Phila- 
delphia. devoted tò science ann. literature, He cor- 
responded with many scientists, and Linnæus ga'-e 
the nallle Logan to a class of plants in his honor. 


r 
'.... 


i
 



 


r 


tA
V dfcu
 



4 


LOGAN 


LOGA
 


lIe was one of the founders. and a member of the of" Stenton." un II de' ote-d his life to agriculture. 
first board of tru4ees (1749), of the college in PhiIa- lie was a eouncilman of Philadelphia from 174::J 
delphia, now the 
niver
it
 of Pennsylvania, ,In till 1i;.6. wh
n the meetings, of the 
orporatio.n 
172:) he became m'-olved III a controversy wIth were dlscontmned., lIe recelvPd. Imhans at hIS 
Gov, Keith, and, in 1-'upport of hi:, part, published. house, gave the aged lI; sett
ement on his land. and 
.. The Antidote" (Philadelphia, 172,'j); "A 
lcmo-I educated the young ,nth hIS own means, Ill' took 
rial from James Lo<ran, in Behalf of the Proprie- no a('tÍ\-e part in the l{evolutionary war, 'Vith 
tor's Familvaml otIlimself, 
ernUlt to the 
aid his brother he deeded the library property to Israel 
Familv" (1723); and also, in the same year." A Dia- Pemherton, Jr.. William Allen, llichard Peters, 
logue . showing, 'V hat's t
lerein to be Found,': this and I
enjamin Franklin. to be with William Logan 
being an answer to Rawle s .. \Vavs and Means,' In and Ins brother. ,James Logan, the trustees or lllan- 
17:i.')' he communicated to Peter'CoIlinson, of Lon- agers; and acted as librarian until his rleath, lIe 
don. an account of his experiments on maize. with addl.d to the collection the books beqneatlwd to 
a view of investigating the 
exual doctrine, This him hy his uncle, ahout l.:JOO volumes,-\\ïlliam's 
was printcd in "-PIÜlosophical Transactions:' and. son, U..orgt', senator. b, in 
tenton. Pa., H ::'ept,. 
afterward enlarcred and printed in a IJatin e1-'say 17.'j:i: d, tlwre, n April, 1

1. went ubroml and 
entitled" Experimenta l\Ieletemata de Plantarum 1-'tudied three 
 ears at the medical school of Edin- 
Generatione" (Leyden, 173
); LowIon, 1747), lIe turgh, where he recl'ivetl his tlegree in 1 i7!1, TIo 
was also the author of" Epistola ad Virum Clarissi- then trtt\ellplI on the continent, and on his return 
mum Joannem 
\.1bertum Fabricium" (Amsterdam, to this countlT in the autumn of 17t;0 devoted him- 
1740); "Demonstrationes de Rad.iorum Lueis in .,;elf to sdentifie a
riculture, He served senral 

uperfieies spherieus ab 
\xe incidentium a primario terms in the ll'gislature. and in .J une, 1 i!Jt;, went to 
Foco Aberrationilms" (Leyden, 1741); and an an- France on his o\\n responsibility for the purposo 
notated. translation of Cicero's .. De 
eneetute,"' of avertmg war betwel'n that country and tho 
with notes and a preface by Dr, Benjamin Frnnk- rnitell ::-;tates, He persuaded 1he French govern- 
lin (Philadelphia, 174-1:; Lowton, 1.,")0), The first ment to allnul the emhargo on A\merican 
hipping, 
edition of this was printed hy f;'mnklin, and is re- and pn'pared the way for a negotiation that ter- 
ganled as the finest production of his pre,.;s, [t minated in peace, On his return he was (Iellounced 
was reprintplI at Glasgow in 1.:; 1 and 17,'j
, at IJon- by the Federalists, "ho procured the passngo in 
don in 1730 and 17i!::!, awl at Philadelphia in 1.38 ('ongress of the so-ealled ., Logan act:' making it a 
and 1812, with Franklin's name falsely inscribed high mbdemeanor for an indi,'idual citizen to take 
on the title-page of the last-mentioned edition, Ill' part in a contrO\ ersy hetween the r nited :::;tates 
also rendered Cato's " Distichs" into English ver
e. and a foreign po'\er, I Ie ,imlieated himself in a 
wrote numerous essays on ethics and philosophy, ll'tter dated 1
 Jan.. 1';!I!), lIe was elected U,S, 
amI left translations of Greek authors in manu- Sl'nator from Pennsylvania as a Democrat in place 
script, Ill' was a member of the Society of of Pdl'r )[uhlenlJl'rg. resigned, sen-ing from. Del'" 
Friends, and ad.dressefl a letter to that hod.y dur- It;OI, till 3 ::\larch, I
07. In Hno he went to Eng- 
ing the war between 
pain and Great Britain, ad- land as a self-constituted ag-ent to attl'mpt a reeon- 
vising it not to procnre the election of its mem- ciliation between Great Britain amI the Cnited 
bel's to the assembly, which letter was not allowed States, but was unsucees!>ful. Dr, Logan was a 
to be read, The following is an eÜmet from his memher of the American philosophical society, 
will bequeathing to the city of Philadelphia a li- Ill' was prohably the only stric,t lJIemher of the 
brary of over 2.000 volumes: "In my library, which Society or Friends that ever :-at in the IT, S, senate. 
I ha'.e left to the cit.y of Philadelphia, for the ad.- He published" Experiments on Gypsum,"' and .. Ho- 
vancement and facilitating- of classical learning, tation of Crops" (l7!1i), amI was also thc author of 
are abo'.e one hundred volumes of authors, in fo- otlwr pamphlets on agricultural subjects, 
lio, all in Greek, with mostly their ,'ersions; all I,()n.\
, Jalll{'s Yt'lulhI{'. clergyman, h, in 
the Roman classics without exception; all the Scott ('ounty, Ky,. 11 July, 1
;J,), After gradua- 
(heck mathematicians, viz" Archimedes. Euclid, tion at Centre college in H
.)-t and at Dall\'ille the- 
Ptolemy, both his' Geography' and 'Almagest,' ologieal scmilllu',' in 1
(i0. hl' was eaUed to the 
which I had in Greek (with Timon's' ('ommentary,' pa
torate of the Presbyterian church ut Ilarrods- 
in folio, about seven hundred. pages) from mv burg. \\ here he remained fur eight veal'S, For a 
leanlPd frielHI Fahridus. who published fourteeÌI short time afterward he edited the ., Ì<'rel' Chri:-:tian 
volumes of his' Bibliothèque Grecque,' in quarto, ('olIlInonwealth." find 
ince then he has identified 
in whic: h , aftcr .he l,u
d finished. his account of himself ,\ith Central university. Hichmond, Ky, 
Ptolemy, on m
' mqUlrmg from hun, at Hamburg, In H
ia he was elected to the chair of ml'taphn;jcs, 
how I should find it, having long songht for it in and in 1t:i!) to that of ethics, The foIlo\\ing' war 
vain in England, he sent it to me out of his own he was made pre.;itlent, in \\ hich offiee he (,Olltin- 
library. telling me it was so searce that neither ues (It:H7) to Sl'l'W, lIe WfiS fictiw in founding thc 
price nor prayers could purchase it. Besides these institution, find contrihuted $10,000 toward it, . 
are many of the most mluahle Latin authors, and 1,()(L\
, John, Indian chief, b, ahout Ii:.!;); 
a great numher of modern and aneient mathemati- killed near Lake ErIe 11l the summer of 1-;-:-:0, 11(' 
cian!', with all the elhtions of Xewton, Dr, 'Vatts. was the son of ShlkeUamv, ehid of the Ca, un'a:;, 
Halley, ctc:' This collection was annexed in 1.!I:.? ancl bore the Indian naine of 'fah-gah-jut"e. but 
to the library that wus established by Franklin, was given an English name taken from that of 
It has been kept separate under the wune of the 'Villiam Penn's scerl'tarY James Logan, who was a 
Loganian lihrary. and receh ed in IS
8 an acces- friend of the Indians, L
gan was brought up on 
sion of 5,000 volumes by the bequest of \\ïlliam Shamokill creek, near the :\[ol"avian settlement, 

l
kenzie, ,See" :\I,
m,?irs of Logan,': by 'y, Ar- I and liv
d in familiar and friendly mtercourse with 
nn?tea,l.-Ihs sun, '
llham,lawyer. b, 11l P!
ladel- \ the whItes, In his e(
rly mfl!
h().Ol
 he wm: known 
phu
, Pa" 14 )[ay, 1,18; d, there.2t; Oct., 1, f 6. was throughout the frontIer of V ll"gmut and Pennsyl- 
sent at the age of tweh-e to his uncle. Dr, 'Yillimn I vania for his fine pre
en('e and hIS engaging quali- 
Logan, in Bri:;tol, England, and on hIS return to ties, lIe li\'erl for many veRrs near Reed.sdlle, Pa" 
this country became attorney for the Penn family, where he supported his f
\lnilr by killing wild ani- 
with his father, upon whose death he became owner mals in the muuntains and dressing the skins in 



LOG .\X 


th(' IllIlian fashion to be 
old to tlw white:,:, TI(' 
\\ as tlll're cho:':l'n by t he l\lin
oes tl.$ thl'ir ('hipf, 

\hout 1 ììO he removed to the hnnks of the Ohio, 
\dH're he hl'parne tHhlictl't1 to drinkin
, In the 
spl'Ïn
 of 17ì-1 his fnmily \\erp massaerl'lI hy 
('t- 
tll'I'8 'on till' Ohio while cnrousing- in the cuhin of 
n trader, LO
tlll sent a declaration of war to 1\[i- 
dlael ('res.tp, \\ horn he supposed, though wrong- 
fully, to ha\"e ordered the rnas,.;acre, atHl then at 
oncè instigatpll a war ag-ain,.;t the scattel'l'd settler:,. 
of the far west, nnd for several months fl'arful 
harbaritil's Wl're I'l'rpetrntrd upon men, women, 
find children, He himself took thirty scalps in 
the course of the war, \\ hich Íl'rmiwltell after a 
sewre defl'nt of the Imlians at the mouth of the 
Hrl'at Kana\\ ha, lIe disdained to appear among 
thl' chil'fs who suhsefluently slH'd for (ll'ace, Lord 
Dunmore, thl' goon'l'Ilor of Yirginia, sent John (;ib- 
son as his mpssenger to in\"ite the old d
ef to at- 
tetHI the couneil:' but the lattl'r took Gihson into 
the \\oods. ntHI, after tearfully rl'cmmting the story 
of his wrong-so sent haek the follo\\ ing mes:-ag-l': 
.. I appl'al to any white man to say if ever he en- 
tered Logan's cabin hungry. and he gan' him not 
mmt: if e\"er he' cnme cold amI nakrcl, and h(' 
clothed him not, During the course of the Inst 
long and bloody war Lo
an remained idle in hi:,: 
cahin, an aJ\ocate for peace, Such wa
 my love 
for the whites that my countrynH'n pointed as they 
passed and saill: 'Logan is the friend of the white 
mrn.' I had ewn thought to have lived with you 
hut for the injuries of one mall, Co1. ('resap, the 
last sprin
. in cold bIooII nnd unprovokl'd, mUl'- 
derell all the relations of Lo!.:'an, 1I0t eH'n !-paring 
my wOlllen and chililren, There runs not a (lrop 
of my blood in the Hins of any living erpature, 
This caliI'll on me for re\ eng-l', I IUL\ e sought it : 
I have killed many: I ha\ I' fully gluttl'll my ven- 
,geance. For my country I rejoice at the heams of 
peace, But do not harhor a thought that mine is 
the joy of fl'ar; Log-an newr felt fl'ar, Ill' will 
not turn on his hepl to sa\'e his life, Who is there 
to mourn for I
ogan t Xot one," IIis habits of 
intemperance grew upon him after this, and \\ hiJe 
frenzied \\ ith liquor he fe\led his \\ ire hy a sUllden 
blow, Thinking that he had killed her he flpII, 
lmd while tm\'ersing the wilderne
::" between De- 
troit and Sandusky was on-rtakl'll b
 a party of 
Indians, 
upposing his awngers at hand, he pre- 
pared to attack them, aTHI \\as killed hy a nephew 
in self-defence, Logan's pathetic speech \\as re- 
peated by Gib
on to Lord Dunmore, It was writ- 
ten down by an 01licer, printed in the "Yirginia 
Gazette:' and has been presern'd by Thomas Jef- 
ferson in his" Xotes on Yirginia:' See" Ta-gah- 
jutè, or Logan, the Indian, awl Captain )[ichael 
Cresap:' IIv Ikantz )[ayer (X ew YOlk, 11'-\6ì), 
LUUAX, John .\lexulldt'r, statesman, b, in 
Jackson county, IlL, !) Feb" 11:':!6 ; d, in \Vashing-ton, 
D, C" 26 Dec.. 18::iG, Ilis father, Dr, John Lo
an, 
came fl'om Ireland when u young man and set- 
tled in Jlarvland, but removed to I,,"entuck\', thence 
to )IissourÌ, and finally to Illinois, IIè se)"\wl 
several terms in the 'l('gislature. having ueen 
('ho
en as a Democrat, and held sm-eral countv offi- 
ces, The son \Va,.. educated at 3. common schoòl and 
under a prinLte tutor, This instruction was sup- 
plemented, in 1840, by attendance at Shiloh col- 
lege, \Vhen war with .l\[e
ico was declared, he 
volunteered as a private. but \\as soon chosen a 
lieutenant in the 1st Illinois infantry, lIe did good 
sen'ice as a soldier, and for some time was act- 
ing quartermaster of his regiruent, After his re- 
turn from )Iexico he llegan the bÎ.ud\' of law with 
his unde, Alexander JI. Jenkins, atHi in 1::;49 was 


L()G.\
 


õ 


pleded clerk of Jar'\"";on eounty, hut 1'('si
llPd to 
r'ontinUl' tht:' study of law, In IH,ìl he wus gmdu- 
nterl at Lnuisvilll' universitv, ullmittl'll to thl' bar, 
awl hl'canw his unelc's 1';lrtner, lit' !'oon grew 
popular, anll his fOl'l'ihle !;tyle of oratory. plt'Hsing 
I\{hll'e
s, aml filH ,oil''', sl'f'url'd his eleet ion to till' 
lcg-islatllre in ll'.ì
 mul ng-ain in ll'!ir" 
\t the ellll 
of his first tt:'rm he resuml'll practiet- \\ith sUl'h !;ue- 
c('!':s t hat he waf' 
soon cho:-;en }lrose- 
r'lItillg- attol'lley for 
tll,l' ;3d jUllit'i:
I) dis- 
trrct. In 1
. I:" he 
remm"pd to Bl'nton, 
Fnlllklin co" Ill, 
I Ie \\ as a pn'sÌllpn- 
tial eledor in l
.ì() 
on th(' Buehnnan 
and Br('ckinridge 
tick"t, In 1!".-11; he 
\HIS eleeted to con- 
grpss from lllinois 
a-: u DouO'las })em- 
ocrat, an7I was re- 
elected in 1 
Ii(). 1 n 1 () 
the presidential 
d 
 
mlllpaig-n of that cß

 - :/=h 

 eHr he eal'llestly uth'ocated the ell:'r'tion of 
terhen 
...:\, Douglas; hut, on the first intimation (If corning 
trouhle from the south, he dechll'etl thnt, in the 
en-nt of the ele('tion of Ahraham Lineoln, he 
"oulll .. shoulllt'r his mushl'Í to tJave him inmlgu- 
rut I'll:' In July, l
(il, during the cxtra !'cssion of 
cong-re
s that was f.tdled bv President Lineoln, he 
left'his 
l'at. o\'Crtook the troops that were march- 
ing out of \Ya:-;hington to nwet the l'nemy, tlJul 
fought in the ranks of Co1. RiI'hardson's regiment 
in the hattle of Bull Hun, heing alllong the la
t to 
lea\-(' thc field, Heturning homc in the latter part 
of 
\ ugust. he r('signed his seat in eOllgrpss, orgun- 
izetl the ;H
t lJIinoi8 infnntr
', and \\as appointt'd 
its colonel, l:J 
ept. At Bl'lmont in XOH'mher he 
led a !-ucf'l'ssful lm
 onet -r'hargf' arlll a h()r
e \\'Us 
shot undel' him, He Il.d his r('
inll'lIt in the at- 
tapk on Fort Henrv. and at Fort Donelson, \\hile 
gallantly leading 'the nssault. l"('ct'iwd a \\ound 
that incapacitated him for HetÏ\-e senice for some 
tinw, After Ill' hatl reporh'd for duty to (;ell, Grant 
at Pitbburg Landing, hI" \\ us made a Lrigadier- 
general of vohmtl'ers, ;, )[arch, It;t.i2, Ill' took an 
important part in the movement against Corinth, 
and sub
equl'ntìy \\a,..; given the comlllnnd at Jack- 
son. Tenn.. \\ ith in
tl"Uctions to guard the railroad 
communieation
, In the summ
r of ItW2 his con- 
stituents urged him to hecome a candidate for re- 
election to congress. but he declined, saying in his 
letter: .. I 11tl\ e entered the field to die, if lIeed be, 
for this gO\ crnnlPllt. and never expect to return to 
peacpful pursuits until the object of this \\ar of 
presprvation has become a fact estaLli
hed," Dur- 
ing (Trant's northem l\[ississippi campaign Gen, 
Logan eommnmled the 3d division of the 17th 
army corps undl'r Gen, 
lI'Pherson, nnd was pro- 
motpd major-general of volunteers, to date from 
2t.i Xov.. 18(j
, He participated in the battles of 
Port Gibson, Raymond. Jackson, and Champion 
Hills, In the siege of Vicksburg he commanded 
)[cPherson's centre. and on 2,) June made the as- 
sault aftl'r the explosion of the mine, His column 
was the first to enter the captured city, and he was 
appointed its military gO\-ernor, lIe succeeded 
Gen, 
herman in the command of the 15th army 
corp::" in K O\"ember, lRlm, In :\lay, 18t.i4, he joined 

herman's army, whiC'h was preparing for its 
march into Georgia, led the advance of the Army 


'w 



\ 
I 


J. 
' 

 


\J 


, \ 


y 


- 



6 


LOGAN 


of the Tenne:,;see in the fight at Resaca, repulsed 
Hardee's veterans at Dallas, and drove the enemy 
from his line of works at Kelwsaw :\lountain, 
({en, f-\herman :,;ays in his report of the hattle of 
Atlanta, :,;peaking of Gen, McPherson's death: 
" Gen, Logan succeeded him anù commanded the 
Army of the Tenne:,;
cc throu,gh this desperate bat- 
tle with the same suece:,;s and abilitv that had 
characterized him in the command or" a corps or 
division," In fact it was mainlv his skill and de- 
termination that saved 
hermàn's armv from a 
serious disaster during that engagemeñt, After 
the fall of 
Ulanta, 1 Sept" l
li4, he \\ent home 
and took an active part in the presidential cmn- 
paign of that. year, Ill' rejoined his troops, \\ho 
had accompanied Gen, Sherman in his famous 
" march to the sea:' at Savannah, and remaineù in 
active service with Sherman's armv till the sur- 
render of Gen, Joseph E, Johw"Ìon, 2G ..April, 1
(j,), 
On 2;3 l\lav he was appointed to the eommand of 
the Army'of the Tenne
see; but, as :,;oon as active 
service in the field was over, he resigned his com- 
mission, saying that he dirl not wish to draw pay 
when not on active duty, He was appointed min- 
ister to )[e
ieo bv President Johnson, but de- 
clined, In 18GG he was elected a repre
entative 
fmm Illinois to the 40th mngress as a Republican, 
and sen-ed as one of the managers in the impeach- 
ment trial of Pre:,;ident Johnson, He was re- 
clected to the 41st congress, and did good serviee 
as chairman of the committee on military affair:,; 
in securing the passage of an act for the r
'duction 
of tllP anll\-, He was re-elected to the .t
ll con- 
gre
s, hut i)efore that holly convenell he was cho
en 
hv the Illinois legislature IT, K senator for the 
tz,rm beginning 4 )[an'h, It171. He succeeded 
\ïce-Pre:,;iùellt \Vilson as chairman of the senate 
committee on military uffairs at the heginning of 
thc third ses:-:ion of the 4211 congress, 2 Dec.. It17:3, 
After the expiration of hi
 tcrm of senice, 3 :.\Iareh, 
1
77, he resumed the praetice of law in Chicago, 
He was again returned to the U, :-;, senate, and 
took his scat on t he convening of that body in ex- 
tra session, 18 :\1 al'l'h , 1:-17!), Both in the house 
and senate he maintained his reputation for brill- 
iancy and success, \Vhile a representatÏ\'e his more 
im l JUrtant spceehes were ,. On Heconstruction." 12 
Ju y, 1
(j7: ., Un the Impeachment of Pre:-:ident 
Johnson," 22 Feb" 18GS; ,. Principles of the Demo- 
cratic Party." 1() July, 18G8; and ., Hemoving the 
Capitol;' 2:3 Jan" 1
70, In the senate he spoke in 
.. \ïnùication of President Grant a
ainst the At- 
tack of Charles Sumner;' 3 June, It;72; in reply to 
Senator Gordon on the .. Ku-klux in Louisiana," 
1;3 Jan" 187,]; "On the Equalization of Bounties 
of Soldiers, Sailors, and :\Ia.rines of the late War 
for the Gnion." 2 )Iarch, 1873: amI" On the Pow- 
er of the Go\-ernment to enforce the United States 
Laws," 28 June, 1879, On G June, 1880, he deliv- 
ered an able speech on the Fitz-John Porter ease, 
maintaining, as he always had done, that lien, 
Porter had been justly condemned and should not 
be re:,;tored to his rank in the armv, At the Re- 
puhliean national convention in Chicago in ,June, 
It;84, on the first ballot for a candidate for presi- 
dent, Gen, Logan receiwd 63t votes against ;
3-1t 
for James G, Blaine, 27t! for Chester A, Arthur, 
and 93 for Geor,ge F, Edmunds, After the subse- 
lluent nomination of )[1', Blaine, Gen, Logan was 
nominated for vice-president, 'Yhen Gen, Logan's 
sudden death was announced to him, James G, 
Blaine thus brieflv summarized his character: 
"Gen. Logan \\ as "a man of immense force in a 
legislative body, II is \\ ill was unbenlling, his 
courage, both moral HIllI ph) sical, wa:,; of the high- 


LOGA
 


est order, I never knew a more fearless man, Ill' 
did not quail before public opinion when he had 
once made up hi:-: wind any more than he did he- 
fore the guns of the enemy \\ hen he headed a 
charge of his enthusiastic troops, In debate he 
was aggressive and effecti\-e, , , , I ha\e had ocea- 
sion to say before, and I now repeat, that, while 
therc have heen more illu4rious militan leHllcrs in 
the rnited States und more illustrious. leaders in 
legislative halls, there has, I think, been no man 
in this country \\ ho has combined the two C3reer
 
in so eminent"a degree as Ven, Logan," Hi:,; per- 
sonal appearance was striking, Ill' was of medium 
height, \\ ith a rohu:-:t physical dpvelopment, a 
hroad null deep che:,;t, mas:,;ive body, and small 
hands and feet. Ill' hRd fine and regular feat- 
ures, a s\\arthy complexion, long jet-hlaek hair, a 
heavy mou:,;tache and dark eyes, Gen, Logan pub- 
lished .. The Great Consl'il'aey:' a large volume re- 
lating to the r'ivil war (Xew Y ork, 1
::;G), and" The 
Volunteer Soldier of America" (Chicago
 1

7), 

ee .. Life and Sen iees of John A, Logan." hy 
Heorge Francis Dawson (ChicH
o, 1
t!7),-lIb wife. 
Jlnn Simnwl'
eHl CnnnindHIm. dau,ghtl'r of 
Jolni:\1. Cunningham, b, in .Peter
burg, BOline co," 
:\10" 1.) _\ug" H:!;3
, lived amid the hardships of 
frontier life, and \\a:,; suhseljuently sent to the Con- 
vent of St. \Ïncent in Kcntueky, On lea\ ing that 
in:,;titution she a:,;
bted in preparing the papers 
that \\ere needl'd bv her father, \\ho, on his re- 
turn from the ma
'k lIawk and :\Ie
iean \\ars, 
h:1Il heen elected sheriff and county clerk of \\ïll- 
iam:-:on county, and appointed regi
ter of the land 
ofJiee :It Shan neetown, Gallatin co" Ill., h\' Presi- 
dent Pierce, Blank forms for miy legål docu- 
nll'nts were then rare, allli l\liss Cunningham, 
through her indu
try in her father's ca:-e, supplieà 
the dl'ficil'ncy, 'Yhile thus engaged she wet (
en, 
Logan, \\ ho \\ as at that time pro
ncuting attorney, 
She \\as married, 27 Kl)\"" IS3,), and was identified 
with her hushand's career, beeoming his hest ad- 
viser in the gravest erisl's of politieal and cidllife, 
UJ(aN, .Juhn lIe'IH"). b, in Abbeville dis- 
trict, S, C.. 3 XOY" It!

: d, in Atlanta, Ga" 2:-1 
)larch, 18
,], Ill' was graduated at South Carolina 
college in 1844, and at Charleston medical college 
a few years later, .\fÌl\r praeti
ing fpr some time 
and teaching at Ahhe\-ille, S, C.. he :,<ern>d as n. 
:,;urgeon in n Confederate rt'giment, and at its con- 
cl u
iun removed to Talladl'ga county, Ala, lle 
subsequently ueeame professor of chemistry in the 
Atlanta, (fa" mediel1lcollege, Dr,IJogan is the au- 
thor of a. .. History of the Lpper Country of South 
Carolina " (vol. i" Charlf':-:ton, 18,)9), only the fir
t 
volume of which was fini-:hed, and the" Student's 
)Ianual of Chemico-Physies" (Atlanta, 1
7!)). 
IJû(iXS. Juhn We'...)(\'. bi
hop of the Zion 
1\1. E, church, b. in Xorth Caroliua ahout 1810; d, 
in Syracu!;e. N, y" 2
 Sept.. 1t17
, Ill' was a slan
 
until the age of Ì\\eIÜy, \dll'n he rnn awa) to Can- 
aaa, In the anti-slaverv days he was a zealous and 
af'tive agent, with l;errit Smit h, Le\\Ís Tnppan, 
Putnam, Wright, and other:-:, in the" Underground 
railrmul." He settled in SHUNlse in 1
47, \\ here 
he became a minister of the' Zion l\lethodist Epis- 
copnl church, and ultimately a bi
hop, 
I.Of:.\X, Sh'phen Trigg. jurbt. b, in Franklin 
county, Ky" 2-1 Peb" 1800; d, in Spring-fiel,l, 111.,17 
Julv, It;HO, lie \\as educated at Frankfort, Kv,. 
am1 \\hen only thirteen years of age \\as employÊ>d 
as a clerk in the offiee of the i:'ecretarv of state, 
He \\ent to Gla
gow, Kv.. in 1817, studielllaw, and 
was admitted to the bar before he was twentv-one. 
but did not at once engage in practice, Subse- 
quently he wa:,; appointed commoll\\ealth's attor- 



V)(iXX 


LOBER 


7 


ne\', and followed hi
 profe:;::.ion for ten years in ' Swan"'ea, 
outh "Yal es , ae:: manager of copper-smelt- 
llår
e
 and the adjoining coun
ie
, Be.coming pe- I ing a
(l coal-mining' operati
ns, in, "hich hi, uncl,e 
('umal'lly em ba rrn...,..ed , he elll1grnted III V,,:j:! to \\as mt('rested, lIe r('lIlamed m chargt. until 
:-'angmnlllon county, Ill" and in the following shortly after hi, uncle's death in l
at:), During 
,..pring opened a hi,,-office in Springfield, "here he I the se\('n years that he spent in South "-all's he 
soon \\On r('puta- dpyoted himself to the study of the coal-fields of 
tion throughout that region, and his minut(' and aeeurat(' maps :md 
;........ the s"tat(', In 1
:J,j ,:l't'tion..; "ere adopt('d by the ordnance geologieal 
- he "as eleeted sun ey,. and publi...hed l.y tht' gO\ ernlllent, lIe 
judge of the bt ju- \\ a.. the first to dernonstratf' that the 
tratum of 
dicial circuit of the cIa\' t hut underlies coal-beds wae:: the soil in \\ hil'h 
state, and in 18-t:! thè coal \ egetation grev., and thereh
' refut('d the 
he was cho,..en to drift theory of the origin of eoaI. In 1
"H he 
the legislature, and vi
it('d the coal-fields of Penn::-)hania and 
O\a 
again in 1844 and 
cotia, and communicat('d several \ aluable memoirs 
It;4t.i. In 184; he on the subjel't to the Geological soeietyof London, 
was a delegate to At this time he began the t''\mnination of the older 
the convention that pala'ozoic rock!. of Canada, amI in 11"4
 he \\as 
framed the Illinob soon phH:ed at the head of the geologieal suney of 
constitution, lIis Canada, aft('r refusing a highly adnmtageou
 offer 
effort,.:, hoth in the of a similar place in India. In the course of his 

 t7:ot:ð-?
 legislature and in inwstig-atiuns upon the roek.. of the ea5-tern town- 
the eonvention, shil':" of Lo" er Canada. \, hich are a continuation 
wtfre specially directed to :-ecuring economy in the of those of Xt'w England, Sir William sho\H'(I that, 
puhlic expenditure
. amI to making- adequate pro- in
tead of heing primitÌ\ e a70ic l'Oeks, as had been 
\'bion for the payment of the 
tate deht. For the supposcd.they are altered and crystalliz('d pala'ozoic 
nf'xt six 
ears he devoted him,elf exclusÌ\ely to hi.;; strata, This fact, whieh is the key to the geology 
profession, and from 1
1 till 1
44 hud a... hi
 la\\'- of northelle::tern Anwrica, had heen before 
u
- 
partner Abraham Lincoln, [n 11'-.34 he \\as eleeted pect('d, but had not been demonstrated, The 
for the fourth time to the 10\\t'r branch of the g'f'n- rock
 that form the Laurentian and Adirondack 
eral assembly, In 18GO he wa.... a delcg-ate from the mountains, prcyiously re,g-arded a:,: un:-trat ificd, 

tate at large to the Chicago Hepublican national he found to be disturbed and altt-'red sedin1l'n- 
conven
ion, and early in February, Il"fil, he \\a
 tary deposits of yast thiekn('
s, In 11'-,jl :-ìir 
appointed by the go\'ernor of Illinoi:- one of fin William repr
 
ented Canada in the 
reat e'\hiLi- 
commi:;:"ioners to rt'pre:'cnt t}w :-:tate in the 
ational tion in London, and had eharge of the geologieal 
peace comention at "'a
hingt()n, in which he took colleetion that had heen marIe hy him
l'lf. or under 
an actiye part, This "aJõ: Judge Logan's last ap- his immediate direction, lie was abo a com mis- 
peamnce on any great public oeca..ion, He retired sioner from Canada at the industrial ðhihition in 
soon nfterward from politic
, and gradually \\ ith- Pari
 in 1!":;,\ \\ hen he rect'ived from the imperial 
drew from the pursuit of his profe
sion, hut main- commission the grand gold me(lal of honor, and 
tained his intere:.t in eunent events, As an ad\o- "as created a knight of the Legion of honor, 
cate he stood at the head of the bar in hj
 adoptp(} _\fter the acce,sion of the maritime provinces to 
state, Judge Da\ id Da\ i
 hn, :-:nid of him: .. In the Dominion of Canada, he made an elahorate 
all the elements that con4itute a gn.at 'nisi prins study of the coal-field
 of Pictou, XO\-a Seotia. 
lawyer, [ ha\'e ne\er known his equa1." See" )lc- The results of hi.. lahors will be found in the re- 
morials of the Life and Character of :::,tephpn T ports of the geological sun ey of Canada, and in 
Lo!!an .. (Spring-field, Ill" 1';;:"':?), a very complete map of northenstern America, 
LOG \
, Thol1la
 .Jluldrup. physician, b. in prepan'd h
 him "ith the aid of Prof, James 
Charleston,
, C.. al Jan" l
O
, He wa... gradullted Hal1. lie was knighted in 1f.:,jli, and in the 
ame 
at Charle
ton medical college in 1


, and :mu- year r('cei\-ed from the London geological SOl' ie- 
sequently acted ns co-editor of a \\Ork on :,urger
, ty the \\'oll
ton pnlladium medal. lie afterv.ard 
Hemoving- to the Pacific coast he turned his atten- receÌ\"ed the Copley melIal from the Ro
al so- 
tion to the meteorology amI climatic conditions of ciety of London. of which and of many other 
that part of the country, [n H';:
 he wa.. cho,.."n learned s()('ieti(-
 he wa... long a member, :-ìir 
president of the American medical a

ociation, and \nlliam \\a,.. all:'o for many rear
 one of the cor- 
in IS;5 he "as ser'retary to the California board of poration of the rnÌ\.er:3it
 of )[eGill colle!!e in 
health, He is the author of "The Topography of )[ontrenl, from "hich he receh-ed the degree of 
California:' and" Climate of California ,. and" )le- LL, D.. and in which he had endowed the chiliI' of 
teorologi(.al Ob"'en-ations at Sacramento" in re- geolog-
, He communicated numerolls article:- to 
ports of the Smithsonian in:-titution (1R.j;-)-';'j, He the lieological society of London and to the 
has also contributed largely to the" Transaetions .. _\mericnn ,Journal of 
eience and Art
," His 
of the .\merican )[edicaf A
.;;ociation:' \\ ork.. are found in his "Annual Reports of the 
I,Hl
 \
. 
ir William Edmond, Canadian ge- Prog-res.. of the Canadian :-ìurYeY:' in the" Pro- 
?logi
t. b. in,?!ontr
al. 
O,April. 1 ;!II'!: d, in Wales. ceedings of t
e Briti:h AS
tlciation:' and, in those 
22 June, 1
,,"), HI"; grandfather, Jame
 Logan. of the GeologIcal 
oclety, He also contl'1buted to 
a natÏ\'e of Stirling, 
c-otland, settled in :\lontreal the Geolocieal Surve\' of Great Britain, 
with his family in 1;84, _\iter attending a pub- tOM J:R. }'..;,IIIZ' '"Oil. German author, b, in 
lic 
chool in that city, William, in 1
14. attended Paderborn. Westphalia, 15 Oct.. 1818. He studied 
the high-sehool of Edinburgh, and after\\ard Edin- law, hi...ton', natural science, and art at Halle, )Iu- 
burg-h unh'ersit), "here he "a:- graduated in IS1;, nich, Fl'Pihurg. and Berlin, and trawlled ðten- 
In 1818 he entered the mercantile office of hi:, sÏ\ely in Europe, Canada, and the rnited State
 in 
uncle. Hart Logan, of IJondon, and later bt>came a 1846-';, On hi
 return he took an active part in 
partner in the firm, After a short visit to Canada. the political upri...in!! in Germany in 1s48, He 
where his attention had been directed to the geo- founded the" WestphRli:,che Zeitung:' and \\as 
logical charactcri:-tics of the eountry, he went to impri:"oned by the gO\ ernmellt for politieal clgita- 


'" 


,
 



 


'> 



8 


LO)IAX 


LOXG 


tion, but was shortly afterwar<l acquiUe<l after a protection of his relati \-e, Gen, Valencia, on whose 
trial. In IH-W he beeame assessor of the court of recommendation III It!41 Santa-
\nna made him a 
appml in Paderborn, ani 1 was afterward professor brigadier, lIe took part in the war against the 
in the unÌ\ersities of )[lInich anll Giittingen, United States in 1t!46-ï, and was wounded in the 
Amoncr his works are" Geschichte del' Deutschen battle of Angostura, After Santa-Anna's banish- 
in Am
rika" (184
) amI .. J
alHl und Leute in del' ment he corìtinued to sympathize with that gen- 
aIten und nenen \\- elt " (a voIs" 1
37-'tI), eral, and touk part in se\ eral pronunciamentos 
IJÛJL\X, .John Tnfloe, jurist, b, in Port To- against the government. He favored the plan de 
bago, Caroline co" Va" in January, 1'ìtll; d, in Jalisco, and was banished, 2 ,Jan" 1R53, bv Presi- 
Fredericksburg, Va"
 10 Oct" 1
fi2, He was grallu- dent Arista, but soon returned at the hèad of a 
ated at St, .Tohn's college, Annapolis, in 1797, re,-olutionary force, and was appointed by the 
studiClI law, and began practice at Port Royal, president of the supreme court, Ceballos, com- 
Va, He removed to Fredericksburg in 1HO.), and mander-in-chief of the forces in the capital. \Vhen 
in 1809 to :\Ienokin, Richmonll co" \Ta., where he Ceballos resig-nell the executive, Lombanlini was 
remained nine ypars, In 1
1t1 he returned to chosen bv the commanders of the three divisions of 
Fredericksburg, and in lR2ß was appointed pro- the re,'oÌutionary troops provisional pre..ident, 8 
fe..sor of the school of law in the Cniversitv of Feb"lt1Ja, Though a clear-healled and well-mean- 
Virginia, He resigned that ofIice in 1830 to ac'cept ing mun, he had no ability as a statesnHHl, and 
a seat on the bench of the general court of the when Sant
k\llna, who had been rer'alled b,- con- 
state as associate justice, to which he was unani- gress, arrived in )[exico, Lomhard.ini gladiy de- 
mouslv elected hv the legislature, L nder the eon- Ih-ered the execlltÏ\'e to him on 20 April. Santa- 
stitution of 18.''jÌ he was again chosen for a term .\nna appointed him commalHler-in-chief of the 
of eight years by vote of the people of the cir- forces in the capital. but he died in a few months, 
cuit, The convention that framell this constitu- I.OXH, Armi!'h'nd till(ball, soldier, b, in Camp- 
tion had adoptell a clau
e disqualifyiI
g any person I bell countr, 


.. 3 Sept., 1t!27, lIe WH
 gmd
mted 
over 
eventy years of age from holdmg the office at the tT, S, nllhtury academy, 1 July, 1
,}0, assIgned 
of judge; but at the request of members of the to the 2(1 artillery, and promoted 1st lieutenant, 1 
bar this provision was cancelled so as not to ex- July, 1F;J4, lIe re
igned, 10 June, l
ßl, and the 
clude Judge Lomax, 11e continuell on the bench following month was appointed major in the ron- 
until l
;jì, when he retired to private life, lIe federate army, He \\ as promoted colonel and 
rl'ceÌ\"ell the degree of LL, f), from Harvanl in military secretary to Gen, }tobert E, Lee in April, 
1847, He is the author of a " Digest of the Laws 1
f.i2, and brig
Hlier-general of artillcry in Septem- 
respecting Real Property generally Adopted and bel', l
lj:
, taking part in all of Gen, IJe("s cmn- 
in Use in the United States" (a vok, Philadelphia, paign
, Gen, IJong is the author of .. :\[elIloirs of 
1t1:m; 211 ed.. revised. and enlarged, Richmond, Gen, Hobert E, Lee" (K ew York, 1 tltIG), 
18.')1)), and a "Treatise on the Law of Executors 1.0
4;, Chnrh's Chnilli', sol (Her, b, in Prin- 
and Administrators gencrally in Use in till' United. ('('ss .\nne, Somerset co" l\[ll" 2 .Tuly, 1R42, lIe 
State
" (2 vols" 1841; 2d eù" Hiehmond., 1
.,)G), was ellueated at Washington acallemy, :Md" and 
I
OJlll.\Un, French mi,.:sionary, d, after 1744. in lRfi2 he enlb-tcd in the 1st :\Iarylaml infantry 
lIe was a Jesuit, amI the most suc('essful of all the in the Xational service, and. at the close of the 
missionaries in cOll\-erting- the Indians of French eivil WHr IUlIl attained the rank of captain, He 
Guiana, He came to that country in 170,\ and was appointed a lieutenant-colonel in the Egyptian 
was still engaged in missionary work in 1 Î 44, army in the autumn of l"GU, was fir
t assigned to 
In 17:;0 he foumlell a Christian village that con- duty as professor of Frenf'h in the military acade- 
tained over GOO Ind.ians, at the mouth of Kuru my at 
\hbassi('k, and later as chief of 8tatf to the 
ri,-er, and in 1744 he established another at Sina- general-in-ehief of the army, Earh" in 1
72 he 
mary, Condamine mentions in his "({plation was trall
ferred to Uen, Lol'Íng's corps at ...\lexan- 
abrégpe" that on setting out for Surinam he wm I{ria" On 20 Peh" 1874, he was assigned to duty /1-; 
furnished by the missionary with several Indian chief of staff to {jen, Charles George Gordon, tlwn 
canoers, His works on two" Helations," which are lieutl'nant - ('olonel in the British army, who had 
dated at Kuru, 2a Feb" 17
O, and 11 April, 17:38, been appointed by the khedive gO\'Prnoi'-gellC'ral of 
aI
l
 pu
lished in 
he" f:ettres 
difianteR" (Paris, the equatorial provilll'es of Egypt, Un 2
 April 
e 
1t\-1.
), They con tam an llltere
tlllg aecount of the set out towal'll the equator on a secret (hploIllatIc 
Kuru, Ouyapoc, and l1alabi tnbt's, There is also amI geographicHl mi!'sion inspired 13y Ismail Paf'ha, 
another narrative addl'ef'sed to his brother from the kheùÌ\oe, lIe was accompanied only by two 
Kuru, allli dated 1723, whieh is inserted in the soldiers and his servants, and arriwll at the capi- 
"Voyage de chemlier de ,Marehais" of Lahat, tal of Xyamla on 20 ,June, 1t174, being the only 
where it fills sixty-four pag
s (paris, 1730), He> white man saYe ('apt, Speke that had ever vi
itl'd 
also wrote a gI:anlln.ar and dI
tionary of the lan- I that place, and 
t'cured II treaty hy whieh King 
guage of the halabls, on wInch he was engagPl1 ...\J'Tse acknowledged himself a ,.assal of Egypt, 
for more than thirty Years, Ill" then turned north to trace the unknown part 
LOJIUAUIHXI, Jlullu('l )hl'iu (lom-bar-de'- of the Xile that still left the' question of its source 
ne), 
lexiean soldier, 13, in the city of )lHico in in doubt. In descending the river at M'roole he 
1802; (
, th
l'e, 2
 Dec:, 1
:;.3, He r
cei\'{'d his early w
s attacked by the king of Cnyoro Kaba-He
a 
educatIOn 1Il hIS natl\.e CIty, and In 1S14 entered wIth a party of warriors in boats and a numerous 
the hureau of artillery a
 an apprentice, \Vhen the force on shòre, (,hHiIIé-Long, with hi
 two soldiers, 
plan lIe 19uala was proclaimed in 1t121, he joined urme>d with breech-loading rifles und explosive 
the revolutionary forees as a cadet. but during the shells, sustained. the attack for several hours, and 
reign of Iturbide he retired into primte life, The finall
" beat off the savages, He was promotec1 to 
pal'ty strife between the Y orkist amI Scotch fue- the full rank of colom'l and. bey, and decorated 
tions in 1
2G brought him again to the front, and with the cross of the commander of the l\Iedjidieh, 
he joined the fornH'r party, In 1830 hI" was a lieu- In January, 18Î.5, he fitted out amI led an expe- 
tenant, and in April. 1
a2, pronouneed in Lerma for ùition southwestward of the Xile into the 
îam- 
the plan of Vera Cruz, At the eIllI of that year he 
iam country, subjected it to the authority of the 
was lJromoted to captain, amI W,15 taken under the Egyptian gm"ernment, and dispersed the sltn-e- 



LOXG 


LOXG 


9 


trading hnwls, On his rdurn in )[arch, 187;), he probahle di
coverel's of practicfll nn:t'
th('
ia, Dr. 
was onlen'll to 
o to l'/tiro, wlH'Tl', with orders from Long-'s contrihutions to medical literature relate 
the kheùive, he organized an expedition ostensibly chiefh' to his llisco\{\rv, 
to open an equatorial rOlul from the Indinn ocean ..O
(
. Ed" Ul'c.I, ":ngli
h author, b, in Cornwall. 
alOlw Juha river to the central .\fril'an lakes, The En
lm)(l. in 1.:l4: d, in 181:l, lIe becmne a hllr- 
e,,-pl:Jition sailed fmm Sury on 1!) Sept" 1
,.), took ristl'r, and in l'ì,37 emig'l'ated to ,Janlllil'a, \, here 
POssl\ssion of the coast and seVl'ral fortified town,.:. he 'HiS nppointed It jUd,t:'l' of the vif'e-admirnlty 
and occupied and fortified Comf. on .J uba rÏ\-er, court, After his return to England in 17t.jf). he 
On 1 Sept" 1
;;, t.'haillé-Long re
igned his com- puhlished, among other works, a "History of ,Ja- 
mission in the E
yptian army, on account of fail- maica" (:l yols.. London. l.ì4); "Letter
 on the 
ing health, returning to :Xew York, where he stud- Colonies" (1 ì;.)): awl" The Sugnr Trlille" (1'ì
2), 
ied law at Columbia. He W;lS graduntl'd nllli ad- J.oxn. Eli. sol<lier. b, in "'oodfonl count", Kv" 
mitted to practice, and in 18
;! returned to Egypt lG June, It;37, Ill' \\liS gmdllatl'd at the Í"nllik- 
to practise in the international court-:, The insur- fOJ't. Ky" military school in 1
:;:), awl in 1
.')t.i ap- 
rection of .\rabi culminated in the terrible mas- pointell 2cl lieutenant in the l:-:t U, S. ca\'alry, 
saere /tt .\Iexalulrin of 11 June, 1

:!, the U, S, con- Prior to 1
(j1. when he v.as promoted 1st lieutl'n- 
sul-gl'lwral remailll.IIlt.. ay fmm his post at this ant and captain, he 
l'l'\ cd with his I'l'giment main- 
juncture. and the U, S, consular ngents fie' I from lyagainst hostile Indians, Throughout the l'ivil 
Eg\ pt, f'haillé-Long as:,ist('cl the refugee
, hun- wal' he was actin'ly en
nged in the WC'f't at Tul- 
drèds of whom wpre placed on board of the A1Ileri- lahomn,)[ urfrl'esboro. Chickamauga, allli in the 
can ships. and after the burning of the city, he re- Atlnnta campaign, as ('olonel of the 4th Ohio cav- 
established the American consulate, and, aided 'bv ah'y. Hnd suhsequentl
' in eommand of a brigalle of 
l ' jO American sailors and marines, restored order. c
i\-alry, Ill' was hre\"ettetl major, lieutenant- 
ami arn'sted the tire, t. '01. l'haillé-Long removed colonel. and ('olonel for" gallant and meritorious 
to Pari
 in October. 1
t!
, and opened an office for serdee
" at Fm'lIlington and Knoxville, Tenn,. 
thl> practice of international law, In :.\lal'ch, 11"ti7, find Loycjoy's Station. (;a" re
pe('ti\"('ly, On 1:l 
he was appointed U, S, consul-genernl anll spere- )[arch, lSt.i.''i, he" as brl'\"ettetl hri
Hllier-general of 
tary of leg-ation in Corea, He has puhlished .. ('en- volunteers for gallantry at Selma. Ala" wh('re he 
tml Africa: Xaked Truth
 of Kaked People" (Kew led hi
 division in a charge upon the intreneh- 
York, 1877) and" The Three Prophets-f'him'sL lIlents that l"('
ulted in the ('alJÌure of that place, 
Gordon, the :\[ahdi, allli .A rahi Pachn" (1K84), lIe \\ liS sl'vere!\- wountletl in the heRd in the aet ion, 
I,OXC;. Cl{,lIl(\lIt. theolo,dan, b, in IIopkinton, For his sf'J'\'ic
'
 during the war hI' was also hre- 
X. H" 1 Dec" It!Ot.i: Ù, in Hanover, X, 11,. 14 Oct., YettC'd major-general in the regular army and 1Ila- 
l
fil. He wa.. graduated at Dartmouth in It!:.!8, jor-general of volunteers, and having been IIlUS- 
studied at AndO\'er sl'1Ilinary in 1
:
1-'3, anll "a
 tere,l out of the \-oluntf'er service, 15 JmJ" 11"ûG, he 
ordained to the Preshvterian mini-:trv in ohio in was retired with the mnk of mnjor-general in Au- 
183t.i, lIe was pmfes

,r of philosophý in \\- estern g'ust, hut was retlucetl to brigadier-geneI'II I through 
Reserve college from It:;34 till 1
44, and of the- the olwration of the act of 3 )[al"<:h. H
..), 
olngv fmm the latter '\"Car till11'\.;
, lIe was then 1,OXG. l
ahri{'1. soldier. b, in 1..31; d, in f'ul- 
calil:11 to the chnil' of theologT at .\uburn theologi- peper count
, '"a" 3 Fdl" 1
27, Ill' WHS an offi('er 
cal seminary, where he renl
Linetl until 18,)4, ÌIe in the Bpvolutionary arm
-, fought at Hampton 
was also lècturer on intellectual philosophy and and Xorfolk in 1..:). ,.:el'\-ell a.. enptain in :\[ orglln':; 
political economy at Dartmouth in 1851-'2, und l"ifl.p regiment in 1.,fi. and ultimatel
 1'0:0:1' to the 
was professor of the same fmm 1854 until hi.. rnnk of major, lie led t he ad vance at Saratoga 
death, also lecturing on moral and mental philoso- anll began the battle, lie wa-- also present nt 
phy at \\T estern Beser\'{' in 18GO-'Gl. He receivell Y orktm, n, and tnok pnrt in eighteen engagement
, 
the ùet:'ree of D, D, from Dartmouth in 184U, amI 1,OXH. Julin Cullills, naval ofTÏ('er. b, in Ports- 
that òf LL, D, from Western Re,.:erve in 18fjO, mouth, X,II" in 1.9.;: 11. in Xorth ('onwa\, X,II.. 
He "a
 a contributor to the" Bibliotheca Sacra." 2 Sept.. lsû.). Ill' entered thc IIIt\-Y as mids"hipman, 
I,OXn. Cran fo)'(1 W,. physician, 11, in Daniels- 18 ,TUIll', 11-\12, and served in the" Constitution "in 
ville, )[adison co.. lia" 1 Xov" 1
1.): d, in ..\.th- her action "ith the" .Ta\'a." lIe was promoit'd 
ens. Ga,. 16 June. 1878, He wa
 graduated at liputenant,.) )[arch, 11'\1 ì, commander, 25 Fell" 
Franklin college. Pa" in 183,3. and. at the medical 1

R. captain, 2 )[arch. 11-\4!), and commodore on 
department of the Lniver.-it
 of Pennsylvania in the retired list. l(.i July. 1
t.i2, He was a-:signell 
18:JU, He then practi:,ed in Jetfer
on, Jackson the duty of bringing Louis Kossuth to this coun- 
co" Ga" until lR.;I, when he removed to 
\thens, try, but would not allow him to deliver re\'olu- 
Ga, lIe claimed that he performed on 30 )[arch. tiònary harangue
 at :\[arseilles, which so an- 
UH2, the first surgical operation with the patient noyed the} I ung-u"ian patriot that he left the ship 
in a state of anæsthe,ia from the inhalation of I at Gihraltar. Commodore Long was fifty-three 
ether, In his history of the discoYer
' of anæsthe- I year
 in the sprvir'e, 
sia. Dr, J; )Iari
m Sims 
ays that Dr, LOI
g "a
 the I,O:XH, John I
aYi
, legi
lator, b, in lluckfield. 
first .. to IntentIOnally produf'e ana'sthe
Ja for sur- Oxford co" 1\Ie" 2, Uct., 1838, lIe was graduated 
gical operations." and that this was ùone with sui-I at Harvard in 18,;7, taught until 18,"m, studied law, 
phuric ether; that he did not hy accident .. hit was admitted to the bar in I
Gl, practised in Buck- 
upon it, but that he reasoned it out in a PhilOSOPhi- 1 field, and settled in Roston in 18U2, In I1-\G9 he 
cllI and logical manner"; that "Horace \Vells, removed to Hingham, hut retained his office in 
without any knowledge of Dr, Long's labors, ùe- Boston, He was a member of the l\Iassachusetts 
monstrated in the same philosophic way (in his own house of representati\"e
 in 1875-'8, and f'erved the 
person) the great principle of anæsthesia by the use last three years as its speaker, In 18,U he "as 
of nitrous-oxide gas in December, IH44, thus giving lieutenant-governor, and gO\'ernor in 18
O-'2, Ill' 
Long the priority over Wells by two years anù wa
 elected as a RepuLlican to the 48th congre

, 
eight months, and O\"er l\lorton. who follo"ed and re-electpd to the 49th. serving from 3 Dec" 
Well
 in 184ft" He was named, with William T, I
H3. till 4 )larch, 1
8j, He was again elected to 
G, )lortol1, Charles T, Jack
on, and \Yells, in a the 50th congress, Gov, Long has published a 
bill before the U, ::5, senate in 18.34 to reward the tmn
lation ot Virgil's" ...Eneid ., (Boston, 1
.U), 



10 


LO
G 


LOXGFELLOW 


I.OXG. PiN'sf>. legislator, b, in PortRmOllth, LO
(;ACUE. J anws ßnrton. engraver, b. in 

,I1" in 17aU; d, there, 3 April, 17
!)' He was Ddaware county. 1'11", 11 Aug.. 1794: d, in Phila- 
the son of Pierse Long. who was born in Limerick, delphia, 1 Jan" 181i!), He wa:': descended from an 
Ireland, hut Cl1llle to this country and eng:lged in earlv Swedish colonist on the Delav.are, \\hose 
the shipping bUf'iness in Portsmouth, The son nanie was originally Longker, He served his ap- 
entered his father's counting-room and was taken prenticeship as an engraver in Philadelphia, and 
into partnership, He was a memher of the Provin- from ttHU till lK31 illustrated some of the hest 
cia I congress of his native state in 17i3, and sen'ed works that were publisllf'd in this country, With 
in the Hp\'ohttionalT army as colonel of the 1st James Herring, of New Y 01'1., and after\\ ard RInne, 
New llampshire regiment. In the retreat from he issued the" XRtional Portrait Gallery of I>is- 
rrif'omlproga his command was overtaken hy the tinguished .Americans," in wh1<'h many of the ('n- 
9th British foot, which he turned upon awl de- I gra\ ings were from skete-hes hy his own hand 
feated, lIe was a volunteer at the battle of Sara- (3 vols.. Xpw York, 1834-'H), Fr<lm 1844 till his 
toga, a delegate to the ContiJwutal congress in ,leath he ww-- engraver to the IT, S, mint. and de- 
178-!-'G, a state councillor in 17t\G-'9, a member of I :,:igned all the new coins that \\ere struck during 
the Constitutional convention in 1 iH8. and was ap- this time. incluùing the double-eagle, the three- 
pointed b
' President Washington colleetor of cus- dollar piect:', amI the gold dollar, He was after- 
toms at Portsmouth in January, l,HU, Ill' llis- ward employell by the Cbilian government to re- 
charged the duties of the office until the following model the entire coinage of that country, and had 
April, when he died, completed the \\ork shortI
' before his death. 
J.O
U. Uohert Can)', architect, b, abou1 I.OX(a'F.LLOW, stc'phc'!l, lawyer, b, in Gor- 
18W; 11. in Kew York city in Jul.,', 18.t9, lIe ham, :\Ie., 2:J June, 17,3: d, in Portland, :\Ie" 2 
studied architecture, and practised his profession .dug,. 1849, Ill' was of the fourth generation in 
for t>ewral years in Baltimore, While in that city lineal descent from \Villiam Longfellow. who had 
he WI1S intrusted with designing- and building the emigrated from Yorkshire to :\Iassadmsdts 11Ild 
Athenæum. occupied by the 
\[aryland historieal settled in Xc\\bury about 1G7;), and in 1G,(i mar- 
society and the Baltimore libl"ary company, lIe ried a sister of Judge Smnuel 
ewall. Ster,hl'n 
removed to New York f'ity in 1848, and wu::, rapid- was gmduatt.ù at lIan-ard in 17H8. admitted to 
Iyaequiring a reputation when his career \Vas cut the har in 1:-::01. amI pra(,tised 
uccessfully in 
short hyeholera, lIe contrihuted a series of arti- Portland, lIe v.as a dch'gate to the H:ut(ord 
des elltitlec1 "Architectoni('s" to the" Xew York con\-cntion in 1814. amI \HiS subsClluently elef't- 
Literal')' \V orld," and read a paper before the K l'W ell to the It\th congre:,:s RS a Federalbt, serving 
York hbtorical society on .. Aztec Arehitecturt:'," from 1 Dec" If;
3. till 3 
[arch, IS:!,"), In 1
34 
which was printed in its" Transactions," Ill.' was he WitS president of the :\Iainc historical societ
., 
also the author of ".Ancient Architecture of having pl'e\-iou
lv heen its recOl'ding seeretan', In 
Ameriea" (Xew York. l
-1!ì), lR
H he l'l'c{'i\-ed'tht:' degree of LL,O, from 'no\\'- 
LO
H. St('})IH'1l lIul'J'imllll. engineer, b, in doin, He compiled 
ixteen volunll's of :\Ia
saehu- 
Ilopkinton, X, II., 30 Dee" 17t\4; d, in 
\ltlln. Ill., setts and twel\-e volumes of 
[aine "Heports," 
4 
ppt" 1
G4, He was graduated at Dartmouth in fie married the daught(>r of Gen, Pelpg Wads- 
It{O!l. and after teaching for some time entere(l the worth, an offieer in the Hevolution,-Their son. 
U, 
,army in Decembt:'r, HH4, as a lil'utenant in HC'IIJ'J- WucbnoJ'th, 1-'oet, b, in Portland. )[e.. 21 
the corps of engineers, After dbeharging the Feb" 180,: d, in 
duties of assistant professor of mathematies at the ('amhridge,:\Iass" 
U, 
, military aea(lemy until .\pril, 1HW, he was 24 
larch, It{
:'?, 
tran
ferred to the topographieul engineers. with the WRS the !<l'contl son 
brevet rank of major, .From HW:\ till 18
:3 he had in a familv that 
charge of explorations between )lississippi ri\'er included fOllrsons 
and the Huekv mountains. anù of the sources of anel four daug-h- 
the ::\Iississippï" in Itt
:J-'4, receiving the hrewt of tel'S, !lis birth- 
lieutenant-colonel. The highest summit of the place, on Fore 
Hoeky mountains was named Long's peak in his street. is sho\\ n in 
honor, lIe was engaged in surveying the Balti- the engraving on 
more and Ohio railroad from IH:.?7 till 18:JO, and page 11. He wa
 
from It\;n till 1840 was l'nginel'l'-in-chief of the named fora broth- 
'Ve
tern and Atlantic railroad in Geor,gia, in which er of his moth- 
capacity he introduced a sy:-tem of cun-es in the cr. who, a )outh 
location of tllP road and a new kind of truss bridg-e. of nineteen, late- 
which was called by his nume, and lws been gener- Iv C'ommi,.;sionell 
ally adopte(I in the United States, Un the org-ani- IÌeutenant in the 
zation of the topog-raphieal engineers as a separatl' IT,:-;, nan-, and 
corps in 1t138, he became major in that body, amI serving -hefore 
in II':1Gl ehief uf topographical eng-ineer:,:, with the' Tripoli under ('om, Prehll', had perished in the 
rank of co]onel. ,An aceount of his fir:-;t pxpedition fire-
hip" Intrppid," which was blown u}I in thp 
to the 
ocky mountains in 1819--;'20.from the notes nig-ht of 4 Se)lt" 1
(J-t The bo
 hood of the poet 
of )[uJ, Long and others, by h(lwm James, was was happy, A sweeter, simpler. more essl'ntially 
published in Philadelphia in IH
3, amI in 1
24 human socie1\' has seldom eÀisted than tlmt of Xew 
appearerl "Lung's Expedition to the 
OUl'('e of 
t. Engialul in the fir
t quarter of this l'entury, and 
Peter's Hiver, hike of the "'omb, etc,," by Will- the conditions of life in Portland were in some 
iam I!, Keating (2 vols" Philadelphia), Col. Long respects especially pleasant and propitious, The 
was retired from actin' service in June, 18GJ, hut beautiful and wholesOlnt:' situation of the town on 
eontiU11l'd, charged with important dutie
, until the 
ea-shore ; the fine amI piduresque lwrbor that 
his death, Ill' was a member of the Ameriean afforded i:'helter to the vessels hy whil'h a mod- 
philosophical sOf'iety, and the author of a .. Hail- erate commerce with rpmote regions was carried on. 
road :\laU11aI" (1829), which wa:-: the first original giving "Ï\one-ity to the port anli widening the seope 
treatise of the kind published in this country, of the interests of the inhabitants; the general 


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diffu
ion of comfort and intelligence; the tradi- I pros(', aHd his pil'et's had ml'rit (,Hongh to SI'Curl' 
tional purity and simplicity of lif
: th
 ab,sence of publieution, not only in the P
Il'tland paper,. but 
class distinctions: the (1l'lIIoel'aÌlc hlllllllIle
s of III more than Olll' of the muguzllles, awl espl'elllll
 
spirit: the. pl'rmding temper of hopeful!ll'
:-; a.ml 
n the " LI!ited ::'tatl's Litt'rary Ga7:ette:' puhlished 
contl'nt-all made Portland ß good plilec III \\ Inch III Boston, III whICh no fl'\H'r than sn.tel'nl'oems hy 
to be born and grow up, Like the rest of 
ew him appeared in the course of th(' Far 11'
-t-'3, 
Encrland it was prü\ Ïll<'ial. it had little part in the 1 \r ery few of thesl' \H're thonght l,y their author 
hlr
er historic concel'ns of t he world, it possessed I worth repril.tting ÏI.I lat
r years, RIIlI t hough they 
no deep wells of e
perience or of culture: allli. no all shm, faell
 
 er
l fieIlÌlOl.I 
nd rl'filll'd ta
tl', n
ne 
nwmorials of a !listunt past hy \\ hich the llnuglIlu- of them e"lnblt sueh orlglllal power /I": to ,gl\ e 
tion might be quiekened and. nurtured: it was ß assurauee of his future fame, SI'\ eral of them dis- 
comparati\'ely new pluee in It compura
ivel
 ne
v play the int1uen
e 
country, The s\\ eetlwss of Longfelhm s lh
pOSI- of Bryant hot h III 
tion showed ilsplf in his earlie
t wars, Ill' wa
 ß form mill thought. 
gentle, docile, cheerful, intelligent: attracti\'l' child: Long aftl'J'\\ ani, in 
.. one of the best bovs in sehool " \\as his teaeher's writing to llrmnt, 
report of him at six years old, I Ie wa
 fond of Longfellow 
aid : ..
. ,
 
\Iooks, allli Ills father's library supplied him with ,. Let me Rcknowl- 
the lIest in Engli
h, lIe \\ as sensiti\"e to the eharm edge how mnch I 
of style in literature, and. a characteristic glimpse OWe to you, not only 
of his taste, nml of the influences that were shnp- of delight hut of 
ing' him, is affor!lell by what he said in later life in culture, When I 
speaking of Irving: " Every hoy ha
 hi
 fir4 hook; look haek upon lilY 
I mean to say, one book among- all others whi('h in earlier versl'
, I ('an- 
earlv youth first fascinates his' imèlgination, amI at not but smile to 
pt' 
oncè èxcites and satbfies the desi'res of his mind, how mu('h in thl'm 
To me this first book was the 't;ketch-Book' of is really yours." lie 
\Vashington Irving, I was a school-boy when it owed much also to others. anll in the
c 
outhrul 
wa
 puhli
hed [in 1819], and read cadI suc('eeding compositions one may find truces of his favorite 
number with C\er-increasing wonder and ddight, poets from Gray to B
ron, 
spell-bound by its pleasant humor, its melanchol) 
\s the time for Ipa\ ing colll'gc (Ire\\' near, it he- 
tenderne

, its atmosphere of reverie, , , , The came ncce
sary for him to d('cide on a profl'

ion, 
charm remains unbroken. and whene\"er r open the 11(' \\tl!'- ll\erse to the mini
try, to medicine, and, in 
lJagl'S of the' Sketch-Book: I open lll
() that mys- 
pite of his fat her's awl gmndfather's e
aml'le, to 
terious (1001' which lea (Is back into the hUl:nte(1 the law, In 11':?4 he writes to his fathl'l': .. I am 
chambers of vouth," 
\lreadv, when he "as thir- altog-ether in favor of the farnwr's life," But a 
teen \ ears ollÌ. he had begun 'to \Hite n'J'Sec:, some fe\\ 
 months later he f'nvs: .. The fact is, I most 
of which found place in 
the poet's corner of the ('agerly n
pire after future eminence in literature, 
lo('ulnewspaper, In lS
1 he pas
ed the entran('e :\ly whole soul burns most ardently for it, and 
examinations for Bowdoin, but it \\ èI'i not until e\ ery earthly thought centres in it, , , , 
urely 
182:? that Longfellow left home to rp::iide at the there nf'\'er was a better opportunity offered for 
college, Among his classmates was Xltthaniel the exertion of literary talent in our 0\\ n country 
Hawthorne. \\ith whom he speedily formed an than is no\\ offered, , , , Xature has given me a 
acquaintance that was to ripen into a life-long 'ery strong predileetion for litemry pursuits. nllli 
friellll
hip, His letters to his mother and fathf'r I am ulmost confidf'llt in helit:'ving that, if I can 
during his years at college throw a plea:<ant light ever rise in the \\orld, it must be hy the exprcise of 
upon his pursuits and his disposition; they displny my talent in the \\ id.e field of literature," In J'('ply 
the early maturity of his chamcter: the traits to the
e anll'nt a'"pirations his father wisely urged 
that distinguished him in Inter years are alreally that. though a litl'rary life might be very pleasant 
clearly defined; the amiability, the affectionate- to one who had the means of support, it did not 
ness, the candor, and the cheerful spirit of the offer secure promi"e of a li\ elihood, and that it was 
youth are foreca<:ts of the distinguishing qualities nece:,.sary for his son to adopt a profession that 
of the man, His taste for literary pur
uits, anll "hould afford him subsistence as well as reputa- 
his strong- moral sentiment and purpose, are alrenllv tion: hut he ga\'e hi
 consent I"t'n(lilv to his son's 
developed, .A ft:'w sentenees from his letters will pas
ing a year in Camhridge, after lea\ ing collegt:', 
serve to exhibit him as he W&; at this time, " I in literary stud ips previous to entering on the 4udy 
am in fa\"or of letting each one think for himself, of ß profession, 
and I am \"ery much plea..:ed with Gray's, poems, Before the time for this arriwd a new prospect 
Dr, Johnson to the contmry notwith4anding," opened, full of hope for the young scholar, He 
.. I ha\'e very resolutely cOJl('lud.ed to cnjoy myself had di
tinguished himself in college by his stud i- 
heartily wherever I am." .. Leisure is to me one of ous disposition, his e
cellent cowIuct, and his ca- 
the s\\eetest things in the world," .. I care but little pacity as a writer, and when their rank \\as as- 
about politics or anything of the kind," .. I ad- signed to the members of his class at graduation, 
mire Horace yery much ind.eed," "I conceive that he stood upon the li
t as the fourth in general 
if religion is ever to benefit us, it must be incor- scholarship in a clas:" of thirty-eight, Just at this 
porated. with our feelings ana become in e\ ery time the trustees of the college determined to es- 
degree identified with our happiness," .. What- tablish a professorship of modern languages, and, 
e\'er I study I ought to be engage(l in with all my not having the means to obtain the services of any 
soul. for I will be eminent in something:' .. I am one that was alread.y eminent in this department, 
afraid you begin to think me rather chimerical I they df'termined to offer the post conditionally to 
in many of my ideas. and that I am ambitious of the young graduate of their own college, who had 
becoming" a rara al'i.<; in terri...;, But you must ac- already given proof of character and abilities that 
knowledge the usefulne
s of aiming high at some- would enable him after proper preparation to fill 
thing which it is impo

ible to o\'er
hoot, perhnp
 the place satisfactorily, The proposal was nccord- 
to reach," He was writing mueh, both verse and. ingly mad.e to him that he should go to Europe for 


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the purpose of fitting him
e
f for this chair, with I li-:hPd him
elf n
 (1ijtti.ngen in Februnry, 1t<
9, and 
the understalH
illg that on IllS return liP &hould re- was pursumg Ins stU(he
 tlH'r
 when he was called 
eeive the appomtment of professor, It wus a re- home b
r letter
 that reqmred IllS return, Ill' reached 
markablp testimony to the impres
ion that IJong- the l"nited Stutes in August, and in Septemuer, 
fpllow hurl mml.. amI to the confidpnce he had in- luwing recei\'Cd the appointment of professor of 
spired, Xot hillg could have been more delightful modern languages at BO\Hlnin college, with a sala- 
to him than the pro
pect it opened, It scttll'<l the ry of 

OU, he took up his residl'nce at Brunswick, 
question of his career in aeconlance with the de- LIe v. ns now tWl'nty-two years old, and probably, 
sire of his heart. and his father gladly appro\'ed, \\ith the exceptiun uf 
[r, George Ticknor, was the 
_,\ftt:'r pH
sing the autumn and winter of 1
:!5-'ü most accomplished scholar in thi
 country of the 
in prpparatory studies at home in Portland, IJong- langunges and literatures of modern Europe, lIe 
fl'llow sailf'1l for Havre in May, 1H
fi. The dis- devoted himself zealously to teaching, to editing 
htIlce of Europe from America, measured hy for his classes several excellent teÀt-books, and to 
time, W
IS far greater then than now, ('ommuni- writing a series uf leetures on the literatures of 
catiou was comparath-ely infre(luent and irregular; Prance. Spain, and Italy, The intluellee of such a 
the intenal of news was often months long; the nature and such tastt:'s all/I learning as his was of 
nO\'eltv of sllch an experien('e as that on which the highest \ alue in a country collegc remote from 
Longf
llnw pntered was great. .. :\[allam," 
aid a the deeper soun'l'S of culture, "llis intercourse 
frien(l to his mother, "\on must have great f'onfi- with the students." wrote one of hi
 pupils, "WitS 
dence in your son," '.. It b true, !lenry," she perfef'tly simple, frank. and manly, They always 
wrote, "your pan'nt
 have greut cunfidence in your left him not only with udmiration, hnt guideù, 
uprig-htness amI in that pnrity of miml "hich will helped. and in
pil'l'd," In addition to his duties us 
im,tantly take alarm on coming in contact with any- profe
":or he performed those of lihrarian of the 
thing vicious onmwort hy, Welllt\'econficIl'nce; uut collew'. und in 
\pl'il. 1 I";H , hI' published in the 
YOU must he careful and watchful:' Sixty veal'S .. Xorth Amel'if'an Heview" the first of a series of 
àgo Europe promised more to the yonng A lilcriean artil'les, whil'h were continued at irregular inter- 
of poetic temperament than it does to-day, and vals for sen.ml years. upon topics that v.ere cun- 
kept its promise bettpr, Longfellow's f'hal"lleter ne('teù with his studie
, His prose style was ul- 
wa
 already so mature, his culture so adntIlecd, rc':uly forme(1. und "as stamppd with the purity 
and his tpmppmnwnt so happy, that no one could and chnnn that were the e
pre
sion of his wholp 
i1ature, intelleetual amI mom!. Poetrv he hllll for 
the time gi\'en up, Of thuse little poc:tie attempts 
duting from his f'ollpg-e 
 c'ars he "rote, that he hacl 
lon
 l'easl'd to IIttac'h anv yalue to them, "I am 
all pruùenee now. since i elln form a more accurate 
jmlgml'nt of the nH'rit of poetry, If I ewr puu- 
lish a volume, it will be many \ ears fir
t:' 
'- I n 
('ptember, 1H:n, he marrièù 
Iiss )[lIry Potter, 
of Portland, It "as u happy marriage, About the 
slime time he began to puhli:-h in the" Xew Eng- 
land :\Iaguzine" the sketehes of travel that after- 
ward \\ ere coll(,f't('(1. and, "ith the addition of some 
other
, pnhlbhed uncler the titlp of .. Outre 1\ler; 
It Pilg-rimll
e beyond t he 
ea .. (
 ew York, 1tìi3:ï). 
This \\ as his earlic.st imlependent cont ribution to 
American litpmture, awl in its pleasant mingling 
of the reeord of personal eXlwriem'c'. with es
ays 
on litemtllre, t}"lUl
latioJ}s. amI romllntic stories, 
and in the ease mIll g-n\ee uf its style, it is a worthy 
prelude and introdndion to his Inter more impor- 
tant work, The lHUTO\\ ness of the opportunities 
that were affordc'd at Bowdoin for literarv culture 
and conn'J'sation pren'nted the situutiòn there 
from being- altogt:'ther cnngpnial to him. and it WIIS 
"ith sati
fac,tion that he recpi\'ed in {)eepmber, 
1H:l4, an invitation to succeed )11', George Ticknor 
in thp Smith profe
sorship or modern lang-uuges at 
Ilar\'ard, with the sug-g-estion that, before entering 
on its dutil's, he should spend It 
 ('ar or eig-hteen 
months in Europe for stwly in Germany, lie ac- 
cordingly l'esig-Iwcl the profes
orship lit BU\nloin, 
which he had held for fi \'e Yea rs and a half, 111\(1 in 
.\pril. 1
:
:ï. he Sl't sail witli his "iCe for Englund, 
In June he went to Denmark, ancI, IIftpr pa
sing 
the summer at C'openhllgen aIHl Stoekhnlm study- 
ing the I>lInish, Swedish. and Fillni
h languages, 
he went in Udouer to Holland on his way to (.er- 
many, ,1\ t 
\msteJ"(lam and l{otterclmn he was de- 
tainèd by the serious ilIne
s of :\1 rg, Lon
fellow, 
nnd employell his enforced leisure in aef]uiring the 
Dutch languagf', 
c'ar the ('nd of 
ovemLer his 
wife dipcl at l{ottprllam, The hluw fell heavilv 
npon him; but his strong religious faith nfforclell 
him support. and he wa
 not overmnstl'red hy yuin 
grief. lIe goon proceeded to Heidelberg, and 


12 


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GFELL()W 


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he hetter titted than he to prufit hy a visit to the 
Old W OJ'111. ,A vo
 II
e to Em'ol'P is orten a YOYlige 
of di
cO\'ery of himsdf to the yuung American; he 
learn
 that he posseo.;s('s ima
inati\)n awl sen
ihili- 
ties that haw not bepn evoked in his own land awl 
for which Europe alone ean provide the proper 
nurture, Su it \\ as \\ ith Lung-fellow, HI' passed 
eight month
 in Paris 3nll its neighhorhood, steadi- 
ly at work in mastering the language, awl in stUflv- 
ing the literature and life of Frnnce, In,the spritl
 
of 18
7 he went from Frnnce to Spain, and l\('re h'c 

pent a like period in similar occupations, It was 
a periud of great enjoyment for him, ..At Madrid 
he had the good fortune to make aequaintance 
with Irving, who was then ('ngagc.d in writ iJW his 
.. Life of Columhus," of Ale
alllier Everett, thtl}, S, 
minister, and uf Lif'ut, _\lexandpr Slidel!. L S, nan' 
(afterwarll honorably known as Com, Slidl'll-:\Inè- 
kenzie). who in his" Year in Spain" pleasantly 
mentions and gÌ\'es a characteristic cl('scription of 
thp young- tntvelll'J', In Deeemher, 1
2ì, Londel- 
low left Spain for Italy, where h(' rl'rnained through 
a year that was ('rowded "it h del ightful experi- 
ence and wns well employed in gaining n rich 
store of knowledge, His studies were constant 
and faithful. and his genius for language was sueh 
that when he went to Germanv lit the enll of 11428 
he had a command of FreJ1ch:Spanish. allll Italian 
such as is selùom gained by It foreigner, lIe e
tnb- 


LOXGFELLOW 



LOXG FELU)\v 


sought in seriou,.. nna con:,;tant study a relicf from 
:,;uth'ring, hereaH'ment, ami dejeetion, For a time 
he "as cheere(l hy till' companion
hip of Bryant, 
whom he met here fur the first time, In the spring 
he made some excur:,;ions in the beautiful regions 
in the neighborhood of the HhiIll', nlll! he spent 
t he summer in S" itzerland and the 1'\"1'01. In 
Sl'ptem bel' he \\ as at Pari:,;, and in October he 
returIll'd home, 
In December, 1
:3(j, he p,..tnhlishe(! him
elf at 
Cumbridge. and entered upon his duties as pro- 
fessor, For the renminder of his life Cmnbridge 
\\ a:,; to be his home, Lowell, in his delightful es- 
say, .. Cambridge Thirty Years Ago," has presen'ed 
the image of the \ illage much as it was at this 
period, The litt Ie t0wn wa" not yet suburhanized; 
It was dominated by the college, \\ hose professors, 
manvof them men of note, formed a culth'ated and 
agreènble society, Limited as were its intellectual 
re:,;ources as compared with those that it has since 
acquired. its was the ehief centre in Xcw England 
of literary activity and culth'ated intelligence, 
Longfellow soon found friends, who speedily be- 
camt' c1o
dy nttached to him, both in Bo
ton allli 
Cambridge, alike of the elder Rnd younger genera- 
tion of scholars, ehief among whom were George 
rficknor. \\ïlliam II. Prescott. Andrl'ws X orton, 
John G, Palfre\, Cornelius C, Felton, Charles Sum- 
ner, George S: Hillard, and Henrv U, ('le\'eland, 
11 is delightful qualities of heart añd mimi, his so- 
cinl charm, his wiae and eleg.mt culture. his refine- 
ment, the :';\\ eetness of his temper, the Opl'nlll'ss of 
his nature, and his quiek sympat hies. made him fi 
rare acquisition in any society, and sccun'd for him 
wnrm regard nnd affection, lIe employed himself 
bu:-ily in in,..truction and the \\ riting of lecture
, 
and in 1
;rj' he began once more to giH' him
elf 
to poetry. Rnd \\ rote the poems that wpre to be the 
foundation of his future fame, In the autumn 
of this 
'ear he took up his residence at Craigie 
House, a fine old colonial mansion, consecrated bY' 
memories of \\'a
hington's stay in it, \\ hich \\ lis 
thpnceforward to he his ahode for life, Here, in 
1
;J;, he \\ rote .. The Reaper and the Flowers." 
and in J une, 1
:3t;, .. The P
alm of Life," which, on 
its publication in the" Knickerbocker )Iagazine" 
for Oetoher, instantly became populnr. nnd made 
its author's name well known, It was the sound 
of a new voice, a most musical and moving one, in 
American poetry, In February, 18:38. he was lec- 
turing on Dante: in the summer of that 
ear hi:, 
conrse was on .. The Lives of Literary )[pn," lIe 
was \\fiting- also for the .. X orth Ameriean Re- 
view," and during the year he beg-an his" Hype- 
rion," It was a busy and fruitful timp, .. IIyperion .. 
was published in X ew York in l
;JU, It \\ as a 1'0- 
mnnce ba,..ed upon per.-onal e
perience, The scene 
was laid among the sites he hHd latelv visited in 
Europe: the charncters were ùrawn iñ part from 
life, He put into his story the pain. the passion, 
and the ideals of his heart, It \\as a book to touch 
the soul of fervent youth, It had much beauty of 
fancy, and it showed how deeply the imag-ination 
of the young- American had been stirred by the 
poetic associations of Europe. and enriched bv the 
abundant sources of foreign culture, It was hårdlv 
out of press before it was followed hy the publicå- 
tion, in the late autumn, of his first volume of 
poems. "Y oice:,; of the X ight ," This contained, in 
addition to his recent poems, a selection of se\'en 
of his early poems-all that he wishe(l to pre
erYe 
-and numerous transÌations from the 
panish. 
Italian, and German, The little volume of 1-l-t 
pnges contained poems that were stamped with 
the impress of an original genius who:>e voice 


LOXGFELLO\V 


13 


was of a tone unheaI"ll hefore, .. The Psalm of 
Lifl'," .. TI\(' Heaper mill the Flo\\er
," .. The Foot- 
,..h'ps of .Ang-e1
: .. The Beleaguered City," 
peed- 
i1
' became popular, and ha\'e remained familiar to 
English readers ÍI'om that day to this, "Xothing 
equal to some of them \\ns ever written in this 
world-this western \\ orld, I mean." \\ rote his 
friend Hawthorne, Before a yeur \\as out the vol- 
lUne had come to u. third edition, From this time 
Longfdlow's fame grew rnpidly, Succc:,;s amlrí'JHl- 
tation were to him but stimulants to new e,},,('rtions, 
Essentially mode,..t and simple, pmisp or ftHttery 
could do him no harm. Hi:,; gpnial and sound nn- 
ture turned all ð.perience to good, 
During- the ne),.t two or three ycar
, \\ hile his 
laborious duties ns instructor were faithfully lInd 
suecessfull v discharged, he still found time for 
stud
, and 'his \-ein of poet ry wa::; in full flo\\, In 
18..H his secund ,olume of poems was published; it 
was entitled" Ballads and othf'r Poems." nnd con- 
tained, among other well-known pieees, .. The \\' re{.k 
of the Ih'sperus." .. The Yillage Blacksmith," nnd 
"E
celsior," It confirmed the imprest-ion that had 
been mnde by the" Y oicps of the X ight," and hem'e- 
forth Longfellow stood confe
sedh- as the most 
widelyreat! and the hl'St beloved of 
\.merican poets, 
In the spring of 1
-t
, his health hn\ ing been for 
some time in an um:atisfactorv state, he received 
leave of absence for 
ix montlis from the college, 
and went abrond, 
\.fter a short stav in Paris he 
made a journey, abounding in intere
t lInd pf,l'tic 
sUgge
tions, through Belgium, visiting Brugcs. 
Ghent, Anh\l'rp. nnd HI usseb. and proceeded to 
)[arienberg-on-the Hhine, where he spent a quiet 
but pleasant summer at a nater-cure establishment, 
Herl' he made al'quaintance with the German poet 
Freiligmth, ItIld the cordial friend...hip then formed 
with him was maintained bv letters until Freili- 
grath's death, more than tlÌirty years aftel'\\aI"lI. 
In Oetober he pa,..t-ed some delightful days in Lon- 
don, ns the guest of Charles Dickens, with \\hom 
he had come into \ erv cordial relations in ,.\ merica 
early in the same yèar, /lnd in Xovember he was 
again at home cngage(l in his familiar pursuits, 
On the return voyage he wrote .. Poems on Sla- 
very," whieh \\ere puhlished in a thin pamphlet be- 
fore the end of the Yl'nr, Tlll'Y \\ere the c'-pression 
not so mUl:h of poetic emotion a<; of moral feeling, 
They attracted mueh ath'ntion, as the te
timony 
of u. poet, by nature disindined to censure, against 
the great national crime of \\ hich the worst evil 
was its corrupting influenee upon the public con- 
science, It was to that conscience that the
e poems 
appealed, and they \\ere reeeived on the one hand 
\\ ith warm approval. on the ot her with still \\ armer 
condemnation, In .June, 1
-t;J, he married Frances 
Appleton. daughteI' of the lIon, 
athan Appleton, 
of Hoston, He had been aUached to her sinee their 
first meeting in Switzerland in l
aG, and something 
of his feeling toward her had been revealed in his 
delineation of the character of l\Iary Ashburton in 
,. Hyperion," She wns a \\ oman whose high and 
rare qualities of character found harmonious ex- 
pres..;ion in beauty of person and nobility of pres- 
ence, Seltlom has there been a happier marriage, 
From this time forward for many years Longfellow's 
life flowed on as peacefully and \\ ith as much joy 
as ever falls to man, H is fortunes \\ ere prosperous, 
His books \\ere beginning to bring him in It con- 
siderable income: his \\ ife's dowry \\ as such as to 
secure to him pecuniary ease: Cråigie House, "i th 
the pleasant fields in front of it reaching- to the 
river Charles. was now his 0\\ n, and his means en- 
abled him to g-rntify his ta
te for a refined ho
pi- 
tality no le:>s than to ::'ati
fy the generous impulses 



14 


LONGFELLOW 


of his liberal dispo:,:ition, and to meet the multitude 
of appeal:,; for help that came to him from the poor 
and suffering, whu, though they might he remote 
aJHi unknown to him, telt confident of his sym- 
pathy, The general c
an
cter of the
e ye,ars and 
of their influence on hun IS reflected In Ins work. 
]lis gcnius found in 
hem, the ,mo
ent of its fullest 
expansion amI happIest lIlSpiratlOn, In the year 
of his marriage "The 

ranish 
tudent" was 
published in a volume, 
I t had been mainly writ- 
ten three years uefore, 
and wa:,: fit:st printed in 
.. Graham's )lagazine" 
in 1812, In 1
46 "The 
Belfry of Bmges and 
\- nther Poems" nppeared; 
among" the" other Po- 
ems" were .. The Old 
Clock on the 
tairs " 
and "The Arsenal at 
Springfield," This was 
followed by .. EYange- 
line " (184i), of which 
IIawthorne wrote to 
him: "1 have read it 
with more pleasure than 
it would be decorous to 
express," and which 
thousands upon thou- 
sands ha \'e read, and 
will rea(l, wit h hearts 
touehed and improved by its serene and pathetic 
heauty, Then appeared "Kavanagh," a tale in 
prose (V
4f)): "The Seaside and t he .Fireside," con- 
tllining- "TJw Buihling of the Ship." " Hesig-na- 
tion:' " The .Fire of I )riftwood," and twenty other 
poems (l
.)O): aJHI "1'hp Golden Legend" (18.j1), 
During- all these \'ears he had continued to dis- 
charge the acth-e 
luties of his professorship, but 
the
- hml gradually beeome irksome to him. and 
in 1
t)4, aftl'l' nearlv eighteen veal'S of service at 
lIarnml. he resignèù the plaeé, "1 \\ant to try, 
he wrote to Freilig-rath, ., the effect of change on 
mv miml, and of freedom from routine, 1I0use- 
hòld occupations. children, relatives, friends, stran- 
gers, mill colh-ge Jl'ctures so completely fill up my 
day
 that I IH\\-e no time for poetry; and, conse- 
quently, the last two p'ars have been \'ery unpro- 
dllcti\'e with me, ] mn not, howe\'er, very sure or 
sanguine about the rl'sult," But he was hardly 
free from the daih' duties of instruction bdore he 
was at work upon'" Hiawatha," and in the course 
of the year he \\ rote many shorter pi eel'S, among 
his hest, such flS "'rhe l{ope-\Yalk," ")Iy Lost 
Youth." and "The Two Ang-cIs." "IIiawatha" 
was puhlished in 1
3;), and in'1
,,)8 appeared" The 
Cuurtship uf Miles Btandish," with aoout twenty 
minor poems, 
13ul the days of joyful inspiration and sncc{'ss 
were drawing to their clos(', In Juh', IHG1. an in- 
eXl're:,;:,:ihle calamity, hy which all his later life was 
sluulu\wd, fell upon him, in the sud(len and most 
(listressing deat h of his wife by fire, His recovery 
from its immediate, shattering effect was as:.istl'd 
by the soundness of his nature, the strength of his 
principles, and the ('onfidence of his religious 
faith, hut it was long hPÍorp he could resume his 
usual occupations, or find interest in them. 
\fter 
spveral months, for the sake of a r{'gular pur:,;uit 
that might have power more or less to engage his 
thought, he took up the translation of the" Dh.ine 
Cometlv," He found the daily task wholesome, 
amI grildually he became interested in it, For the 


1\ 

 



, 


l 
'''- 
\ ' 


....;; 
" 
\\i 
s 


\1 
"\" 


- 


ì 


-I 


...' 


LO
GFELLOW 


next three or four years the translation, the revis- 
ion of it for the prèss, and the compilation of the 
notes that were to accompany it, occupied much of 
his time, The work was publbhed in It;(ji, and 
took rank at once as the best translation in English 
of Dante's poem, The accomplishment of this 
task had not only bcen a wholesome restorative 
of intellectual calm, but had been the means of 
bringing about in a natural and simple way the 
renewal of social pleasures and domestic hospitali- 
ties, In the red!-:ion of the work, Longfellow had 
called to his aid his friends, James Russell Lowell 
and the present writer; unù the "Dante Cluo" 
thus formed met regularly at Craigie House one 
e\'ening every week for two or three winters, 
Other friends often joined the circle, and the ewn- 
ings emied with a cheerful supp{'r, Thus, by de- 
grees, with the passing of time, the current of life 
began once more to run on in a tranquil course, 
and though \\ ithout a ray of the old sunlight, 
equall." without a shadow of gloom, .At the end 
of IHli3 he publi:,;hed "Tales of a Way:,;ide Inn," 
a volume in which there was no lowering- of 
tone, no utterance of sorrow, out full vigor "and 
life in sueh poems as "Paul Reyere's Hide," " The 
Birds of Killingworth:' "The Children's IIour," 
and others, The printing of the translation of the 
"Divine Comedy" wa:,; bl'gun about the smne time, 
and the te
t of the" Inferno" was completed in 
season to send to Florence the volume, not \et 
published, as an offering in honor of Dante, on oc- 
casion of the ccIehration in thnt citvof the sixth 
cl'ntenary of the poet's birth in )lliy, 18G;), The 
whole tmnsh1tion, with its comment, \\ as finally 
published in It!(jj, In the same yenr appenred a 
little volume of original poems, entitled" Flo\\ er 
de Luc('," amI in succeeding years. at irr{'gular 
internLls, he wrote and published" The XI'\\' Eng- 
land Tragedies" (1
(i
); "The Divine Tragedy" 
(It;il); "Three Rooks of Sung" (1
j2): "After- 
math" (18i4): "The )Iasque of Pnndora" (ltì'j,')); 
" Kemmos" (lHjH); and "Ultima Thule" (18HO), 
A little \'ulume containing his Il1st poems was pub- 
lishe(l in 18H
. after the poet's death, \\ ith the title 
of " In the Harbor:' 
These years had been marked by few 
triking 
ewnts in his externnl life, They had been spent 
for the most part at Cambridge, with a summer 
rcsidence each ycar at 1\ahant. His interests were 
ehietly dome:4ic and social; his pursuits were the 
lnhors amI the pleasures of a poet atHl a man of 
letters, His I!ospitnlity was Jarge nn(l graC'ious, 
cordial to old friend:,;, amI genial to new acqm1Ïnt- 
anecs, His constantly grO\\Ïng famp burdened him 
with a crowd of visitors and a multitude of letters 
from h entire strangers," They broke in upon his 
time, and made a vast tnx upon his good nature, 
He was often 'H'aried bv the ince:';:::':lIlt demHnds, 
but he regarded them us iargely a claim of human- 
ity upon his charity, and his charity ne\ er failed, 
He hnd a kiwi word for all. nml with rt'adv saC'l'i- 
fice of himt'elf he dispensed plmsure to thOÌISIlHlIs. 
In 18G8 and l
(jfl, acC'ompanied by his daughters, 
he visited Europe for the la:,:t time, amI enjuyed a 
delightful stay in England. in Paris, and especially 
in Itnh', Fame and the nffection that his poems 
Imd a,mkened for him, though personally un- 
known, in the }warts of many in the Old \Yorld 
not less than in the X ew, In:ulè his visit to Europe 
It !'eriet' of honors and of plea:,;ures, But he re- 
turned home glail to enjoy once more its com para- 
th-e tranquillity, awl to r{'new the RC'customed 
course of the dllY, liis last ,w-urs were the fitting 
clo::;e of !'uC'h n life, 'In H3;,'j he r('ml at Bruns- 
wick, on the fiftieth annivcrsflry of his graduation, 



LOSG 
'ELLO\V 


the heautiful p(wm ., 1\Iorituri :-'Illutllmus," It 
eluleù wit h the eluU't1Cteristic verse- 
,. .For age i:, opportunity no le:-:; 
Than youth it
t'lf, though in another dress, 

\lHlas the e\ening twilig-ht fwies away, 
The 
k\" is filled with stars, invisilll(' IIv dav," 
On his 'seventy-fourth birthday, 27 F
b" Ì881, 
he wrote in his diary: hi am surrounded by roses 
and lilies, Flowers evcrnvh('l'l'- 
, .\nd that which shollid accompany old age, 

\S hunur, Im-e, obedience, troups of frienùs: " 
But he had had alrea(ly \\ arnings ot declining 
henlth, and in the cour
e of this Veal' he suffered 
greutly fwm vertig-o, followed bj nel'\'OUS pain 
and depres
ion, The 
l'renity of his spirit was un- 
affeC'teù, On the 18th he suffered a chill, and be- 
canll' seriously ill, On the 24th 11(' sank quietly in 
df'ath, The linf's given in fac-simile \H're the last 
written hy the poet. 1;) )[ul'ch. If<

, awl fil'(' from 
the dosing stanza of the" Bells of 
an BIas:' 
X 0 poet was m-er more belon'd than he; none was 
ever more worthy of love, The e
pre:,siuns of the 
feeling- toward him after death were de('p, affect- 
ing, and innumel'able, One of the most striking 
wus the placing of his bust in the Poet's Corner in 
Westminster .Abbey in Murch, 1884, It was the 


LO:XG I
OS 


15 


passing through various hands, it was purC'ha:-.t'(I 
on 1 Jan" 1 ÎU:J. by .Andrew Cl'Iligie, whu built the 
west wing, :\11', Cl'Iligie had IIUldtl a fortulle ll
 
aputhel'aI'y-general tu the Continental army, awl 
lit' t'ntertaineù in the house with lu\ ish hospitality, 
\fter his death hi:- widow, \\ho::.o income had lIe- 
come re(luced, let rooms to various occupants, 
Itmong whom \\ere Jared 
parks and E(lwanl 
Everett. Finally the housl' passed into Longfel- 
low's hands, as is related above, It is noVo (HìH7) 
occupied by his drIest daughter, His study remains 
unaltered as he left it, ':\11', Longfellow had two 
sons and thn'e dau
hters, IIv his :,;t'eOlHI "i fe, 11 is 
eldest :;on, ('U \ItLL..., t'nlt're(l the Xational sel"\'iee 
in l
li1, and \\US badh- \\oul\(led at :\line Hun, 
llis daug-hters, us ehil(h:('n, Werl' tl1<' subjects of a 
l'dehratt'd portmit group Ly Thonlas lluehanun 
Head,-Henry WlHlsworth's brother, 
alllll('l, cler- 
gyman, b, in POl'tlund. )Ie.. 18 J nne, I
HJ, was grad- 
uatt'd ul lIarmrd in 18:m and aL the divinih'-school 
there in 184(;, I Ie first ae('eptell a ('all to II l'hureh 
at Pall HiveI' inlH4H, but in H;0:
 Le('ame the l'a:;t(lr 
of a lTnitarian cong-regation in Brooklyn. X, y, In 
1
(i(l he rt'
igned his charge nlHl went a 111'0<1< 1. Un 
his retul'll 11<' resiLlt'(I at ('umbridg('. ,l\Ia"'s.. cuntinu- 
ing to preach, but hUoving no pastoral charge till in 


G....k. cf 
 <<!."'-4.
 
-

 

L 
c.t, 
 .
 
; 
.9t 
 

 

. 


fir.-t instance of such an honor being pnid to an 1 If-ì78 he heeame the minister of a church in (tcr- 
.American poet, His bu
t stunds near the tomb of I man town, Pa, In 1

2 he again retul"ll(,11 to Cam- 
Chaucer, bet w('en the memorials to Cowlt'Y and bridge. In addition to writing sen'l'al essays that 
Dryden, (See illustration on page 14,) On this tll'peareil in the "Hadieal" (18(;(;-'71), amI many 
occa
ion )lr, Lowell, then e, S, minister in Eng- hymns that ha\'e a place in other ellllections than 
land, said: h 
ever wa... a private chnl"acter more his own, he compiIt'(I, in assoeiation with Hev, ::-;am- 
answerable to puhlic performance than that of ud Johnson, .. A Book of Hymns" (Bostun, It!4G; 
I
ongfellow, Kever have I kno\\n 8 more beauti- revised cd.. entitled "lIymns of the 
ph'it," It){j4). 
ful eharacter," A bronze statue of Longfellow, by Ill' published" A Book of Hymns and Tunes," for 
Franklin Simmons, was erected in Portltmd in congregational use (1
,,!I). and a small volume for 

eptemhl'r. I
HH, His" Life" has he('n written the YPspt'r serviee that he had instituted, lie is 
hy his brother Samuel, in three volumes (Bo:;ton, also the e(litor, in connection with Thomns \\", II ig-- 
18SÜ-'7), This work, mainly compiled from the ginson. of .. Thalatta, a Book for the Seaside," It co 1- 
poet's diaries and Iettf'rs, is a full a
ld satisfactory Iection of poetry, partly original (18,,:3), His latest 
picture of the man, In this life there is a lIib- publications are the" Life of lIenry Waùsworth 
liography of his works, The meadow, across the Longfellow" (2 vols" 1
Hfi), and "Finall\lemorials 
street, in f!'Ont of the poet's home, stretching down of lIenry \y, Longfellow" (ltì1';7),-Henry Wads- 
,to the ri\'er Charles, so often commemorated in worth's son. E"Ilf'
t "'adS\HH'th, artist. b, in 
h
s wrse, was gÍ\'en by his children shortly after Camhridg-e, l\lass" in 1840. was a pupil of Couture 
hIs death to the Longfellow memorial association, at Paris in 18(;.), and painted in Italy in It)(;8, 
on condition that it should be kept open for- H is studio wa
 at first in Cambridge, but is now 
mer, and properly laid out for puhlic enjoyment, / (1t'8ì) in Xew York. He paints with a firm hand 
The ,iew over the river, of the hills of Bri
h- and brillimlt hut harmonious scheme of color, and 
ton and Brookline, as seen from the windows of I is favorably known for 
uch effective landsl'apes 
Longfellow's study, will thus be kept open, ancl nnd compositions as .. Old l\lill at :l\Ianchester, 
as:;ociated with his memory, I :\[as
."; h ltalinn Pines" (IH8U); "Love .:\[e, LO\'e 
The vignette on page 10 is from a portrait maòe my Dog"; ")[isty :\Iorning"; and .. John and 
in 18JG by Samuel Laurence; the frontispiece on I Priseilla." onp of his most popular works, 
steel is a copy of one of the latest photographs of I.O
G I
OS. J osé (lon-ge'-nos), 
panbh natu- 
the poet, The illu!'tmtion on page 12 represents rali!'t, b, in Logroño, Spain, about 17:')0; d, in 
Longfellow's home, C'migie nou
e, It was huilt I C'ampeche, )[exico, in It)U:3, In 1787 King Charles 
ùy CoJ. John Ya::;sall in 17,,9, and on his flight to I Ill, sent a hotaniC'al expedition to explore l\1exico 
England, at the beginning of the Hevolution, was and Centml America, and IJonginos was appointed 
confiscate(l. It serwd as \\Tashington's headquar- its ('hief, He explored :\Iexico and California, then 
tel'S till the evacuation of Boston, and then, after I tl'ayclled thl'Ough Centml 
\mericn, and during his 



10 


LO
GXECKER 



ojourn in the capital gan puhlic lessons in hot any 
and foundeù a museum of natural hbtory, lIe was 
an excellent taxidermist, and formed a large col- 
lection of specimens, of which he sent many hoxes 
to the Rovul museum in :\ladrid, and the rc
t was 
Ilelivered after his death to his executor, Dr, Saenz 
de Alfaro, in 'Mexico, From Guatemala he \\ ent 
to explore Yucatan, w}lPl'e he died, Be
ides manu- 
seript catalogues of his collections, he wrote" Hl's- 
puesta á pon Vicente ('el'nmte,.; sobre la Üoma EI- 
ásticn ó .Arhol del llule" ()lexieo, 1799), 
I,O
H:SE(,K..:n, Ht'IIQ' fla), lawyer, b, in 
Allen, Cumberland co" Pa" 17 April, 1t-<
O; d, in 
Allentown, Lehigh co.. Pa" 1(; Sept., 1
'j1. He 
was educa.ted at the 
orwich military acmIemy, 
Vt., anci entered J.Jafayette college in 1841, but 
was not 
raduated, lIe was fìlImittecl to the bar 
in Januàry, 184a, and practised in Xorthampton 
and Lehigh counties, lIe sen'ed in the :Uexiean 
war in 1847-'8 as 1st lieutenant ana alljutant of 
voltigeurs, being wounclecl at ChapuItppec, and in 
18-18 was chosen di4,rict attomey of Lehigh county, 
He was a memher of state Democratic conventions 
in 1851 and 1f;.'J4, but in 1t-<.)H became a Hepubli- 
can, and in 18;)9-'Hl was a member of congress, 
where he 
erved on the committee on military 
affairs, lIe became colonel of the 9th PennsvÌ- 
vania regiment in 18Hl, led a brigade in westèm 
Virginia at the bpginning- of the civil war, and com- 
manded a brigade of militia at .Antietam, In 18G7 
he beeame an a
so('iate judge of Lehigh county, 
LO
HSTIU
I
T, JUIUf'S. soldier, b, in Edge- 
field district, 
. C" 8 Jan" 1R21. lIe removed \\ith 
his mother to .\lahmna in H;:H, awl was appointell 
from that state to the U, 
, militar\'" ftl'wlem\'", 
where he was graduated in 1842, and ùs:,:i
ned to 
the 4th infantry, lie 
served at .r I'ÍIer
on Bar- 
racks, )Io" in 1
4
'4, 
011 frontier duty at Xat- 
chitoches, La., 'in 1t)44-- 
'3, in the military occu- 
ration of TeÁas iñ 1
4.)- 
G, and in the \\tu' with 
l\Iexico, being engaged 
in Hu' battle:, of Palo 
Alto, Resaca de In Pal- 
ma, )Ionterey, the siege 
of Yera. Cruz, Cerro Gor- 
do, :::ìan .\ntonio, Churu- 
busco, Hnd 31oleno del 
Rey, For gallant and 
meritorious conduct in 
the two latter hattles he 
was brevetted captain and major, and he had pre- 
viously been promoted 11't lieutenant, 23 Feh" 11)47, 
At the storming of Chapultepec, 8 Sept" It'4ì, he 
was seven>ly wounded in the as
ault on the fortified 
convent, lIe served as adjutant, 1'th infantry, 
fl'Om t) June, 1847, till 1 July, 1:-;49, and on frontier 
aTIII garrison duty, chiefly in Texa::,. till 18,)1', heing 
made captain, 7 Dec" 1t),)
, Ill' hecame pnyma::,ter, 
HJ July, H
;:;
, and resigned, 1 June, 11-;lì1. He was 
commissioned bl'igadier-general in the Confederate 
service, and at the first lJattle of Bull Run com- 
manded a brigadp on the right of the Confl'derate 
line, where he held a large force of the Xational 
army fl'Om operatiQg in support of )IcDowell's 
flank attack. On Hen, Joseph E, Johnston's re- 
treat before l\IcClellan at Y orkto\\ n, Longstreet 
comnumded the rear-guard, ha\"Ïng been malIc a 
major-general. On I'i )lay, 1t)fj2, he made a I'taml 
fit Williamsburg, and was at once attacked by 
Heintzelman, Hooker, and Kearny, He held his 
ground until his opponents were re-enforced by 


( 
I 


',,-"\. 


, .,p" 


11 
,,' 


.
 


I.. -" 
cfj
 


LO
GSTREET 


Hancock, when he was driven hack into his works, 
lIe took part in the seven days' battles around 
Wchmond, and at the second battle of Bull Run, 
"hen in command of the bt corps of the Army of 
Xorthem nrginia, came to the relief of Jackson, 
when Ill' was harclpressed by Pope's army, and by 
a determined charge in flank decided the fortunes 
of the day, At Frederiek::,burg he held the Con- 
federate left, In It)G;J he was detaf'hed. with two 
of hi
 divi
ions for sl'rvice south of James river, 
On Hooker's movement, which led to the battle of 
Chancellorsville, Longstreet was ordered to rejoin 
the army of Lee, hut did not arrive in time to par- 
ticipate in the bnttle, He commanded the right 
wing of the Army of 
orthern Virginia at the 
battle of Gettysbur
, and tried to dissuade Lee 
from ordering the llisastrous charge on the third 
day, When I.Jee retreated to Virginia, J.Jongstreet. 
with five brigades, wn
 transferred to the Army of 
Tennessee under Brag
, and at the battle of 
Chickamauga held the left wing of the Confeder- 
ate army, He was then detached to capture 
KnoÁ ville, hut found it too strongly fortifiell to be 
taken hy u

ault, Early in 1804 he rejoined Lee, 
and was woundell by the fire of his own troops in 
the hattle of the \Yildenll'
s, I Ie commanùed the 
1st corps of the Army of Xorthel'Il \ïrginia in all 
the operations in 1
()-t. and wa
 included in the 
surrender at .A ppomattox,!J ,April. ISO.), lIe \\ as 
known m the army us .. Old Pete," and was con- 
sidered the hardest fig-hter in the Confederate ::5er- 
viee, lIe Imd the unuounded confidpnce of his 
troop5, who were devoted to him, nnd the whole 
army felt better whC'n in the presence of the 
encmy it WliS pn

ed along the line that .. Old 
Pete was up." After the war Gen, Long
treet es- 
tah1i
hed his re!'idenf'e in K ew Orleans, \\ here he 
engagl'd in commercial business ill the fil'lll of 
Lungstreet, Owens and Company, Ill' \Ht
 ap- 
pointed sun-eyor of eustoms of the port of Kew 
Orlcanl' by Prcsi(Icnt Grant, supen-isor of internal 
revenue in Loui
iana, postmaster at Xew Orleans, 
find minbt{'r from the [Tnited Stutes to Turkey by 
President IIa\es, and r,
, marshal for the dis- 
tril't of Gl'Oq,Òa bv Presi(lent Garfield, 
1.0
(
STìtE":T, William, inventor, b, in Sew 
Jersey ahout 1 .GO; d, in Georgia in 11"14, lIe re- 
moved in boyhood to .Augusta, Ga, As early as 20 
Bept., 1.!lO, he ad(lressed a letter to Thomas Telfair, 
then gt)VernOl' of Georgia, a
king his a
si
tance, or 
that of the legislature, in raising funds to enable 
him to constl'Uet a boat to be propelled hy the new 
power, This was three years beforp Fulton's let- 
ter to the .Earl of Stanhope announcing- his theory 
" re
pecting the mm-ing of ::;hips by the means of 
steam.'" Failing to ohtain puhlic aid at thnt time, 
Lon
!-otreet's invention remained for several years 
in abeyanee until, at last securing funds froni pri- 
\'ate sourees, he was enabled to launch a boat on 
Savannah river, which moved against the current 
at the rate of fi\-e miles an hour, This was in 
180., a few duys after Fulton had mude a similarly 
successful eÁperiment on the II Ulbun, Besides 
this invention, Longstreet patented a valuable 
improvement in cotton-gins, callell the .. breast 
1'01ler," moved by horse power, whieh entirely su- 
perseded the old method, lIe set up two of his 
gm8 in Augusta, which \\ ere propelled b
 steam 
and worked admirably; but they were destroyed 
by fire within a week. If e next ereded a set of 
steam mill
 near 
t, :\Iury's, Ga" which were de- 
stroyed by the British in 1812, These dbaster::$ 
exhuust<'ll his resources and dbcouraged his enter- 
prise, though he was confiJent that steam would 
soon supersede all other moti\-e powcrs,-His son, 



LOXGSTRETII 


LOO:\IIS 


17 


An
lI
fll
 ßalcln in, author, h, in 
\ug-usta. na" l the early part of his lift' he was It n\(.'rchant. hut 

:J Sevt.. l,UtI; d, in Oxford. :\liss" U 
ept,. l
jO, de\-oted his ll'ÍsUI'e to thl' study of astronomy, 
wns gnuluat('(l at Yale in ttn:j, studipd in the law- having- charg-p of the Frientls' obs(,l'\'atory in Phila- 
sehool nt Litchfield. ('onn.. atHl wa,;; admitted to delphin till l
,ïli, lit' th,'n remowd to 
huron 
till' har in HÏehmond county, Ga,. in l
I.;, uut 1'('- Hill, Pa,. where he has sim'e pradist'tI medicine, 
movetI to lì-reenshoro. Cia,. whel'e he soon ros(' to Dr, Long-streth has dpvoted most of his lifp to 
('Illinence in his profession, Ill' represented nreelle stud
. and his contrihutions to astronomy }\èl\-e 
cmmtv in the legislature in 1
21. and in 1
:!;! ue- been \"aluahle, Th,'y hnve nppeared in the" Trans- 
came Judge of the Ocmulgee judi('ial distriet, \\ !lich a(.t
ons of the .\merican Philosophical 
ocil'ÌY," of 
of1'iee he held for severnl years, and then decllll{'d wlndl he has ueen a memher smce 11"4H. nllli he 
re-elpl'tion, He then resumed the practÏee of the was' abo one of the original memhers of the 
la\\, hecl1ming- \\ cll known for his succ..ss in crimi- Xational aeademy of seience. II e has alwa
 s dl'- 
lIal case
. and. remO\-ing- to Augusta, Ill' estaulished dined public o1Jiee, nIthoug-h for more thall forty 
there the" ,\ugusta 
entinel." which wns consoli- years 11(' has heen a memhcr of prinLÌe mHI puhlic 
dated in lS
H with the" Chronicle," continuing. edueational hoanls. 
mellll\\hile, the practice of the Inw, In H:;a-; he LOXfn\ UUTII, Xi<'o]as, horticulturist, h, in 
hecame a minister in the :\Iethodist Episcopal Xe\\ark. 1\, J" Iii ,Jan" IjH
: d, in Cincinnati, 
church. and was stnJiont'd at Augusta, During Ohio, 10 Feh" l
fj:t The large property of his 
this periOlI of his ministry the town was Yisited father, who \\as a Tory, WIlS eonfi:,mted during the 
with 
ellow fe\-('r, hut he renminell at hb post, He\-olution, atHl the son pas:,ed his youth in eom- 
ministering- to the sick ulIII dyin
, Inltiß9 he wa..:. paratiye poverty, Ill' \\ltS It clerk in his elder 
elected president of Emory coUeg'e, Oxford, Ga,. hrother's store in South Car(llina ill his youth, amI 
"here he 
en"ed nine Years. aft"r which Ill' heeame in It(oa removed tll Cincinnati, Ohio, whf'l't. he 
pl"esillent of Centenarÿ college, La, ShOltly nfter- studif'd law. Ilnd purchase(l large trncts of lantl, 
war(l he became prl'sident of the Cniyersity of \ftt'r tWl'llty-fhe 
cars' pl'adiee he retin'd from 
)Iississil'pi, at thfllrd, :\liss.. which pust Ill' held la\\ in order to df'\ote hi",
elf to the cultÍ\ation 
for si \. years, resigning at t hat time to de\ ote him- of the grape with a vie\\ to mllllufueturing wine; 

elf to agricultural pUl'snits, But in IH.jj he wa..; hut, w.,ing foreig-n villl's e'\.cll1sÏ\ ely, was UlISUC- 
eleeted to the presidem'y of South CarolIna col- ces:
ful until 11'\:.?1'\, when he introducetI natiyc 
lege, Columbia,
, C" \\here he rl'muined till just \ illes 01' their seedlings and produced, ll"Om the 
hefore the civil war, when he returned to the pl'esi- Catawba amI the Isahl'lla grape. wine of a high 
df'ncy of the Cnin'l'sity of )li:ssi
:;ippi. In 11'\4-1 nUll'ketable yalue, He had 20(1 acres of vineyards, 
he \\ as a memher of the general conference of the and a large \\ ine-house in the \ icillity of Cim'in- 
:\Iethodist Episcopul church, and was conspicuous nati, and \\ as also Üworahly kno\\ n u) his experi- 
in the dbcussions that led to a rupture of the ments on the stra\\heny, lIe \\as kindly uut 
church, siding thl'Ol1ghout with his own section, ec('entric, aUlI gll\e much money to those that he 
In politics he uelonged to the JetIel'sonian school culleù the .. })eyil"s poor," .At his death his 
of strict con"tmctionunù state rights, At all early prop('rty \\ as estimat('d at from :tlO,OOO,(J()O to 
Hge he hegan to write fur the pre,.;s, antI he made :< l,ï.O()(),O()(), Ill' puhlished "Buchanan's Treatise 
speeches on all oc('asions through his lite, ., I huye on the Grape, \\ith an .Appendix on 
trawherry 
heard him:' \Hitt's one who knew him, .. respond Culture " (('incÏnnati, 1
.ï(j), 
to a sel'l'naùe, preach ß funeral st'rmon, dcli vel' a ..OX4 
 W OUT II \. .J nit II, Canadian statesman, 
college commencement address, and make a ha- h, in Charlottetown, Prince Edward i....hmd. 19 
rangue oyer t he pyrotechnic glorifications of seced- Sept., IH 14; d, there, 11 
\ pril. H
t(,), 111' \\ as aù- 
ing stutes, IIe could never be scared up without mitted to the har in 1
:;8, and entered the prO\in- 
a speech," lIis pen was nf'\'el' idle, His chief cial assembly in It:>-1G, Subsequently he was solici- 
periodical contributions are to be found ill" The tor-general anù a memuer of succt'ssiye admin- 
)lethodist Quarterly," .. The Southern Literary i:4ratiuns, and drafter of the "Xo terms rt'so- 
)[esseng-er:' .. The Southern Field and Fireside:' Illtion" that W
IS adopted by the assembly in con- 
., The :\lagnolia." nnd .. The Orion," and include nection with the confederation of the 1'1'0\ inees, 
., Letters to Clergymen of the Xorthern )Iethodist In H:!:o.::J he was appointed prothonotary of the 
Church" and .. Letters from Georgia to )la
sa- supreme court of Prince Edward island, He \\as 
chllsetts," .1 [is hest-known work is a ::..eries of a lieutenant-colonel of militia, allli at his, death 
newspaper skt'tches of humble life in the south, was president of the Dank of Prince .Ed\\al'd i....lnnd, 
hGeOl'gia Scenes. Chal'llcters, Iueidt'nts, etc" in 1.0XH\'}:,\R, .John W('S]('), juri:.... b, in SlIan- 
the First Half Century of the Repuulic, by a Xa- daken, Clster co.. X, Yo. 22 vet.. 1
20; d, in Ve- 
tive Georgian," which '\'Ç('re collected into a book troit, .:\Iich.. 10 .:\Iarch, 1I;j.j, III' was etlm'ated 
that appeared first at the south and then in Xew at Lima, X, y" and, removing in IH44 to 
Iichi- 
, York (1
-1t1), A second edition wao; issued in IH{jj, gan, WfiS admitte(l to the bar in 1
-1(j, 
ettling the 
and thong-h it purported to ue revised. he would. it Ilext year in Lansing, where he acquired an e
- 
is said. ha\'e nothing to do with it, It is said that tensi\e practice, He was elected to congress as a 
he sent men through the country to collect and Republican in 18G:.!, served till ltiGi, and during 
destroy all copies of the first edition, This book both tprms was chairman of the committee on ex- 
is full of genuine humor, brOlul, hut irre
istible, penditures on the puhlic buildings, Ill' was a 

Ulù uy many these sketches are considered the delegate to the Loyalists' convention in Philadel- 
raciest, most natural, and most original that ap- phia ill mGG. a member of the .:\lichigan constÏtu- 
pea red at the south before tlll
 civil war, Ill' also I tional Cllln"ention in 18(jj, and in 18jO became 
published .. )[aster Willialil ':\Iitten:' a story pla- C S, jud
e of the southern district of the state, 
con, Ga.. IHG-1), .:\lany unpuulished manuscripts IIis deci..ions, especially those in admil'lllty and 
were destl'Oved with his library during the war, uankrllpte
" cases, were extenslyely quoted, 
LOXGSTRETH. )[i('I'S Fishel'. astronomer, }.OOJllS, .\lfl'('(1 J.{'bhens, physician, b, in 
b, in Philadelphia. Pa" I.; :\Iarch, 1
IH, lIe was Bennington, Yt" 10 June, l1"Hl. He waF gradu- 
educated in the schools of the Society of Priends, I at I'd at l
nion college in IH,;I, and studil'd meùi- 
and was graduateù at the medical depfirtllll'llt of cine under Dr, Willard Parker in Xew York, 
the Cni\-ersity of Penn:-:ylmnia in 1 t;,j {j, During receÌ\ ing his ductorate at the Collegp of phy- 
VOL,I\',-2 



18 


LOO)IIS 


sicians aml !'urgeons in H,:,:3. TIe then became 
assistant physician to the hospitals on \r ard's find 
Blackwell's islands, but after two veal'S established 
himself in general pmctil'e in Xew llJrk city, 
gidng special attention to the treatment of pul- 
monary diseases, in which branch of medi('a] 
science he }utS acquired a national reputation, He 
became Yisiting physician to Bellevue hospital in 
1t:1(jO, and in 1t:174 to the 3Iount Sinai hospital. 
which appointments he still (1t!H7) retains, and he 
was also consulting physician to the Charity hos- 
pital on nIackwell's island. in J8(jO-'!5,. Dr, 
Loomis was lect urer on physIcal dIagnosIs In the 
College of physicians and surgeons in lH(j
-'5, and 
was then made adjunct pl'Ofessor of theory and 
practice of medicine in the Lniversity of Xew 
York, In 18(;7 he became profe--sor of pathology 
and practice of medicine in the same institu
ion, 
\\ hich chair he still hoMs, .An unknown frIend 
of the university gave through 1>1', Loomis in 18H(j, 
the sum of $10Ò,OOO to t]lP medical department, to 
Lmild and equip the Loomis laboratory, which it is 
intended to make the finest of its kilHl in the 
L nited States, HI' is a member of meùical 
societies bot h in the United States and Europe, 
and has been presilknt of the Now York patho- 
lo<rical society, also of the X ew York state medical 
so
ieh", BesÌdes occasional contriLmtions to cur- 
rent lÍterature, he ha::- published" Lessons in Physi- 
cal Diagnosis" (X ew York. 18(iH); .. Dbeascs of the 
Respiratory Organs, Heart, and KÜhll'Ys" (18j(j): 
., Lectures on :F'e\'ers" (1HH2): "I>i..;:eases of Old 
..Age" (1t'i8
): and "A Text-Book of Practical 
l\Iedicine " (lH84), 
r,OO:UIS. Arp1ulX('d, lawyer, b, in Winehe
ter, 
Conn"9 April. 1 j!JS; d, in Little Falls, X, Y.. 1:) 
Sept.. 1
S:;, Early in life he ul'l'ompanied his 
familv to Ih.rkimer conntv, N, l.. and worked on 
the hòme farm till he \\ as 'fourteen WIll'S 0111. when 
his father hired him out as tpa{'her of a district 
school. After teachin.
 allll studying law in 
"Tatertown and Sackett's Harhor, he was IIdmitted 
To t!J{' hal', awl pmctis('11 in the latter place ti1l 
1t''27, when he relllovNI to Little Falls, X, \"", Ill' 
was county judge allll surr().
ate from 1
27 till 
1Rj7, first jud,
e ill IHj,3-'-tO, and in 1t'Wì-'!J :5at in 
congrc::-.s, ha\'ing heell cho
{'n as It DenlOerat. [If' 
was a memher of the Xew lork as:,;emhlv in 11'-1-1, 
and of the State constitutional com cntiòn in 1t'i-tli, 
and a comllli
sioner to re\'i
e the ('ollf' of pral'tice 
in IH4 ì with Xicholas J I ill and 1 )a, id Gmham, 
1\[1', Hill shortly aften"ard re
ignPII and was re- 
placeù hy Dayid Dudley Field, The committee 
rpportell a code of procedure, \\ hich went into 01'- 
f'ration in 18-t
, I n 1H-t
, as chairman of the as- 
semhly judiciary committep, ,1 wlgp Loomis had 
prepared a "hill to improyc the admini::-tration of 
justice," and hi.;; interest in law reform C'ontinued 
from this time, J udg-e Loomis wa:-- an II h]e puhliC' 

peakcr allll wrote mUl'h for the pre:-s un political 
suhject
, lIe puhlished in pamphlet-form a .. His- 
toric Sketeh of the X ew York S\'
tem of Law He- 
form" (Litt Ie FaHs, X, Y., 18ì!>): 
I..OC)JIlS. Un hdtt. law \"('1', h, in Columbia, 
Conn" 21 July, t'H21. lie' studiell law in Kew 
!laven, and was admitteù to the har in IH-t7, f'et- 
tIing in Hock\-i!le, t 'oun" he followed his profe
- 
sion there until 18,,)1. when he was plected to the 
Connecticut legislature, In 1
36 he sened as a 
delegate at the People's eonW'ntion held in Phila- 
Ilelphia, allll in 1t>;)ì wa
 sent to the 
tate senate, 
He was eleetell as a Republican to the United 
States house of reprl'sentatin>s, and sen-ed from 
5 Dee" Hi,')U, till 3 .i\Iarch, lS(i:t In 1
(j-! he "as 
nppoint('d a judge of the superior cuurt of Connec- 


LOO)IIS 


ticut, and in 1t'j,'j wa
 admueed to the supreme 
court, where he ha..;: 
ince remained, 
LOOJllS. t:lia!'o. physici
t, h, in \\ïllington, 
('onn" ì .\ug" un1: d, in Xew Hawn, ('onn.. ].) 
Aug" 1H
!J, !le was graduateÙ at Yale in 1S:30. 
when' in 11'3:;-'{j he held the officI' of tutor, lu Xo- 
\-ember. 1$34, for t\\ u wecks, from 4 to (.i A, 'too \\ ith 
-.\le
ander t., '1'\\ ining, uf \\. e
t Point, he made ob- 
sernttions for de- 
termilling till' alti- 
tude of !-hootill
- 
star
, These are t;e- 
liend to have hel'n 
the fir:-t. concerte'd 
oh
l'rnttions of this 
kind nUHle in the 
e nited States, For 
fourteen month
, in 
1t'34 - '3, lit' madl' 
hourlvobsernltilllls 
from' 5 or (j A, 
I, 
tiH 1 () p, ]II, of the 
declinatilln of the 
magnetic neellle, 
He \\as the first 
per:,;un in thi
 conn- 
trv to disco\"er Ilal- 
1ev's comet on its 
re'turn to perihelion in Uttj, and he computed the 
elemt'nts of its orbit from hi
 own oh"el"\ nt ion..., 
In 1t;3(.i-'ì he' spent fi yt'ar in Pari
 attt'IHling- 
the lectures of Amgo, Biot, Dulong, Poi:-son, 
Pouillet, and other:,;, On his return he heeame 
profe

or of mathematil's mIll natural philo
ophy 
in \\-e41'rn Heser\"e collegt" Ohio, where ill' re- 
mainI'll until 1
.t t makiìIg diligent use {If the 
philosophical awl meteorulogical in::-trumpnts that 
he hall pun
illlsed in Europe, Pmf, Loomis oh- 
sern'd Iluring the
e years 
(j0 moon C'uhnilwtions 
for lungitude, (j!) eulminations of Polaris for lati- 
twle, Iii uccultations of 
tars, and made a series of 
olt..;:pr\"ations upon fi "e comet
, !'uflìeiently e'ì:tellll- 
cd to determine tlll'ir orhits, Ill' also oh
enea the 
dip of the magm.til' nel'llle at 0\ er ';'0 stations, 
:,;prcad oYer 1a states. e....tt'nlling- fmm t}l(' .\tlantie 
to the )lissi
sippi rin-I", In 1844 ht, hf'eamp pro- 
fessur of natural philosophy in the eniwr::-it
 of 
the citv of Xew lork, whidl chair he contÌllUed to 
fill unti1I
IiI), During this perioll he prepan'll a 

erif's of te
t-books embracin,g the entirp range of 
mat hematil'al su bjeets that are tallg-ht in high- 
sl'hools and colleges, and they \\ er(' suhse(J1H'ntly 
l'
tendea to emhraC'e natural philosophy, astrono- 
my, anll meteol'OlogT, This sl'ril'
 attaim>d an 
aig-rl'g-ate circulation' of more' than :,00,000 copies; 
his trl'ati"e on a:,;tronomv has h(,1'1I uSl'd as a text- 
book in England; that 011 analytil'al geometry find 
C'uh'ulns tran:,;latl'd into ChinesI': ana hi
 .. :\Ieteor- 
olo,g-y" into .\rabie. A part, of his time het" ('I'll 
1H-I-tÎ and 11"4!1 was employed in teleg-raphic com- 
pari
ons fot' longitlllle wit h Scars (', \\- alker, Tht:' 
Ilifferenee in longitwle hl'tween Xe\V lork nml 
\\'a::-hington WIiS Ilptermine'd in It'-I-7, that Itet\\epn 
Xpw Yo'rk and ('amhrillg'l', )Ias
" in 1
-I-t'i, Hnd the 
differenc(' hetween Philade'lphia and the otN'rva- 
tory in Hudson, Ohio, in 11'4!), In thf- two former 
comparisons Prof, Loomis hmll'harg-e of the ohsl'l'- 
vations in Xe\\ York, and in the lfittpr l'ompal'Í
oll 
he had charge of those in Hudson, The first 
ohsenations Ln' which the velocit\, uf the elcetric 
fluid on telegråph-wiIT!'; was Ile'terlnined Wl're maae 
on 2j Jail" 1H4B, hetween \Va
hington, Philadel- 
phia, Xl'W York, alIlI ('ambridgl', under the 
direC'tion of :-\ears C, \Yalkel', a clol'k in Phila- 

lelphia being employed to hreak the electric cir- 



 \ 



' 


I"'; 


\I.
 


':1:" 


,
 
... \\ \ 
u:u C7

 d 


.... 
.," 



L()o.:\ns 


('nit, Tn these compal'i:-öons Pwf, TJoolllis hllll 
ehlll'g'e of th(' ob
l'J"\'ations in Xew Y01'h, In l
liu 
hp l
l'l'llme profe
,.;ol' of nntnl'lll philu,.;ophy awl 
Ilstronomv in Yalp, and afterwarll dl'\"{Itella lal'ge 
part of hi
 time to original l'l',.;ea rei ll''';. the IIIO,.;f im- 
portant of which \\l'I't' n ,.;el'il's of art ides puhli,.;IIl'd 
in the ,'
\ meril'Hn .TOlll'nal of Sl'il'IJ{'e:' under the 
title of .. ('ontrilmtions to )leteOl'olo
\":' HC' \\as 
eng'ag-l'll inl'l'vi,.;ing' t Ill''';p papl'I''';, awl ;liTang-ing- t 11(' 
different topi('s in systl'matic order, at the :-:anw 
tin1(' suhjecting- ('aeh I"'inciple to 1II0rc rig-ill in\'l's- 
tig-ntinn hy l'olllpllrison with the IIlIllI
rOUs ?h,.;pr- 
\'I\tion,.; which 1m \-C recently he('n pubhshell III tIll' 
Unitell Stllte,.; 01' :d)l'OHd, Thesc re\'i:o-ell ('ontl"i- 
but ions, \\ hl'n ('ompll'tel1. \\ ill prpsent a \'l'ry full 
discussion of t hl' pl'incipll's of Ilynlllllic lIIeteOl'- 
olog
', Thc titles of his ";l'ientific papPI's e'(('l'ed 
1UO in nnrnher, find thl'Y ha\ c appl'al'ell hoth in 
thi..; country and ahl'ollll ill jourllal... IUIII in tmn";IH'- 
tion..; of 
ol'ietil's of whi('h he WIlS fi m1'111 h('I', In 
11-',}4 he reC'eiH>ll the (lP
I'ee of LL, f), from th!' 
Unin'r
itv of till' cit\" of Xe\\ York. Pl"Of, Loomis 
\\as a lII
illher of 
;pil'ntific 
o('ieties in thl' (
nitl'ù 
Statl's and in Europe. HllIl in IH7:J was l'll'eted 
tot he X ational al'llIlelllv of SpielH'I''';, Bf'sides 
.. On ('ertain 
tOl'rns in' Ellrope' /lllIl \ nlC'ril'a " 
(\Va,.;hingtoll, 1HliO), fOl'llling' part of onl' of the 
Smith,.;onian ('ontributiol\.... he l'"hlisllt'll .. Plane 
anll 
pherical Trigonometry " (few York, IH4
); 
h ProgTe
s of .\'''Ìwnomy'' (H.:,')O and 11-'.')Ii); .. _\na- 
h tical Ueometrv ami CalC'ulus" and h Elements of 

\Igphm" (11'1,')1): .. Elements of Ueonll'try and ('on- 
k Seetions" (18,')1 and 11;.1): .. Tuules of Lo
a- 
rithms" (1Ft'),')); .. Satuml Philosophy" (1f.:.,:,;); 
.. Praetical 
\stronomy" (18,,),) and It'ili.')): .. Ele- 
ment:, of .\rithmetic" (18ti:3): .. Treatbe on :\Ieteor- 
olo
y" (1H{jS); "Elements of .A
tronoll\y" (1t)G9); 
and" Tlu' De,.;cendants of Jo
eph Loomis" (1
,O), 
1.00JIlS. (
n...1
l\ n.... soIdi('r. h. in Thetford. Yt" 
2:l 
ept.. 1 ,
!}; d, in ::;tmtfor(l. ('01111.. ti :\Iarch. 
l
j:!, He was 
nHl\latell at the C 
, military 
'lcHdemy in UH 1, allli assi
ned to tht' artillel'\", 
For two years he served on garri
on duty in 
I'W 
York harhor, and then he \\a,.; sent to the northern 
fwntier, whel'e he \HlS at the capture of Fort 
Ueorge in :\lay, V.n:1, and '\\ as ta hPn III i..;oner ut 
the :'IIl'pri,.;1' of Port 
'ïu,
am in f)ecpmher of that 
year, .:\Ieanwhile he hall hpen mfide a!-sistant Ùl'PU- 
ty quartermaster-general. \\ith the mnk of captain, 
and he subsequently sel"\ cd in various garrisoll
, 
On the reor
anization of the army in 1t'i:!1 he Was 
maue captaÌn in the 1st infantry: anll in 1
:
8 re- 
ceived his cOlI\mi,.;:,ion as major, after serving in 
the campaigns ngain
t the Indians in Florida and 
Tt''\.as. In 11)40 he was promote(llieutenllllt-eolonel 
of the lith infantry, and. fifter gnrri:-öon duty on the 
frontier, :-öerwd in that rank during- the :\[e
ican 
\\-ar ami until 11'1,) 1. when he was made colonel of 
the 5th infantry, and gi\ en various commands in 
the Indian territory, ('01. Loomis partieipated in 
the Florida C'ampfiigns of 18,')(t.-'8 against the Semi- 
nole Indians, and IUlII charge of that ùepartment 
in 183.-'s, During the cÍ\'il war he "a,.; engaged 
at first on musterin
 duty. uut later '\\as put at the 
hewlof the general reemiting service at Furt ('0- 
lumuus. X, y, He wa
 retirell from acti\-e 
en-ice 
on 1 June. 1t'fiiJ, but continued to be occupied on 
court-martial dutv, Tn lRG,; he received the brevet 
of brigaùier-genei'al for long anll faithful sPl'\'ice 
in the army, 
IJOO JUS, .J ustin Rudol ph, ea:J.
ator. U, in Ben- 
nington,1\, y" 10 _\ug,. IslO, He was gruduated 
I:It Brown in IS?',,). nml in H
:1(ì bemme IJl"ofe
:,or of 
natural scienees in Coluy uniyer:-öitv, This chair 
he held until 1t)32, when he wa,.; calletl to fill a simi- 


LOOP 


lû 


lar professorship in the lTniwrsity of Lewi:o-III1l'
. 
Pa, In IS,')H he wa" IIHHI(' prf'silll'nt of that IIl1i- 
yer,.;itv. /lnd 1H'lll the of1il'e until 18,H, lIl'l'('('ei\('(l 
the dl:
ree of Ph,}), from tllP Cniwrsitv of Ll'wi,.;- 
uurg In IH.,)4, and that of LL, 1>, frmil the ('ni- 
n'r:-:itv of l{oeh(,
ter in H;.) 1-', Prof, Loomis is the 
aut hor of .. Elements of tìeology" (Bo,.;Ìon, 1
;;2) 
anll of .. Elelllents of Anatomy and Phy:-:iolog-y" 
(phillulf'lphia. 1
.'):n, 
J.00111S. Silas l.
l11l'('U('(', l'hy:-:ician, 11, in ('oy- 
entl'\', ('ol1n,. :!
 
la\'. Is:!;!, Ill' was g'l"IlIllIatl'd at 
WesÌeyan in 1H-t4, after teaC'hing matlll'matie
 and 
natuml 
eienees in I1olliston ft('luh'IIIY, Mass, 
\f- 
tel' his 
[wluntion hI' retllmed to Letlt'hing-, heeom- 
ing in 11)3,,) principal of tIll' Westel'll aellllpmy in 
\\-ashing'ton, }), C" mHI 1II1'IlIlwhile \\lIS g-rlllluated 
from t IiI' medi('al dl'l'artHlI'nt of Georg'l'to\\ n f'ol- 
legp in 1t.:,'){i. unll \\ as l'fofe,.;sor of ph
 siolo,g'
 in 
that dl'pm"tlllC'llt in It.:5!1-'(j(I, Ill' hl'ld thp ollicl' of 
astrononll'r to thp (T, ::;, coa,.;t 
un-C\ in U.,:,').. all(l 
in l1-'fi{) was 
ll('eial instruetor in nillthl'nUlti(',,; to 
t ht' l".
, na \ ul ('/I(l('ts \\ hill' on u emise, I II lk(j 1- '7 
Ill' \\u,.; professol' of chl'mi:4ry and to:xieology in 
tfeOl'gl'to\\ n collpg'f', fil,.;o 
urg'eon on Uen, (;l'ol'
e 
It .:\Il'Clellan's statf in 11'1fì;!-'a, allll a(,ting as:o-i,.;Ìant 
:-:urg'pon on th(' 
tl'amer .. State of .:\llIiIlC," allll in 
Patent of1iI'e. Finh'\, 1I1l11 :\Iount Plea";llIlt hos- 
pitals in IS{i::-','), Ife bpellme I'l'Of('
sor or pradicp 
of medieinc in the Hll'dil'al dl'l'artnll'nt of TlO\nml 
unÍ\ ersity in IMG7. later dean III III proft':--,.;or of 
ehemistry allli to
ico]og-y in tha t in
tit ution unt il 
1t;-;:!, In It;.a lit, rl'turned to the practice of his 
I'ro(l's,.;i(\n. Imll in 11-'77 was ('aIled to the IJl'e
idenl'y 
of the ::;wellp iron find coal cOIllpany, which he held 
untill8
1. Ill' ill\entl'd a prOl'I'SS for producing' II 
tpxtile fahric from palnH'tto in l
,S. allli in It;-;!I 
discO\'el'ed a metho(l b\ \\ hich ore..; of ('hl"llmium, 
whil'h \\ pre fOl"lIIpl'l\- C'oiull'mn
l1. ha \ I' become ntl- 
uaule, ])1', Loomi; ha__ al,..o made im pl"Ovemellts 
in Yfirious ill
tnJllIent..; of prel'i"ion, Ill' hils held 
the ollit'es 01 lll'e"illent of tIll' \\"a:o-hing'ton ,.;eien- 
tifie as,.;ociation in 1
li:!,llnd presi(h'lIt ot the 
\meri- 
can union fic:ulf'm\' of literature. 

iellce, anù HI.t 
in 1!-i72, Besides 'various nlll
ll/ine art ides and 
colle
c addrl''';
l's he ha,.; publisÌlpd .. .Kornllli .\rith- 
met it'" (phillilielphia, II'JU); ".\ nulytieal ...hith- 
metie " (1 "'ill); and" Key to tIll' Xorlllal ('oursp" 
(l8fi.),-I1is ul'Other, Lafa
 eftc ('lIndt's. l'lhll'ator, 
U, in Coventry, ('onn" 'j' .July, 11'24. was grlHlllatl'd 
Ht Wesleyan in It)4-t. and tlH'n t:1Ught, h('eoming' in 
11','):: principal of the In ing' institute in TaIT
 to\\ n. 
X, y, A year Inter he wuo; appointed profes,.;or of 
natural sC'iences in \\-esleyan female college. Wil- 
lIIington, J)pl.. and hpC'anw its prpsiùent in 11'.')7-'1;, 
He \Va
 prillC'Ípal of tllC' LafaFttf' institute, \\'II,.;h- 
ington, f), Coo during- 1"',)U-'ti:
, and. fifter being 
grmluah'd at the merlieal del'tlrtnH'nt of Georgetown 
uni \'l'rsit)' in It:;fi,,). \\ as actin,
 a..;,.;istant surg'eon in 
the 
\rmY of the Potomac, Dr, Loomis thf'n held 
the prpsiÎ1pncy of the Wheeling' female 
emina1'r in 
West Virg-inia during 1
(i.'). unl1 thref' 
 ears lat(>1' 
\\a..; fipl'ointp,I I'rofe
:o-or of physiology in Howard 
uni, prsit,\". \'rushington, D, C, 
uu,.;e(
uer
tly he 
:;pent ::,('\-eral \'ears in trawl anù study III I'.urope, 
and he ha..; a'lso leeturell on art, In addition to 
mn,g-azine articll'" he has published ,. .:\lizpah. Prayer 
ami F1'ien(l:-:hip .. (Philadplphia. IN,,)8); " .:\Iental anù 

ocial Culture" (Xew York. IHti7); and" I1find- 
book of .\rt and TranI in Europe" (1t''oi2), 
LOOP. H('ul'\' An
'nstlls. artist, b, in HiJIsdalp. 
COIUIll bia co" X, Y,,'-$1 Sept.. lR31, Ill' \\ a,.; t'du- 
cated at Great Barrington. )Ia,.;s" settled in Xew 
York city in IH,')O. studied nrt for fi \'ear with Henr
 
p, ara \- 
tlld in 1t\.}7 \\ ith ThonHl,.; èouture at Paris. 
He wàs' elected a Xational academicifin in 1t'(i1, 



20 


LüuS 


LOPEZ 


fiIHI most of his life work has been giwn to por- sèrH'd i1.uring the reig-n of Xapoleon, hut resigned 
traiture, His stmlio is in 
 ew York, Among his in 1H15, and practh;ecl his pl'Ofe
sion in Brazil for 
works al'e portraits of \Vorthington \\
hittredge, of ;;e\
eral wars, but ::-ettled in Pal'is in 1 H

. and en- 
Joseph p, Thom
on, anù Prof, Elias Loomis (H;
2): gaged ili literary work, lIe de\'Oted his time prin- 
also ., Undine" (It)fil); ,. 
\phrOllite" (187ö): eil'ally to the stuil.y of Brnzil allli Brazilian authors. 
., Echo" (18ii): "Hermione and Helena" (lHii); whose WOl'ks he wishf'd to popularize in Europe. 
"(Enonc" (H,j
); .. At the Spring" (It,i!)); "lilyl Lopes became corl'e
ponding member of the Paris 
of the Lake" (18tH): .. Low's Cro\\ n" (IHH
): ae1Hlemyof inscriptions and belle
-lettres, In 1t-;43 
":O;Ullllller )Ioon" (lHH-t); awl "The Dreamer" he \\as I're::-ented with a gohl medal hy the hb.tori- 
(188;)),-Uis wife, J clinctt.. SIH')tIH'rd (IIARRISOS), eal institute of Hio ,Janeiro for his historical 
artist, b, in K ew IIa\'en, Conn.. .) )Iarch, 1840, has I worhs, find he also received many proofs of e
teem 
her stullio with her hu:-:hand, 
he wa:;; a pupil of from the emperor Pedro, llc wrotf' under the pen- 
Louis 13ail in 
e\V IIaven. sub:-:equently of hel' nan1f' of Caetano h de )[oura, Hi:,- \\orks, which 
hu
halHl. and in 1 
ö1 studied in Paris, Yeniee. and a1"1' nume1"nUS and noted for purity of languag-e 
Rome, She was elepted an associate of the Xation- and b1"ightne:'-
 of style, inellHle .. Diceionario 
eo- 
al aearlemy in U,j;), Her st
'le is unpl'etentious, graphico hbtorico e de
eriptivo do imperio do Bra- 
hut natural aIllI vig'Ol'Ous, Among her works arc zil. olml colleg-ida e compo:-:ta per )[jllict de :-\aint 
numerous portraits. "A Banquet for )[amma:' 
\dolphe. e traduzirla em portuguez do J\lesmo manu- 
.. IJittle Runaway:' ilnd " Bahy Belle," ::,:cripto inellit" frances, com numerosas 01l:..e1'\ açoes 
IJOOS, ('hal'l('s IJouis. educator, ii, in \V oerth- é addiçoes" (2 yols.. Paris, It':lH): .. 
\rte de Sl' eu- 
sur-Saner, LOWel' 
\lsace, 22 Del'" 11"23, Hb par- rar a si meo;mo nas dælwas y('nereas" (1t'4;)): .. II is- 
ents, who were Pl'Otestants, remover! to this conn- toria de Xapoleiìo Bonaparte,"" hich was written uy 
try in IH24, and :,ettlpd at );ew Fmnklin. 
tark co,. or(ler of Pellro 1. for the primary sehools of Brazil 
Ohio, wllf're his father died a fpw days after their (2 yob" It;-\-fi); .. lIiccional'Ío hihliographico Bm:<i- 
arri ml. The ,,-on studied in the ton n 
('hool. anLl at liense ., (G yols.. 1t'-t j-'5
): .. Diceionario e:-tati
tico 
the a
c of sixteen bpgan teaehin
, lIe was gl'ad- \ gpographico rIo imperio do Bl"IIzil 'r (a ,nls" 1
,,):3); 
uated at Betlmny colleg-e in l84Ji. and was a teacher fillll" lli
to1"ia geral do imperio do Brazil '. (3 yols" 
there for thrf'e years, after which he rcmO\'ed to I l
,ï-!), 1If' \\a:< ,,1:,;0 tIll' author of surg-ical works, 
\Yellslmrg. \
a" to take pastoral charge of the I I.OI)EZ. {'al'los .\Iltonio (In'-peth), president 
Ch1'istian ehurch thcrp, 
\ft('l' holding pilstoratps of Paraguay. h, in 
buncion, 4 XO\".. 1790. died 
in Somerset. Pa,. and Cineinnati, Uhio, he 'HIS there, Sl'Pt. In. IHG2, Ill' was educaÜ.d in the 
calle' I to the presidency of Eureka college, Ill.. fillli I H'mindryof .blll\('ion, alllleo;caped t he persecution 
in It;:)8-'80 held the ehair of ancient languageo; in úf Dr, Franeia, thp dictator, hy hilling for nHHlY 
Bethany college, Ill' was then ele('ted to the prc
i- I years in It rpmnte yillnge, After Francia'::,: death 
(leney nf Kentuchy university at Lexington, For in :O;l'ptemher. 1t'-tO, 1Jol'ez rl'Ìumed to 
\sull('ion, 
several years )[1'. [Joos was as
ociatr' editnr of the allli heeame the :<eeretary of the militar
 junta 
" Di
ciple." a JIlonthly, anù of tlw .. Sower:' a re- that was then in control thf're, Seeing- that the 
lig-ious weekly in Pennsylvania, aIllI of the" Chris- government could he 
('izea hy anyone that was 
tian Age;' the chief weekly organ of hi::,: church at cunning anrl !'trong- l'nough to grasp it. he re:"ol\'ed 
Cincinnati. Afterwarll. for SP\'en years, Ill' was co- to <In so. and cau:-:I'rl the junta to ('all a cong-n's:,-, 
editor with Prof, ,,
, K, Pendleton of the ,. 3Iillen- which, UlHler his dirl'('tion. appointl'd a trium\"Ì- 
nial Harbinger." anrl at present is contrihutin
 rate, 2:J Jan,. 1t'-t1. lIe then inducl'd one of the 
cditor nf the" Chri:-:tian Stamlanl," of ('ilH'innati, triulll\ ir:<. (fen, )[al'Ìnno Hoque 4\lon
o, to dbsol\'e 
I,OOT, t
('rnrcl ,nn (lote), Duteh naturalist, h, the trium\'irate on :Jj Feh" and a ne\\ cong1'e:<o; of 
in :\luy(len in 1 jO,); d, in Breda in 1,ö1. He ob- his own erpation appointe,l .Alonso and Lopez l'on- 
tailll'd employment in the Illllian company, and re- suls for three veal's, In 1
44 the same inrce \\fiS 
shied most of his life in .Ta\'a anll Bureh Guiana. enactel!. and e"ongrcss aholi:-:hed the con
ulate, np- 
I'l,tiring in 1 i:ï:-J and settling in (kella, Ill' puh- pointing Lopez pre:-:ident for ten yenrs, In 1t'0-1 he 
lished .. An weisung wie man die Ureite UlHI Liinge "a-- re-eleetP(1 for t hree 
 cars. IIIHI again in 1
;)i 
del' Flii:-:se aus gellleinen LalHlkartcn erIorsehen for ten yenrs, with power to appoint his temporary 
k(inne" (2 vols" Ureda, 17:ï-t); .. Guimulg-pognostÍ:'-f'h sueeessor by will. Ill' goYt'rnell arhitrarily, hut in 
und geologi:-:ch d:u-gestellt" (1 j,ï.)): ,. Grulllllehren gl'neral" ithout nl'pression or crul'lty, He gradu- 
del' Anatomie un,l Physiologie dP1' ame1'ih.anischen ally opened Paraguay to foreign trade and immi- 
Pflanzen" (1 ji)j); .. Xaturen Bloeme" (1 j0j); gration. m:ulp trl'atic:-:. laid the foundations of a 
., llistoria generalio; plantarum guianarum in qute fnrmÏrlable army, with fortificntions, ar
enal, amI 
familia' per tabulas disponuntur" (2 yols., 1 j,')H): flotilla, constructed a raih\ ay, and pro\'ided for 
" Hie XatUl'geo;('hichte \'on Amerika" (1 j(iO,: the edueation of JIlany youths in European me- 
" llandhueh für den Kaufmann in Guiana" (1 ìGO); chanica I and :-;cil'ntifie scho(ll
, I lis jealousy of all 
and sen'ral other works, interfcrence with the indepelHlpnce of Paragnny 
I,4)()TE
S, I,ouis. It, (', hi:-:hnp. b, in Rruges, bl'Ought him into confl.i(,t with the dietator Ho
as 
Belgium. in 1t<
,ï, Ill' was ordained to tJw l{oman of Buenos 
\nes. ana his dislike of foreif"/'lll'rs in- 
Catholic priesthood in 18:>1, and was sent to ('ali- \'01 ved him in diplomatic dispute::,: with :Ênglallll. 
fumin on a mi:<:-:ioll about s('ven ycars afterward: France, allli Brnzi!, "hkh in each case" ere carrie(l 
::,:ucee
si\-ely ol1ieiating in ::;olllml, Petnlull1a. and to the yerg-e of hostilities. from which he esc
lI)('d 
Sail Itafael, where he ereeteÜ a ehun'h and gl'l'atly hy shrl'wd diplomacy, Un nccllunt of his t1'eat- 
enlarged the school-buildings, In )[arch, 18G
, he ment. of the U,
, eonsul. and an attHek on the ex- 
was cOllsccrated hi
hllp of l'a:-:tabala. in pal'tib/ls, l'loring steamer ,. 'Yater \\ïtch," in 18:ï:>, a larg-e 
hut resigned in IHjö on account of faiJing health, 
uadl"On was sent bv the L, S, government to 
1,0 PES, ('arbulo (lo-pes). Brazilian historian. b, enforce a demand for repamtion, "hich wns prom- 
in Bahia in Octobe1', I j
O: d, in Paris. 22 Del'" i
ed by trenty, uut ultimately evaded, His long 
l!')IiO, lie was a mulatto. amI. bl'ing the son of administration greatly nlh-aneed the material wel- 
wealthy parents, received a good ellueation in thé. fare of Parnguav, and the security of life alllll'rop- 
eollcgf' of Bahia, finishi
g his .s!udies in Paris. erty was u!1limited excep
 by laws" of hi:" own f'IInC't- 
wherp he wa:-: 
rnllllatf'(l III medlcIlle, and entelwl ment,-Jllts son, }'l'anClsro Solano, p1"('si,lent of 
tht Freneh army ill 180tJ as a:-::,-i::-tant surgeon, lIL Paraguay, b, near 4\sllllcion, 24 July, 182j; killed 



LOPEZ 


LOPEZ 



1 


in hllttlt'. 1 )[arl'h. 1
iO. "a
 f;aid to h(' a nlltum] spiracy figninst the rule or eYl'U the life of Lopez, 

on of ('a1"1o:-;, hut "as afterwlll'l] fillol'tell by hi:- It is e.;timatpIl tlll\t more than ;)00 pt'
on.. WeJ'e 
father. awl intenJellas hi:-; 
Ul'ces:,or, In It\4;) he eitlwr e:M'I'uted or died by tortlll'e in the pnealllp- 
Wfi
 llI\mPII comm,wder-in-ehit'f of the ParaguaYlln lIIeut of Lopt'z ù
lrin
 the laUt'l' half of l"'lj
, 
arnç, and sppnt some time on the frontit'r uf ('o.r- 
\mong thns
 that 
\ere. exe('utl-d \\"I'I'e Lnppz's 
rientes. nominall v but nut IldUlllly engaged In brot her, BellIg-no, IllS SI:-ter, Ilnd Iwr hll
batJ(l, 
warfare ,\ith ttw'dictatur I{osas of BIIPnos .\yrps, 1 Barrios, nnd tllP bishop of 
\suneion: awl Lol'Pz's 
In 1
.)4 he was spnt to ex('hange trt'at
 ratitil'a- mot Ill'r was pxill'd for asking for till' pardon of her 
tions with sl'wm.l European powers, auù l'as
ed children, The C. S, legation "as im'olwd in the 
eiCThtet'll month
 in Europe, \\Yhile thert' he met Il'hargf's, finll. although the minister. Chllrles 
\, 
m
 Iri
h lady, who ('aIled her..elf )h,.., Lynl'h, and \ra:-hhurn, e
l'a l )e(l in Sl'I
t(,lIIher througl
 the 
who livell apart from hpr hu..band, a French I opportune arnnl of tlu' F, S, "Hr vc,..;,..;pI " \\ II!-P," 
officer, She fullo'\ed Lope.l to Paraguay. and he- I two aUachés \\en' seizl'd IlJH] torhlrt'd, Their 
came his mistr
"", a po:,;ition not deeJllt'II di
cl'ed- lives were 
l'arell, howe\er, Hud they '\l'rp SUl"J"en- 
itahle in thllt countn', "Iwre mfirriage had b('en dered tv /tIl .Amerielln sqllHl]ron in ])e('(' 111 bel', 
almost Ilboli
hed hy j.'rancia, By her talents she 1":a1"1y in JanuHry, l
(i!I, nfter the ('nptllre of lIu- 
aC(juirl'll pupularity. and exerci
l'll a controlling maita, Villeta, and .Ango
tura, .\sun('ion waf; 0('- 
influenl'e on
r Lopez unt il Ill'ar the clo:,;(' of hi
 life, I cupit'(l by the alli('tl for(,l's, am] Lopez ret in'(l to 
(),n !ti:, return, he heeame mini:,:ter I
f \\ar, and u
ed B
rabihi. ,B
 
uece:"si.w defeat," during Y'Hi9, not- 
hIs mt1Ul'nel' m the gon'rnment cllll'fly for I'uttmg "rth
tandmg an ub
tln;1Ìl' re:';l
hll}('e, fiule(l f\\ en 
the eountrv on a \\ar footing, In 1:;(j
 Uen, Lopez by a corp:' of .\mazon
 uIHll'r )Ir
, Lynch, Lopl'z 
hecamcyrè:-;ide!lt by 
1Ïs father's will, aIul, congn'ss I was grwlually driwn to t.he extrl'me northern 
cho
e hun presHlent fur ten years from 1ft (I('t. He houndary of PIlI"llg-UUY, \\ hen he was ahout to 
now devotell himself actively to prepamti()n
 for cro,..;s the river 
\quidaban, he wa.. f;urprised .'ya 
war, nnù for two \'(,aI'
 he \\as con
tantlv hut detal'hment of Brazilian canllrv, The Bmzilian 
!'eel'et1v receiving' årms from Europe. In' lRU..J. 
eIH'raI, l'amfil'a, in nLÏn sllmlJioned him to !'ur- 
Brazil'inten'ened in a lTrug-ua
un ('Ï\ il Will', and relull'r: but his strength g-ave way as he was 
Lopez, dedaring himself the proteetor of the 
\\Ïmming to the opposite hanl
. IIIHI \\ ltile blecd- 
., equilibrium" of the Plata ri\ er, dl'mandl'd that ing- from hi
 "oand
 he was killc(I hy two Brazilian 
the Brazilian forces :-;hould retire, This 
umm(\ns 
uhliero;;, hb last words heing: .. I die for my cIJun- 
remaining' unheeded, he beg-an hostilities in Xo- try." )h
, L
 nch \\a
 overtnken in her' flight. 
,ember, 1t)ß..J., by seizing a Bmzilian mail-
tellml'r: l'he e]de
t 
on, Parwho, in the uniform of a colonel. 
and in Decemher he oecupied the Brazilian prov- fircll upon thp Brnzilian ('hief lieutenant, )Iartim'z, 
inee of )[atto Grosso. on the upper watprs of "ho tlu'reul'on killed him. anll he \\as huried hv 
Paraguay ri\er, Early in 11;(j3 he :,;ent 8.000 troops the !'ide of his fathpr, .:\Irs. Lynch went to En,i- 
acro:;:; Ar,g-entine tl'rritory into the Brazilian 1'1'0\"- land, The forces of Lopez. redueell to ahout 1"jOO, 
ince of Rio Granlle cIo 
ul, and, when the .\rgl'n- at once laid dm\ n their arms, See" :':e\'en E\'('nt- 
tine government pJ'Oh'
ted against this violation of ful Years in Paru
llay," by Georg-e F', .:\Ia
tennan 
its territory, he Ileclared \\ aJ' on t
lat repuhlie, 
\ (
Jolulon, 1"'f
n), and "II istory of l'arag-uay," L) 
hastily 
ummonell congre
:,; ratlfiecl thl':,:e acts. (harles .\, \\ a:,;hhurn (2 Yols" Bo:-;ton, l!;ìO), 
conferred the gr
ule of mar:;hal upon Lopez. gave LOPFZ, I:s1allislno. Argentine soillier, h, in 
him e>..trnordinary powers, and formally dedal'l'tl 
anta Fé, 22 X ov.. 1 isH: d, there, 1:> .J une, 1
;1H, 
war against Brazil anll the Argentine Hepuhlic, Ill' entered the .\rgpntine army during- th(' war of 
Before this declaration wa
 known in Buenos indel'elulen('e, and "as Jlre
ent in 
e\cral buttl!'s 
A
 ..e!', Lopez :,;pized two Argentilw 1lI1'n - of - war unùer Gen, Bel grano, In 1!;18 he had IJt'come 
that lay at anchor in Corriente
. anll m-erran that colonel nllfl military commander of the prm ince 
pro\ ince with hi
 force
, Brazil. the .\rgentine of Santa Fl>. ancl on 2:3 July of the same yellr was 
Republic, and (; ruguay ('onchuled a !'('cret treaty appointed its fÌl,
t go\'ernor, being promoted g-en- 
on 1 )Iny, l
ß.), forming an offen
i\'e and (lefen:,:i\'e eral in 
\ugust. Ill' took }Jart in the ch-il \Hlr that 
alliance again:,;t Paruguay, and before the end of began in that year, find wao;; def(':ltpd hy the fur('cs 
this year recO\ered the pro\Tinces that had heen of the Ar
entinf' gO\ernment under (;en, Bakarce 
occupied hy Lopez, The allies inmdl'd Paraguay 0n 2i XO\", in l'aso de Aguirre, and on IH-1!1 Feh,. 
early in l
filj, and during the succeetlin
 four Un!}. at IIerradura, but on 10 
[arch at Barrmwas 
years a warof greater proportion
 than had hitherto he was victoriou:-, .After t\\O year:,; of civil \\ar 
been known in South 
\merica \Ht::; waged with Lopez arri\'eJ before Buenos Ayres, find the go\'- 
\'arying fortunes on the soil of that state, Lopez ernor, Hodriguez, recognized t he federal govern- 
impressed into senice all the ahle-bodied males ment on 2H Feh.. H:
2(J, \\-hen Balcaree was el('ct- 
between the ages of twel\'e and se\-enty, ancl se\eral ed governor, Hodri
uez, aidt'II hy Lopez, re\"01ted 
lines of defence \\ere maintained, hut in Februar
, u,gainst him. and "n
 reinstated on 23 )Inrph, 
1
(j8, the Brazilian squadron for('C'd its wny aho\'e Dorrego Ilefented Lopez in the battle of Pavon on 
the fortre::;ses, and bombarded Asuncion, which 12 
\ug,; but on 2 ::-;ept. the latter defeated Dor- 
had been e\-acuated by the government and all its ..ego in Gamonal. province of Santa Fé, and the 
inhabitants, Lopez now suspected the \'ice-pre:,;i- war hetween the prodnees of Buenos AYI'e
 and 
dent and his cabinet mini
ters of disloyalty. and 
anta Fé wa:,; enlled hy a treaty of peace on 24 Xov" 
they were imprisoned and removed to army head- 1!;20, In 11;21 he declared war against the prO\'- 
quarters. where they were tried before an improvi
ed ince of Entre Riof;, and on 2ß :\Iay conquered its 
court conf;isting of three priests, 
\fter being put governor, Ramirez, in the battlp of Coronda, On 
to the torture. the pri
oners confes
ed themselves 13 May, 1!;2U. he si,gned a treaty of alliance be- 
guilty and implicated others, \\ho wpre quickly tween the provinees of La Plata again:,;t Brazil, and 
seized and suhjected to the same process, In the on 21 April. lR2
, at the heml of a strong army, he 
course of a few weeks confes:,:ions had bepn ex- marched on the territory of .:\Iisiones, The .Argen- 
torted thnt finally implicated all the ch"il em- tine national convention appointed him director 
ployés in Asuncion, mo:,;L of the foreign diplomatic and general-in-chief of all the national forc('!' on 
and eonsula.. officers, und all the foreigners en- 2(j Feb" 1

9. and on 2(j April, 1
2!1, he cldeated 
gagell in commerce, in sweeping charges of con- (jen, La\ aIle in the battle of Puente dc .:\larquez. 



2
 


LOPEZ 


LOPEZ Y PLAXES 


near Buenos .Ayre:", lIe rl'signecl the office of ' tant posts; hut when. in 1t\-!:
, Gen, O'Donnell went 
general-in-ehief. ao ,Tan" ltìð2, In 1837 his statue to Cuba to succee,l Y aldé
, Lopez was df'prived of 
"llS erected in Santa FI;, \ ull his commands, und in consequence retired to pri- 
I,OPEZ. .Junn }'nmdsco.l\Iexican ('Iergyman, yate life, where he engaged in commercialIllmmits 
b, in (Tuarena de Cal"tll'as in April. Hi!l!I; d, in awl undl'rtook the management of copper-mines, 
Italy in 1iÎ8, IIc was tak,m prisoner with his I In 18-l
 till' re,-olutionary party in the i:,dand "on 
father by the English and brought to Jamaica, him to their eause. and he took part in a conspira- 
On his release in 1710 he "ent to Vera Cruz, cy against the govprnnlPnt, on the d-iseO\ ery of 
"here he entered the Societv of Jesus in 1 i1,'), He which he Ilell in 1H-l!1 to Xl'w York, There he or- 
tau,g-ht litenlture in S. lJUis.Potosi and Yera Cruz. ganized a military e"pedition for the innlsion of 
philosophy in Zacatel'ils awl )lexil'o, anI! theology ('uba, whieh was fru:--trated by proclamation of 
in )lerida de Yueatan, lle was appointed pro- President Taylor in _\ugust, 18-1-9, In the follow- 
curator to Home awl )ladrill, and jnstruetcd to ing year he organizell another expedition, and 
ask the pope to plaee Xorth .\ml'riea under the hwdpd in the to\\ n of ('arùenas, IÚ )lay. 11",')0, at 
protection of the messed Yirgin of Guadalupe, On the Ill'all of ahout (j00 men, lie took possession of 
his return to )[e'dco the governor made him reetor the to\\ n, but was coml'dh'd to e' acuate it after a 
of UIP colleges of )ll'xieo and Puehla, lIe was few hours, and returned to Xew Urleans to prepare 
forcell to lea,-e \lexieo in 1 ;fi7, after the decree of a new exppdition, \\ ith which he landed, 12 Aug" 
('hades II I. suppres...ing the ,Jesuit order, and went 11',.')1. near Bahia lIfIIHla, on the northern coa,t of 
to Italy, 111' wrote It great Humy works, inchliling tIll' island, west of H:nana, Ill' left 1:
0 men, nn- 
"Vida del p, Jo:,.; )[lIría (;eno\-e
i, J l'sui La SÍ<.'ilia- dl'r ('01. Crittenden. at the landing-place. anù with 
no, ;\Ii
ionero de Topía y ('alifol'llia..." preÅil'o, ;J
;J followeJ's marehed on La... POla.;;, Ill' "as at- 
17.ìH); .. Supl'lex Lihpllus S:-;, Papæ Benedicto XI\
, tach-d on the following day by a body of 500 
ohlatll
 de miraculo...a Dei Parentis imagine )leÅi- :-\pani:,h troop:', which were IIftprwllrd re-enforced 
cea Guadalupensi" (l{ome, 1 i34); .. Tahla '1'opo- by 
Oo unll!'r till" l'omm:md of Gen, Elma, and 
gráfica de todas las ('a:,;as reg-ulares y seeulares y completely rout!"ll thl'm "ith great loss, Gen, EJlIla 
l\IisiOllPS de In, Provinc'ia Jt'suítica de la Xuem being' killed; hut on the lüth, dren,ding- a frf'sh 
EspaDa" (Rome); and" ;\[11 III III 1 de Párrocos ajus- attaf'k, he retreatl'll to the interior, The ('ountry 
tado al Ritual Homano," "hidl w:
s reprinted in popuilltion did not IlJIs"er to Lopez's nppeal for u. 
I
Oa, and th(\ 4th ;\h''\ iean couneil Ol'dpreù it to he gPJwral rising, and after R" eral skil'lui:--hes his fol- 
used by all priests, The life of Lopez was writtl'n 10" eJ's scattpl'l'll through the mountains, They 
by Jwm :\Ianeiro (Bologna, Ii!!:.?), were att:wkpd by the Spaniards, awl LOJll'z, hlning- 
IJOPEZ. )rartin. Spanish sailor, He li'-ed in fnllen into the hand" of the enemy, "as brought to 
the Wlh ('entUl'
, hut, though his name is often Iltn.ana, tried for hi!!h treason, and eÁeeuted hy 
cited in the hi40r
' of the conquest of )Iexieo, the g-arrote, while many of hi" soldiers \\pre con- 
there is no ref'ord of hi" hirthphll'e or tlH' llates demnell to hal'll lahor, SOIlH' dil
 s bpfore Co1. 
of his hirth and Ileath, Ill' "as a carpenter hy l'ritteJHlen ,\It, captuJ'pd at sea "hile ÍI'ying to 
profession, made sen'ral yoyag-es to Cuha, and ae- rpal'h X ew Orlpan:o:, and "as shot at llayana, to- 
pom pani('ll Fnuwisl'o Ilprn:lndez dl' C'{ll'llont in gether" it h fi fty of his companions, ]Jopez wus 
1,,) 17. Juan de <frijal \':L in 1,') 1t;, and Cortés in I,3W, the leader nf the party in Cuha that fa YOlwl un- 
to )Ie'\.i<'o always as chief earpenter of the c'\pelli- IlP'(ation to the Cnit,!'d Slutps, 
tion, .\ftt'r the Ilefeat of l'ortps in .:\Ie"i('o Hnd I.QPEZ HE ZlT\IHA \' rF.L.\SfO, Hit-
CÞ, 
his retJ'eat to Tlllscala in .J uh.. 1.,:?O, he formpl! a ('ount of 
ïe' a. viceroy of PCl'U. b, in Y
tllètllòiid 
plan to attack )Ie
ieo by Ìand and "ateI', allli in 1.ì 10: II. in Lima, pêru, 20 Fch" l.ilj4, JIe was 
Lul'l'z offered to build proper Yl'ssl'ls, Ill' heg-an appointe(l, ieeroy of PPJ'U in 1.ifH, taking eharge 
to ('ut "ood in the mountains of Tlasl'ala, and the of tlu' go\'eJ'nlllent on Ii April. On 14 Vel', of 
nat i \'e ('hipf Chichpmeeatecuhtli furni
hed IIIpn to the :-;ame 'ear he ordered GOHll'Z de 'l'ordm II to e'(- 
earry the wood to the eity, At the end of Decem- )llore the i'in-r 'I'ono. and on 
4 Dl'c, comniissioned 
bel', l,ì
O, the timhers for the \"l'ssels wpre finished, .r uan 
ïpto to conqupr the tprritory of ('am ana, 
They "ere tIlI'n elll"l"iell, with tIll' iron-" ork, rig-- In l,')(i
 he introduc'l'd se"eral r..forms in the cal'i- 
ging'. aild sails that hall heen sa\'ed from till' 'es- tal, amI in the same 
 par the eity of Santiago del 

pls that "ere hUl"lled in Yera ('ruz, to the horders Estero (now in the Argentine Hepuhlic) Was found- 
of the Lake of 'l\.xcoco, On 2t\ April, 1,')21. tweh'e ed hy his llirection, In 1.3(j:
 the audit'ncia of (,!uito 
brigantille:o: were launched amidst festivities in the I was installed, Lopez foulHkcl the city of :-\aiìH, or 
Lake of Te'(eoco, TllI'",e H'.;;sels rendered good Santiago de .l\liraflores. and Diego Pineda the town 
serviee in the siege and final capture of the l'ity, of l'hancay, formerly ealled Anll'lIo, to "hich the 
on 1:{ Aug-., allli Lopez wao,; rew
lJ'(led by the con- viceroy intentlecl to rpmoye the l'nÏ\.ersity of 
an 
queror with great honors and riches, IIe after- :\Iarcos for the purpose of separating the students 
w:ml resillell in the city of :\lexico, wherp he died, from the noise of the eal'ital. Tov.arù the eJ\(1 of 
I,OPEZ. 
nrci
o. Spani:--h-
\merican soldier, b, that year he commissioned Cristobal de Yah-erde 
in ('araeas. Yenezuela, in 1 i!lfI; d, in J lanma. Cuba, to found a to\\ n, whieh "as named :-\an Gerllllimo 
1 Sl'pt., It),')1. He belonged to a rich famil
. of mer- de Ica, Lop('z al:,.o <lireetel! tllP division of thc 
chants, and at the heg-innin,
 of the war for inde- diocese of Chili from that of Peru, Ill' organizell 
pelllleJH'e in the colony took the popular side, but and impt'o\'ell schools for the sons of Imlian Cll- 
soon afterwarll pntereù the Spanish army, and at ciques, fa\-orf'{l the monastf'I'Ïes. foundecl parishl':', 
the close of the war was l'ewardell "ith the rank of and was the first to establish in Peru the C'premo- 
cohJllel, although he was only twenty-one years old. nial and cUstoms of a yieeregal court, During 
The royal army ha,'ing" enLCunted \
enezuela, Lopez hi... tl'rm of officp he orderell and finishpd the con- 
went to C'uha awl afterward to Spain. "here he stmetion of an a(llll'duct to 
upply thl' city with 
senell in the first Carli:4 war, allli was called" the potahle water, passed la"s for the im}H'o,ement of 
first laneer in the arm,.." In 1
:
fj he "as \luHle his government, awl sent to the 1"O,'al treasury 
brig-allim', anll in 18:m niajor-g-eneraland appointed (i:)1.000 ducats, lIe was murder{'11 in the street òf 
gO\ ernor of Yaleneia, In 18-1-1 Gen, Yaldés was 111'- Tmpitos in a fpud paused hy a love-affair, 
pointell gO\'ernor-gpnf'ral of ('uha, and took with I,OP}:Z Y I)L.\
 ES, \Ïl'l'u1t-, Argpntine poet, 
him Lopez, "ho was intrusted \\it h seH'ral impor- b, in Buenos .\)'res in 1 iti4; d, there in 183(j, lIe 



LOQelLLO 


LORD 


23 


'5tudied law lUul sCl'\'ed as a ,'olunteer during the niallawYl'r thai was allrniUcd to argIi(' a ('a"e he- 
English invasion of I
OIi-'j, In 1
W hc was sec- fore the jwlieial committee of the prh, y eoulI('il in 
retury to Col. Ortiz ae Oeampo. with whom hl' London, )[1', Lorallger Ill'ld of1iee in the )[ac- 
marehed to ('hullui
al'a, awl ill Septl'ml)('r. !tHl, Ilonald-ÜI.I'tier government from .Kovemher. 1
,")ì, 
he "as chosen Sl'cretal"\' of the ht triumvirate of till July. 1
,j
. awl until th(' latter date sl'rw(l as a 
l'hil'lana. SarmteIL, nntÌ Passo, Ill' was successive- C'olllmi

iol1l'r for com;olidatillg thf' statutes, In 
ly deputy to the constituent gcneral a:,sclllhly, sec- l
jj h(' was appointed pl'Ofcs
()r of law in Laval 
. retary of the direl'tor Puyrrellon. prefect awl uniwrsity. and "as ('reated by tll(' popc It com- 
fOulull'r of the cla

il' departllH'nt when the uni- maw leI' of the order of Pius IX, In 1t:;
:3 he re- 
versitv was establi
Ill'11. founder of ib topogl'alJhi- tired from the bench. tHHI snbspquf'ntly "as cn- 
eal de'partllll'nt. member of congres::- in the years gaged in con
olidatillg till' 
tatlltes of QueheC', At 
1
19 and 1
:!,"), founder of the stati
t il'al rl'gi
ter, till' semi-C'elitellllry of ::-;t, Jean Baptist association 
provi
ionaIIH'psident of the rl'puhlic from ;; J ul) in IH
-t Ill' "a
 l'hosen it
 pre::-idl.nt. Ill' was C'hid 
to la _\ug.. 18
j, minbter of the treasury in 1S
8, editor of " La Themis." v. rote a '\(Irk on I he ('ivil 
,awl president of till' supremp court of justice till l'oùe, ami seyeml pamphlets on lpgal allll í'ollstitu- 
the fall of Hosts in IS':;:'?, tie II , L'rquiza ('harged tiollal suhjects,-lIis hrother. "oHis OIH'simC', 
him with the provi
i'mtLl government, awl after- ('anaùian jurist, b, in ::-;ainte .\.nne d'Yllmlll'hil'hc. 
ward he was appointed governor of the provinl'e (
uehec, 10 A pril. 1
;:ì, \Hts edu('utcII at l\Ion!t'I'ul 
{)f Buenos .\.\I'es, He wrote the" .\.rgentine Xa- ami admitted to thf' har of Lower ('anada in U..j8, 
tional H
 mn \. and other poptical \\ orks, He was lJresidelIt IIf the 
peciall'nmmittee to 
uper- 
J.O(
rlLLO, or 1.t'(
t:IUJO (lo-h.d-yo), We
t intelld the Ilatiollal (h'mon
tmlion of the S1. Jpan 
Indianl'acÏqllc. h, uhouL 1-tìH; (I. ahout I.;:!.;, Ill' Bapti4 sOl'il'ty in It'!';:). was clc('tet1 to the parlia- 
took a principal part in the first in
urrcl'tion of the ment of Quehec in that. year, \\US rc-elpl'ted. mHI 
Jlative
 against the Spanish eonquerorso' Porto Hi- hecame a member of Illl' (,}"l'('uthe COUIIl'il in IS79, 
eo as one of .\.gueinaba'
 lieutenants, amI, after this Ill' was appointed pui
ne jUllg-l' of the superior 
chief was routl'd allli killed in I':; 11, withdrew with court of thc province 04' Quehec in 1t:H
. nnd re' is- 
some followers to the wiltlcst part of the C'ountry. Íll"'-OfiiCI'r in I

.; 
"henC'I' he constantly hara
sl.(l his foes, In 1:)1.; I,OH.\S. )1
ltI"ius, H. C, hi
hop, b. in Lyons, 
he planne(l with thl' cal'i(lues HUIIHH'ao allli l>agu- Fmnce, in 1 ';!I:.?; d, in DuLuqul'. IO\\a. HI Feb., 
ao another gellcraln'hellioll. \\ hieh soon llIet \\ ith 11:\,")8. lIe wa
 ùeseended fwm a noble family, anù 
di:<a4er, lIumal'ao and Haguao submitted to tIll' hi:< father p('ri
hl'd IIn the scatIold during- the J'l'ign 
eonquel'or, hut their companion rpfu
e(l to do so. of It'rror, HI' 
IUllipa for the pl"Íl'
lhood, was 01'- 
undrl'lired \\ ith the nati,es that tollowed him to dailll>(1 ahout 1Hl., and 
oon attel'\\urd appointed 
the highest mountain of the i
land, whil'h still 
uperior of the ecdesia::-tical :-.elllillary of Largen- 
hears his name, There he cstahli
I\{'(1 his ::-trong-- t it; re, In It';m II(' aeeom panied Bishop Portier. \\ ho 
hold, and frequently fell upon the Spaniards, kill- \\as seeking prip
ts in Fmn('f' for his dioC'ese of 
ing them. burning their farms, unù taking tlu'ir l\[ohilc. Ala.. to the I-nited 
tates, Futher Loms 
cattle, He died a fl'ee man, \\ hill' most of hb \\as appointed ,iC'ar-geneml on his arrivllI. IInd 
C'ountrvmen \\ ere eit her dt':ul or slans, made president of the ('ollege of 
pring II ill. nl'lll' 
1.0 Ü \I X. Lcn'('lIzo. soldier, 0, in I'hilipsburg. )Iohile, 1n 1t:;:1j the dio('ese of Dubuque \\ as l'reat- 
Centre co,. I'a,. tl .\.u
.. l
jl; Ù, in Baltimore. :\Id" l.(l, eompri
ing Io\\a awl l\Iinnp
ota. and Father 
(j :\Iarch. It\
:'?, Ill' had ear1\ showed mUl'h me- Loms L)('('ame its hishop, After It vi:<it to France 
('hanil'al :,kill, and had decline(l the superintendenl'Y to ohtain mb
iolUll'il'
 he w('nt to his dioC'est. ill 
of lurgf' maehillt'-works to follow civil engineerillg. April, 1
jU, and in June follm\ ing- hl' made his 
when he was appointet1 to the r, :-;, milital'Y acud- fir
t vi:<itation, ulso fOllllding missions at Fort 
emy, After his g-raduation in 18':;(j he was on the Snelling and Prairic du ('hien, On 13 Aug, of the 
frontier till the civil \\ aI', in the early part of \\ hich same year he const'cratl'd the ('at h(.(lml of Duhll(j\le, 
he \\as Ili
abl('(l by a wound at Blal'kburn's ford, and shortly afterward built u ('hun:h in Davenport, 
und 
aw no further actÍ\ e :"enice, 1[1' wa
 pro- Ill' also e:<taoli:sheù lllb
ion:s Hlnollg till' 
ioux, 
moted to It cuptainey on 28 Feb" IF:fi:.? and 
en-etl Fm..e
, and \\Ïnnebagoes. built dmrches and 
dlOOls 
as a
si:'Ìant profes:<or of chemistry, minel'alogy, and in ('very part of his dioce:-e, und eJ\.pf'lHlf'd large 
geology at \\" est Point tilllHìO, Ill' \Va:" then on gar- sums of money in el1lplo) ing teachers. as well as 
rison duty. with the exception of It year in 18ï1-':,?, boarding amI edul'ating many poor ehildren at his 
when Iw held the chair of phy
ies at Lehigh uni- 0\\ n eJ\.pen
e, lIe ilitroduC'('d thc Sisters of Charity 
vcr
ity till1tìj,'). at \\ hich timp he hecamp ill
truetor into hi:s diocese. established a semillary at .:\Iount 
{)f t'!lgineerillg in the artillel'y-school for pruC'tice St. Bernard, and founded a ('onvent of Trappist 
at 1. ort :\Ionroe, lIere hc placed hi:, rlepartment monks ami another of visitation nuns, In 1
,; 1 

m a practical footing. ootaining new in4rument
, "\Iinnesota wa., ereeled into a separate see, Ill' 
mtroducing field r(,l'onnoissanc('s, aI1Il t'4ablbhing huilt a ho
pital in 1
,")7, and during the same year 
a photogl'aphic depar'tment, He hP'ld this post till wa
 compelled to apply for a coadjutor, owing to 
his promotion to major in 1881. He in \ ented the failing heulth. Bbhop Loms paid much attention 
4, Lorain telc
copic sight ,. fOl'large rifled guns, and to the question of emigration, and umler his en- 
left a " range-finder" that he had not perfee:ted al couragement and guitlanC'e Homan Catholic :settlers 
tlw timp of his dl'ath, came to IO\\'fi in Jarge numbers after 18;;0. 
LORAXUER, ThollHiS JNIII .JU('CII1C'S. Cana- I.ORI). Ul'njumin. clergyman, b, in 
ayhrook, 
Üian jurist, b, in Sainte .\nnl' dT amachiche. Que- ('onn" 31 :\lav. ltiU4; d, in Xorwieh, ('onn., 31 
bel', 
 Ff'h,. 1

:
; d, on the I:<land of Orleans, 18 1\Iarch, 1 jF:-1. 'I1e was graduated at Yale in 1.14, 
Ang,. Itj
,;, lIe was educated at Kicnlet college was tutor there the next year, and in 1.17 was or- 
and admitted to the bar in 1
-t-t, In 1:-\.;-1 he be- dained pa
tor of the Congreg-ational church in 
or- 
came queen':s cOlm
el, and in that year \Hl:S elected \\ ieh. in which chargp he continuetl until his death, 
to parliament for Laprairie. which he represented Ill' was a tru
tf'f' of Yale in 1.4
-'j:.?, and reeei\-ed 
till his appointment as pui:,ne judg
 of the 
u- the degrpe of D, D, from that college in 1774, lIis 
preme C'ourt of Quehec in 1
():{, In If{j:) he argued numerous sermons inclurle "The Faithful mal Ap- 
t he 
eignioriltl cause before the court that wa.':; es- proved:\1 inister, a ,-ery Dll's:<ed )Ian" (.K ew Lon- 
tabhshed for that purpose, and was the fir:,t colo-, don, 1727); "Two :-;ernwn::-on the Xec,-,s
ity of Hp- 



24 


LO L{ D 


generation" (Boston, 173R): "Gorl Glorifiell in his 
\V orks" (1 74ß): "Belie'"crs in Christ" (1 74
): antI 
".\ Christian's Hope at the ('lose of IJife" (
or- 
\Vich, 1 Î74),-Hi
 1!reat-grnndson, J)aui('l Jliuor, 
derg-yman, b, in IJyme, ('onn., 9 _-\.pril. 1t)OO: d, on 
Shelter i
land, X. y" 2ü .dug" 1Hln, was graduated 
at .\mher
t in 1tì:m, studied at Princeton theologi- 
cal seminary, and in 1tìa4 was licensed to preach, 
He was snbsèquently pa40r of the Boston mariner's 
church, and from 1848 till his dl'ath wa
 pastor of 
the 1st Presbyterian church on Shelter island, X. y" 
and aO"ent of the .American seaman's friend societv, 
He p{;blished various artieks on the moral clahils 
of seamen,-Another great-grand
on of Uenjamin, 
Willi
, clergyman, h, in Bddgeport, Conn.. 13 Sept., 
1t:;09, was gradnated at Williams in 1H:33. studied 
theology at Princeton. was orrlaim'"l in 1H:34. a
d 
was successively pastor of Prcshytenan churches m 
K ew Hartford, Conn.. Providence. 1{, 1.. Philadel- 
phia. Pa.. and Cincinnati, Ohio, He was professor 
of biblicallitl'rature anll pastoral theology in [Jane 
seminary. Cincinnati. Ohio, in 1H50-'4, pa
tor of 
HIP 211 Preshyterian church in Brooklyn, X, y" in 
1t;;)5-'ü. professor of eeclcsiastieal and biblical his- 
tory, awl of dida.ctic and polemic theology in the 
Seminary of thp northwcst in (,hieago, f\'Om the 
latter dåte till 1RiO, and then beeamc prl'sidl'nt of 
Wooster uniYe
itv, Ohio, Fuilnre of health com- 
pelled his resignatÌon of this o!1ì.ec in 18i4, He was 
pa40r of the 1st Preshyterian church in Chicago in 
187H-'9, and now (18R7) re
icle
 in Colorado Springs, 
Co1.. ,vhere he is engaged in literary work. lie has 
published, hesilles sermons anrl reviews, .. Christian 
Theology for the People" (Chic:lg'o, 1874). 
HUll). nnui('l. IR\\yer, b. in Stonington, Conn" 
2 Sept.. lit',:;: d, in Kew York city, 4 :\[arch, 1tìliS, 
He was graduated at Yale in 1
1J, stllllil'lllaw un- 
der neorge Griffin, of 
 ew York, ancl :It the Litch- 
field, ('onn" la.w-school. ancl in 1817 was ndmitte(l 
.to the bar, settling in Sew York city, lIe grwlu- 
all v attained the 
highest mnk in hi
 
proft.ssion. to which 
he devoted himself 
exclnsÍ\'eh', steadily 
rl'fu,..ing iln pllhliè 
otllee, and for forty 
years previous to hi's 
death there were 
few grpat civil cases 
hefore the rnited 
States or Xcw York 
state courts in which 
he \'oas not retained, 
His m()
t notf'd ca
es 
inchllle the Dutch 
Heformed allli :\[f't h- 
mlist ehureh cases, 
the " fire case
 " 
growing out of 
the e()nfla
mtion of 
H
:J,), the American 
life nnd tmst cases, the Leake and "-atts charity 
case, the l\Iason and PheIp::, will ca::,l', the foreign 
cases growing out of the financial crisis of 1
;n, 
the in"Ul'anf'e l'ases that hrought up the question 
of genf'ml average, and the nrgunlPnt before the 
U, S, supreme eourt of the .. Hiawatha" prize 
cau
e in which the doctrines of war as bearing 
upon the puhlic litws of prize and blockade were 
diseus
ell. lale gave him the dl'gree of LL. D, in 
1t)4G,-ITi:-: son, .JUIIH'S fOUIÞH, philanthropist. b, 
in Xewlork citv.ll ::\Iarch,1H
,): d, therc, 9 Feb" 
18ml, after receiving an lle/Hlemie edueation entered 
Jlwreantile life, subsequently becoming a
sociated 


Q, . 



, 
fi\- 

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 '", 

' 


II I ' 'i! 7 
 '
 
"'- qt, 
'-, '" I 


oO

d../ 


LORD 


in the ownership of the Boonton. X, J" iron-works, 
::\11', Lord took great intere
t in the improvement of 
the condition of his workmen. erecting two churche
, 
and founding a library allll a free f('alling-room for 
their u
e, He al
o founded in Xew York city in 
1
liO the " First Ward II1llu
trial Sehoo1." and for 

everal year::' almost entircly supportell that charity, 
J.()J
 n. ":I(,
IZ
I1', financil'r, b, in Fmnk lin, Comi" 
!) 
ept" 1;

: d, in Piermont, 
, Y.. a JUTìe, 1
71. 
lIe was educated in the di
trict schools of his na- 
tive town, fOtucUed four Yf'ar
 at .\nclowr theologi- 
cal seminary and one at Princeton, hut was foreed 
by the failure of his eyesight to nballllon a pro- 
fessionallife, He went to 
ew York in IS1;), \'0 here 
he engaged in commercial pursuits. and sub
equl'nt- 
ly in hanking, founded the ;\[anhattan in
urance 
company in 1821. wns its [II'esidl'nt twelve veal's. 
and introduced important changes in the s
'stl'm 
of insurance, He was a founder of the Xe\\ York 
and Erie railroad, and its president for many years, 
an ad vocate of the .. free banking system," \'0 hich 
was adopted in X ew York in 1tìa
, and i nd uced 
Henry Clay to declarc himself in oppo
ition to free- 
trade, l\Ir, l.Jord was an accomplished scholar, and 
a succes
ful projector of sehemes for the public 
good, He was a foundcr of the American Sunday- 
school union in 1S1.3, its eorrl'spOlHling secretary 
in IH1R-'26. amI its president from the latt!'r date 
till 1R:3G, He was a founder in 1H
O. aud subse- 
quently secretary and prf'
ident, of the Xational 
institution for the promotion of industry. at the 
same time editing- its organ, the" Patron of Inclus- 
try" ; anrl he assi
ted in l'stabli
hing the Home and 
foreign mis
iouury 
nci('ty, the theolog-ieul 
emi- 
naries at Auburn, 'N, Y., and Ea
t 'Vind
or, ('onn,. 
and the eniwr
ity of Xew York, of whieh he wa
 
a trw4t'e for mHIiy Yl'IIl'
, IIi
 pamphlet on the 
suhject led to the establi
hmeut of the .Aull'rican 
amI other ellut'utionul societies, Ill' removed to 
Picrmont, 
, y" in 1x:Jti, and was pl'incipfilly en- 
gugt'll during the remainder of his lifc in philan- 
thropic work and the eomro
ition of I'eligious 
hook::, and pamphlets, In 1
1i1 he originated and 
drt'w in his ()\\n handwriting what he claims to he 
thp draft of the first gl'eenhu('k thut was eYer issued 
in the enitell St:ltes, HI' fOlmdl'el, C'llitell. Hnll \\1lS- 
a contrihutor to the "Theolo
ieal and IJiterarv 
Journal." The Cniwr:-ity of Xew York gave hilll 
the dl'gl'ee of LL, D, in 1
ü1. II is puhlit'utions in- 
dUll<, an e(lition of JJempl'Íl
re'::, " Biographieal Dic- 
tionary," to whieh he C'ontrihlltell 800 originalur- 
ticles (Xew \'ork, 1
2.)): "Crpllit, ('urrencv, find 
Banking" (1H
H): "The Epoch of thf' Cre;ltion Of 
(tHaX): .. (feologif'al and 
criptural Cosmogony" 
(IH-t:
): "The :\Iediatoriul WOI'k of C'hri
t" (lH-t4): 
"The :\res
iah in Moses HIlIl the Prophet:-" (1tì,)2): 
"Symholif' PropheC'y" (1H,,)4): .. Hints to Ol'thodox 
:\Iilll'uurians" (1
;)4): "An lIistorieul l:l','iew of" 
the Xcw York aud Erie Hailroad" (l
,}:)): "The 
Plt'uary Inspiration of the Holy Seriptuf('s" (18,),)): 
"A Lannan's Ll'tters to tht' Pu
toral t-nion of" 
C'onneeti('ut" (1
;"i(j): ., The ProJllwtic Office of" 
Christ" (1R:)
): "Inspiration not Guidance nor In- 
tuition" (H-<;"i8): "Heviews of Authors on Inspira- 
tion " (1
;"in): .. The PSllltf'r reacl.iu
te,l in its Re- 
lation to the Temple Sel"\'iees ,. (tH(jO): .. .Analysi
 
of the Book of J
aillh" (1t:;Gl): "A Letter on Xa- 
tional Currency" (1Hlì1): and "Six IJetters on the 
K eces
ity mul Pradicality of a National Currency't 
(1Hli2),-I1is brother. ))
I\ id :x('\ ins, author, h, in 
Franklin. ('onn.. 4 March, Ij9
: d, in Kew York 
cit
T, 14 July. 1t)SO, wus graduated at Yale in 1t:;07 t 
ancl stUllied theology, hut was preventell hy delicllte 
heulth from entering the ministry, Hc settled in 
New York in 1823, for many years was a successful 



LOHD 


importer of dry-
ooll
. awl wa
 concf'rnetl in the 
ear" mlllla
em('nt of the X ew York and Erie rail- 
roati compl
ny, From early manho()11 he gave much 

tudy to tlll'()lo
il'al 
uhjel'Ì
. l'
peeially on the ful- 
filnll'nt of prophl'ey. amI the tnll' met hOll
 of in- 
tl'rprl'lation of s
 mbolbm, Tn IH-t8-'(jl he editl'11 
a 'luurtel'ly entitled till' .. Theolo
ical und Liternry 
.Toul"Jlal:' and 'H1" its principal <.:ontributor, I1i
 
puhlil'lltion
 include "E
po
itioll of the Apoca- 
lyp
e" (X('w York, It;-t7): ., Chara('t('ri
ti('s of Figu- 
ratÌ\-e Language" (18.3-t): .. Loui
 Xap()leon-i
 he 
to he the Imperiall'hief of the Ten Kingdom
 r 
(1 Rfif,j) : and" Vb;jons of Paradi
e." an epic (1
fjj), 
LOU H. John ('hasp. ch'rgyman, b, in Buffalo. 

, y" !} .\u
.. 11"11."); d, in Buffalo, X, Y.. 
1 Jan.. 
IH7j'. \\as educated at Hamilton colle,gl'. hut WitS 
not graduated, Scttlin,g in Buffalo. he 
tudicd 
law, awl in 1

8 ''(''as admitted to thp bar. hut af- 
te1'\\al"ll entered .\uhurn theolog-ical semina!"\', wa:- 
gl"l1lluatell in h;:tt and fl'Om IH:I;; until his'l'esig- 
nation in 1873 \\ a
 pastor of the Central Presb
- 
teriun church, which he hall or
anized, In 18,)1 
he puhlished ù sermon on the fugitiYe-
laye law, in 
'" hich he took t he ground that no citiz('n hall a 
right to re
i
t Jaws that pl'Otected s]/lnry, Thi
 
sermon wa
 di
tributed as a campaign do<'ument. 
and wa
 described by Pre
ident Fillmore in a per- 
sonalletter to its author a" .. rendering the nation 
a yaluahle 
e!"\'iee:' On the sece
sion of the south 
Dr, Lord was an earnest l"nionbt. IIp \\as mod- 
erator of thl' 
enel'ala

('mhly of the Prl'
byterian 
church in It;,:);.?, His published works inelude, he- 
sides ::,eparate sermons and ]ecturt's. .. I and of 
Ophir and other Lectures" (Buffalo. X, Y.. IH,;I). 
amI ,. Occa::,Ì1mal Po('ms" (l
ü!l), :O;el'" .:\Iemoir of 
John C, Lord" (Buffalo. 1
7
)' - IIis brother, 
fhul'les Bachus, juri::,t, b, in Thornton. )Ie" 13 
July, 1810: d, in :::;t, Louis, )Io" I,:) XOY" l
/jH, was 
edueuted at Hamilton collp
c. pra('ti
ed Jaw in 
nuffalo, X, Y.. amI remo\'Ïng to St, Loui
. :\10,. at- 
tained eminence in hi::, profe

ion, For many years 
he was jud
c of the land court, and subsequently 
of the circuit comt of that citv,-Another hrother, 
Wil Jia lit W illwrfol'c(,. cleni, man, b, in ::\Iadison 
countv. X, y" 2H Oct.. IHl!/, 'lip was educnÌl'd at 
the CilÌversih'of \Ye
tern Xew York (
ilH'e Ili
con- 
tinued), studied theology at Pl'inceton and _\uhnrn 
theological seminarie.;;. "as tutor in mental and 
moral seience at Amherst in 1
-t;. and snh::,e<)uent- 
ly took order.... in the Protestant Episcopal church, 
officiating Il
 reetor in the ::,outh anll southwe
t, 
and for many years at Yickshurg, :\1 is::,. During 
the civil war he was a chRp]ain in the Confederate 
army, lie has puhli
hed "Poem
" (Xew York. 
18-t5). that were praised by'" ol'd::,worth and ri(li- 
culed by Edgar A, Poe: .. Chri
t in Hades" (IH;)l); 
and" André, a Tragedy" (I R ")fj),-Another hroth- 
er, Scott, congressman, b. in X el:-on, 
, Y.. 20 Dec,. 
1
20: d, in :\Iorris Plains. X, .1., 10 Sept., IH:-<.ï, lie 
reeeÌ\ed an aeademic edncntion. studied Jaw, and 
was admitted to the bar, Ill' removed to Gene
eo, 
X, y" in 18
2. established a large practice. and 
was county judge from 1
-t ì till ISJ-t, when he re- 
sumed hi
 profe
sion, In 1872 he removed to L"tiC3, 
X, y,. formed a partner
hip with Ro
coe Conkling 
and Alfred C, Cox. and became surrogate of Oneida 
county, He \\as elected to congress as a Demo- 
crat in IH7-t, but was defeated at the next elec- 
tion, During his term he was chairman of the 
Belknap impeachment committee, lIe removed to 
Xew York city in 1878, and established the la,,- 
firm of Lord anù Lord, He was senior counsel for 
Cornelius Yanderhilt in the contest oyer the will 
of Com, Yanderbilt, and was largely engaged in the 
claims arising under the Geneya award bill. 


LOUD 


2;) 


1,()U D. Xuthan. c1('r
' man. h, in Bl'l'wick. :\Ic.. 
2
 XUy" 1 7H:
: d, in Ill
ll'owr. X, II.. H 
Pl't.. 11"70, 
lIe \\as gl'lulllntl'11 at Bo\\doin in 1
()f). UlHlllt An- 
dover theological 
eminary in IH1,"), Ill' wa
 pu....tor 
of the Con
rl'
ational ehur('h in A mlH'r
t. X, II., 
from lRlfi tiJl
I
28. uml ut th(' latter date, 011 the 
l'e....ignatinn of He\", Bennl'tt Tyler, h(,l'ulIIC pn'si- 
dent of Dartmouth, C nder his administmtion the 
profe
::,or::,hips of (
reek litel'lltllrc and ]nngun
(', of 
u,.;tronomy and lII('teorology. of modcrn lunguages, 
of intelleduul philosophy, und of natuml hbtory 
were estaltlish...d, t hrel' ne\\ hulls and a dlllJwl \\ pre 
huilt. the ohseryatorv 'Hl" added. the "(,hIll1l11er 
",eientifif> Ih'partmpnt''' wtl
 foundf'd hy the gi ft of 
...;;O,()()O fmm _\bie] Chandler. amI 1.
2-t students 
wel'(' graduated, Ill' rl'tirpIl in 1
(j:t 1>1'. Lord up- 
held the in
titution of slawT\", and Oms incuJ'l'ed 
the censure of m(lst northern Ì)('ople: hut while he 
ad\"oeuted his yiew
 in lettcr::' uml Sf'rnlOnS, I>firt- 
mouth was tIll' only college in the t'nitetl States 
for mfiny ,-ears \\ hcn' colored stlUlent::, werl' ad- 
mitted. 
ind \\ Idle umler his care thev were t l'('ated 
with uniform kimlne::,s and courtes,': Ill' inclined 
to the ohl-schooJ system of theology, Ilnd to n lit- 
erRI interprl'tation of the prophe
ie::" Vartmouth 

ave him the dcgree of LL, I>, in 1
r.-t, find Bow- 
doin that of D, 0, in 1

8, Ill' occa"ionall \P eon- 
trihute(l to theological re, ie\\ s, edited, with 'an in- 
trOlluetor\" noticf', the sdeeted sermons of his son, 
RI"', Johli King Lord (Boston, 18,")0), and puhlishetl 
Jlllml'rOU
 Sl'rmons, e
,.;nv
. and lettel's, _\mong'tht' 
latter nre .. Ll'tter to Hey, Daniel Duna, ]), Ü" on 
Purk's 'Theo]og
 of Xew England'" (1
.j2): ".An 
E:-<
avon thl' 
Iillennium." read to the neneral ('011- 
\entlon of Xew lIaml'
hi
 (1t<;)-t): and "Two 
Lettel'::' to :\Iini
ten; of all Denominations on 5]11- 
'ery" (1854-'':;), in which he endeav(lrp<l. hy hiblical 
arguments, to prm p the lawfulness of that institu- 
tion,-lIi
 son. .10hn King. ('l('r
yman, b, in Am- 
her
t. X, 11.. 2
 
Ial'('h, ltìHl: d. in Cincinnnti, Ohio. 
13 Jul
.IH-tf). wa

raduHted at Dartmouth in l
:W, 
tau
ht two and one half 
ears, and in 1
-t 1 was 

raduated at Andover thpological !-t'minfiry, Ill' 
then heeame pa:-<tor of the ('ongregational church 
in Hartford. Yt., untI in l
-tj of the 1st orthodox 
('on
n'gational church of Cincimmti. Ohio, lie 
pO

I':-<
f'd fine abilities, wa" a popular amI f'J}(.rgetic 
pa4or. and his early deat h "a
 greatly deplored, 
II i,.; ,..dected sermons \\ ere puhli
hell h} his fat her 
(R040n, ltì,ïO),-Xathan's nephe\\, .J ohll. ]eeturer. 
b, in Portsmouth. X, II., 10 Sept" 181
. \\as 
l"Hdu- 
ated at Dartmouth in It-':J3. studied at Andonr theo- 
logical seminary in 1837, became agent and lecturer 
on hi:-tory to the _\ merican peal'e soeÌc.ty, find was 
afterward pa
tor of Congregational churehes in 
Xew Marlhorough and Stockhl'idg-e, :\las
, lie 
subsequently withdrew from pastoral work amI 
devoted himself to historical stmlv and lecturing, 
spending 18-t:1-'(j in Englaml. whère he spoke 
n 
.. The Midùle A
es" in the principal cities, Up- 
turning to the Cnited States. durin
 a eareer of 
fifty years he has lectured in mo::,t of the larger 
towns and cities of the middle and Xe\\ Eng]and 
<:tates. antI is supposed to he the oldest living lec- 
tIll.erin thiscountrv, The l-niversityof X"ew York 

a' e him the degrl'è of LL, n. in 186-t. and he was 
lecturer on history at Dartmouth in 18Gü-'7(j, His 
publications inchide .. :\Iodel'll Jli.;;tory for Schools" 
(PhiladC'lphin, 18,")0); .. The Old Roman W orId " 
(IHüì): "Ancient :::;tates and Empire
" (18ü9); and 
" Beacon Lights" (1
R
), 
LOllI), Otis !)hiIIi,)S, juri.;;t, b, in Ipswich, 
)Ia.;;s" 11 Julv,1812: d, in Salem,l\lass.. 13 :\Iarch. 
It:;t:;-t, He wås graduated at Amherst in 1832. and 
at the Harvard ]aw-
chool in 183fj, sub
equently 



26 


LORE
(,EZ 


settling in Ipswich amI afterward in Salem, where 
he practised his profession, He was a member of 
the ,Mas:,achusetts legislature in IS47-'3-1, sening 
in the latter year as sIIeaker, was a memher of the 
<. 'onstitutional ('on n'ntion ir:. U;3:J, and from IS;;U 
till 1
7,') an a::"
lIeiate justice of the state superior 
eourt, On the dissolution of the Whig party. of 
\\ hich he had been a member. he was nominated fot, 
congress in 11'3.')8 by an iIlIh'l'en
lent convention, 
and was defeated then, and again in 18ön, when he 
was the candidate of thc Constitutional union par- 
ty, During the eivil war he was pro-slavery in his 
polities, and in I
G(j he publisheù a Se1'1('8 of Ul,ti- 
des opposing the 1,')th con:,titutional anH'llllment, 
lIe wa:, elevated to the supreme hen('h in 1H7.3, and 
held officI' till his retirement in IH

, .Amh('r4 
ga\'e him the degree of LL, J), in 1
(j!), 
T,ORE
rEZ, Charh's }'('l'dinalHl I,at..ill.., 
Count de (lo-ron-say), Frellf'h soldier, h, in Paris. 

:J )Iav, ISl-1, He entered the military school of 
Saint ('yr in 1H:m, al1l1 was graùuateù' two years 
Intel' as 3d lieutenant, lIe served in ,\lgiers, 
hatl hecome a colonel in 18,32, and won the eOln- 
mission of major-general in If(j,), ùuring the Cri- 
mean war, at the capture (If the :\Ialakoff, In 
,Tanuarv, IHli
, he was sent to )Iexico with re-en- 
f'H'cem(.nts for the expetlition that hml lawlell 
there in Deeember, IH(il. Ill' arriwd at \-era C'ruz 
on.) :\Iarch, and was mUlle lieutenant-general OIl 
the 
Oth, I Ie Idt the ('amp of Chi'luihuite on HI 
,\pril. awl on the following morning enter(,ll 
Orizaba. having defeated the :\Ie).iean forees in 
a cavalry engagement. On the 23d he was 
joined by the )Iexiean Gen, (,al \"ez with u 
strong force of volunteer
, and on the 
,th ns- 

unll'd command of the Freneh forces in :\ II,\. ieo, 
Ill' dl'feated the patriot
 at 
\cultzingo on 2S April. 
t'nterell 
\1l10Z(lC on 4 :\Iav, and on the follo\\ in!! 
day attacked the fOltified' hills of Guallelupe and. 
Loreto, opposite Puebla, Owing to the lack of 
proper artillery, he wa:, unaule to eHl't\ll'e these 
I'ost
. allli retreatetl to\\a('(l Orizaua, lIe I'a:,:,ed 
the Cumhres heights on the Wth. and on the fol- 
lowing morning was joined at Tecomoluean hy 
the insnrgent ehid :\[arquez and 500 cavalry, 
Zamgoza wa:, ueatl'n after a sharp aetion at 

\cultzingo on IS May, and on the 
Oth Lorencez 
arrived at Orizaha, whieh he fortified, as he had 
re:,olvetl to await the arrival of re-enfol'l'ell1ents 
in that city, On 17 .June he defeated Zaragoza 
again, but the I,'renf'h forces suffered hea\ ily from 
yellow fever and want of }II'ovisiouo.:, \Vhen X a- 
poleon I [L sent a larger army to )lexiclI, he ap- 
pointetl Loreneez secollli in eommand under Gen, 
Forey: hut the former a
ked to ue recalletl. /Lwl 
left Vera Cruz on 17 Dec" IHli
, Gen, Lorencl'z 
woulll 11l1\'e bpen created a Sl'nator hut for his op- 
position to the sending of re-enforcements to 
:\fexieo. urging the empel'Or to recall his tI'OOp
, 
aIul predicting that the io.::,ue \VouM ue di:,;astrons, 
He fought during the Franco-German \\ar of 
1
70-'1. out a Ùi:;:I',N' contraeted in Mexico com- 
pelled him to retire from active sel'\'ice in IH7
, 
He has since been oCl'upied with a hi40ry of thl' 
Prench expedition to )Iexieo, 
1.()ln

ZA
A f HrTU()
. .'ruurisco An- 
tonio (lo-ren-thah'-nah). Spani
h archhishop. b, in 
fJeon. Spain, :!
 :::::ept.. 1 7

: d, in Home. Italy, 17 
.\ pril. 1t{o-1, He was at first canon of Toledo, aIllI 
in l,ü;J became hishop of PlacPIH'ia. but in 17üü 
wa" transferred to the arehhi
hoprie of :\Iexico, 
He remainell in that country six years, after whic-h 
he was made arc-hhi:,hop of Toledo, Spain, Ill' 
was nominatetl ('al'llinal in 178!), re
igning his areh- 
Lbhol'ric in II'3{)O, and \\ ent to live at Home, Of his 


LORDlIER 


numerous works the most notaule are" Coleceión 
de Cartas Pastorale
 y Edietos" (l\Iexico, 17,0); 
.. )lpmorial de lós 
Iendigos de Mexico" (17ü9); 
and .. Carta
 Originales de Hernan ('Ol't{.
 à Carlos 
V, evn 
 otas y Estampas utiles para la lIistoria de 
la X, E:' (1 ';.0), 
I.OIUI.L,-\Rn. Juroh. merchant, b, in Xew 
York city. 2
 
lay, 17,4; 11, there, 20 :::::el'1., 1t\;JS, 
lIe was of FI'en('h (le
cent on his father'
 ani 1 Ger- 
man on his mother's sille, IIis em'lv education was 
meagre. hut he suppliell the dpfic'il'ncy by night 
stwly. He was apprenticed \\ hen a uoy to a leather , 
merchant, and for many 
 ears was engagell in the 
[cather hu...ilH':'
, \('t in later life he devuted his 
energie
 mainly t(; the intere
ts of the 
Iechanil's' 
bank, whidl. \\ hill' its 1Il't':,i<lpnt. he twice delÌ\-ered 
fmlll 8erious emhan'a
:,ment. lIe ill\ e4ell the 
profits of hi,. uusine:-s IHrgely in real e
tHte in XI'W 
York city, )[1', Lorillanl \\as unostentatiou:,ly liu- 
eral to the pOOl'. often 1\s:,Ï:,;tl'd struggling tr'lders 
with ('redit. anl[ OIll'(' mortgHged his l'J'(Ipcrt
 to 
sa\ e a fril'llll from finaneial ruin, Ill' wa:, prl'
i- 
dent of the German :-lIcietv, a tru
4-'1' of the ({en- 
eral thl,ologieal :'I'minal'y l;f the Protestant EpÏ:;- 
('opal church. uldl'rIllan, memul'r of the as:'Plllhly. 
and an of1ìcer in llIany a:,:,;ociation
,-Ilis nephew, 
Pit'.,."... 11, in XI'\\' York city, pnn ided, jointly 
with the French goyernment, the lllel111
 for arelul:- 
ological e\.plorations by De:,irp ('hal'lwy in C'enÌl'al 
,\merica, \\ hieh resulted in t he di
co\'el'Y of the 
ruins of 'foltel. eit ie
, Ill' also foundt'li Tuxedo 
Park, a suhurhan retr<'at in ()rangl' eounty, X, y" 
comuining the adnLntag-es of laIlll
('ape-ganlening 
\\ ith fl\('ilit il':' for clluntry sport
, 
to n DI E n, (
c'nJ'gt' ('lane1. clergyman, b, in 
Edinburgh, 
eotland. in 1to1a8, lip relllO\ed to the 
L nit(,a StHtes in It\;jli. \HIS eùucated at Geol'!!I'tO\\ n 
college, Ky" HwlorùainPll to the Bapti:-l n
inistry 
in 11',')ö, lie \Hl
 sUl't:essÏ\'ely pastor of ehurehes 
in II arr()(blIUrg, 1'lIIlucah, HIli 1 Louisville, Ky" 

\lbanY, X, y,. and Bo::,ton, )la
:", \\hen' he of- 
ficiate!l fOl' several 
 eHrs in Tremont Temple, 
::-;inee IH
l he lJa
 held charg'e
 in Chicago. Ill, 
He edited" 'rhe \ratdlllHm .. in ]/'{,(Î, (T('ol'g-etown 
eollegl' gave him the dl'gn'e of LL, I), in IHt'3, and 
he i:, a memher of the \ïetoria institute, London, 
II is publieat ions inelwle .. r ndel' the E\'ergn'l'ns" 
(Bo
ton. 1
;2); "The Great Conflil't " (1f'7G); 
" bIlls " (Chicago, 1H
2): .. J e
us the ".orId's ::-;a y- 
iour" (1


): and" ::-;tudie:, in :-\oeial Life" (1HI'I(i), 
].OUDIIl:H. Jlnn -'l'IlOlIIa
 ('hc'\alic',' dc'. 
lU\\H'r, h, in 
lontreai in 1t
U.'); d, there, 1.3 Feu,. 
11':J!I, Ill' was educatl'd for the law, aIlll tOllk a 
promiIll'nt part in the struggle uetwPl'n the Cana- 
dian and the Briti:,h gO\erIlment. Ill' \\a
 princi- 
pally in
trumental in procuring- the election of 
Tracey for the \\e
t quarter of )[ontreal. awl 
till 
](1orp active, ill the g'l'neral eleetion of t
:
-1, in 
fuxor of the caIHlidfitp that supported" the ninety- 
two resolutions:' Ill' was 
eeretarvof almost ull 
the a:,sem hlies that pre(,l'ded the iTisurreetion. aIlll 
of thl' central committee charged with watl'hing' 
ovpr the formation of the count\- COllllnittel's, In 
the conflict hetween the Doric ('luh and the Sons 
of Liuertv hp was serioll
l y woulllled, \\Ilen \\ ar- 
ranb of' arre
t wpre i:,slled. he 
et out for the 
county of Deux-l\lontagnes in 1
:J" HlIll I'lal'l'd 
himself under the revolutionary ehil'f. C'hpnier, 
Ill' took IlHrt in the affair at Saint-Eustadle on 
14 Sept,; hut afterward, seeing that re:,;Ï:,;tanee 
wa
 usele
:" aùvi:,ed CllPnier to laY (lown his arms, 

\" the IHtter refu:,ed, Lorimier èros:'l'd into the 
e nitell 
tate
, II e was one of the leadprs of the 
expedition of 2S Feb,. 1Ra
, mul after its failure 
returned to Plattsuurg, and devoted his energie
 to 



LO[UXO 


the OI'gnnization of tll(' in
urrectionarv 1110yel11ent 
of Xm ember, H
:;t\, He took part in till' eupture of 
the .. Brou
lulln:' ut Beaulmrnoi:" on 3 XO\'" and 
I,u:,:,pd seyeral day:, in Cump Baker, "here the 
l'l1nadian patriots rel'ci,,'<<l orders to coneentrate 
in Xapierville, After tilt' deft'at of Xel
onut Odell- 
town, he 
l't out for the l
 nited State
, but lo:,t his 
"u v whl'n near t he frontier. and was arre4e<<l, \\ it h 
:,p\:en of his compunions. on 12 Xov, Ill' wa:, taken 
to )Iontl'{'ul, tril'd by court-martial, found guilty 
of high trl'a
on, und hangwl. .:\Ioney wa
 rabed 
tor hi:, \\ iCe Hlul childl'l'n. in CllIuula, in 1t;8:t 
LOI:I
(;. (,hnrlr
 (.ir<,<,lc'\', law\er, b, in Bo::,.- 
ton, )la..;
" 2 )Iay, 1-;!1-1; <<I. Ìn Bè\'el'l
, )Ias
.. H 
Oct" 1:--liH, HI' was grluluated.llt Harmr<<l in 1
12, 

tudie<<l law in Bo4on, awl for many ,ears "a
 a 
"ell-kno\\ n membl'l' of till' Boston ""i.r, He" as 
Hctuury of the :\Ia
sal'hu
ett:, ho
pital life-insur- 
nnee company from 1
,:;j until his death, and. in 
1:-'fj
 he servell in the state :-:l'nate, Ill' was a 
member of the _\nll'riean ac:ulemv of arts anll 
:o;ciences, und of the .:\Ia:-:
aehu:-:etts hi
tori('al so- 
dety, )11', Loring "as au dO'lUl'nt and. etfel'tiH> 
speaker, His numerou... addre:,sps include one that 
he ddhered..! ,Julv, 1t;
1, lwCore the town authori- 
ties of Bo
toll, )Ia;
.. that heror\' t hp Bf)
t()n mer- 
cantile library a:,:,ociation in 11'1-1:;, at the I{epuhli- 
{'IUl mas:HIleetin,!{ in Faneuil hall in 1Rfi
. an ora- 
tion on the death of Ed\\llI"Il E\'erett, whom he 
succeeded a" presiùent of the Bo4on union cluh, 
and Ull mldre:-::, at the meetin!{ of Bo...ton citi7en:, 
after the u

w.:
ination of PI'e
ident Lincoln, l1ur- 
yard ga\-e him the (h,
Tt'e of LL, l), in 1
,ïO, Be- 
sides adllres:,es, he puhli...hed" Xeutral [{elations 
between the e nited States anll Englanll ,. (Bn
ton, 
18fi:Jj, and ., IJife of William Sturgi:," (1
f1-1), 
1.0UIXn. Ellis (.inn-, la\\Yl'r, h, in Boston, 
:\Ia:,s.. in 1t;03: d, there, 
-1 )hn:, 1R:;
, Ill' entered. 
lIarvard colle
e in 1
19, hut' was not g-raduatf'd 
"ith his cla:,
,
after\\a('(l studied law. wasadmittl:ll 
to the Suffolk hal', aTHl hecame eminent. Ill' \\a
 
one of the t\\ el Ve that fOl'lllell the fir4 anti-
Ia Vf'1"\ 
1'iocietv in 13oston in 1
:I;t lIedi4inguisheù hini- 
:-;elf ehieftv in the defence of the slll\P-'l'hilll .. )Ied " 
in the )11;
sachu
etts su preme conrt, \\ here he 
mc- 
{'eerled in obtainin
 the decision that e\'Pry "lan:- 
uroug-ht on :\Ias:':lchu:,etts soil b\" the owner was 
legally free; It ca"'e prpeÏ:,ely ånalogou" to the 
celebrated" Somerset " ca:,e in Endawl. 13\ this 
argument he ac1\Ïe\'ed the unu..;uat'sul'('e",.: of eon- 
vincin
 the oppo
ing coun:-el. Benjamin U, Curti
, 
afterwurd ju
ticl' of the e,;-;;, 
uprf'me eourt, \\ ho 
shook hand:5 \\ ith him after the trial, saying: 
h Your argument ha.;; entirely con veI"ted me to 
your 
ide, )[1', Loring," Ill' also attraf'tell some 
.attention as the author of a" Petition in hphalf of 
A bner Kneeland," \\ hich was headed hv the name 
of Hev, Dr, \YiIlialIl E, Channing, 
ÙJlll'r Knee- 
land (q, 1',) "as a professed athei..;t who was indict- 
ed for blasphemy, and 
Ir, Loring':, petition was a 
4rong plea in ul'half of freedom of 
ppel'h, Se\"- 
eral of )11', Loring's arguments and IUMre
ses were 
puhlished ut different times, including "
\n Ad- 
dress before the )Ias:,aehusetts 
\nti-Slawn" So- 
ciety" (Boston, 1t\:ll)), At the Xew En,glallll anti- 

laveiT convention, 27 .:\Iay, 18.;H. two days after 
his deåth, \Vendell Phillip", said: "The greitt merit 
of .i\lr, Loring's anti-sla\Oery life was, he laid on the 
.altar of the 
lave's needs all his peculiar tastes, 
Refined, d0mf'stic. retiring, contemplative, loving 
literuture. art. and f'ulture, he saw there was no 
one eb;e to :-:peak, therefore he. "as found in the 
van, It \\as the uttermo
t instance of self-sacri- 
fice - more than money, more than reputation, 
though he gaY(' uoth:' 


LO HI XG 


27 


T,()lUXe:, Frc'dC'l'ic'k Wnclsworth. journali"t, 
b. in Bo
ton, .:\Ia...s" 1
 Dl'e" 1
-l
; d, near WÜ.k- 
enburg, Al'izona, .ï Xov" 1Hj1. Ill' was gnuluatl'd 
nt Uan anI in H,-;O, and during the brief period 
hetween that en'nt Ilwl his ll('ath ga\e unusual 
promi:,e of SUCCl':':' a
 II \\ I'Ïter, being ('onnected 
\\ ith seYe1'l11 nl'w
palH'r:-: Ilnd a contl'ihutor to the 
"Atlantic .i\lonthly:' "
\ppleton
' Journal." .. Old 
and Xew," the" Independent:' and" E\.cry 
at- 
nrday." In the 
pring of 1H-;1 he \\ent m; "01'- 
I"l'spolHlent of ".\ppletons' Journal" on the to, S, 
exploring expedition to Arizona that \\as in com- 
mand of Licut, (Jcorge )1. \Vheeler, To that jour- 
llal he wrote from San FrancÏs('o a lh elv sket('h of 
hb l'hinl'se experi('nel's, entit 11'11 .. ,J e II urge;' 
and dUl"În
 his wallllf'I'ing:, in the wiltlerne
:5 ".\ 
Council of \\"ar:' .. A (flimp:,e of )Iormoni
m," 
.. :-\il WI' .I\liuing' in X ('\ /lda," "The Yalky of 
Dpath;' and 
('\"el'lll pf)em
, The party sutfereù 
gl"l'at pri\'ation
, und in .\ugu4, 11'1-;1, Loring 
\\ rote to his em ploYI'r:,. from the .. Yalley of 
Veath:' a eaÌlon in l'alifol'l1ia and Xe\ada, thr('e 
hundred fept helow the level of the ::,.ea. which all 
fornlf'r e\.pellition:, hall a\ oided. or from whi('h 
tht'y had never returned: .. L am hootles
, eoatle
:', 
e\ erything hut lifcle
,.;, I Im\ e IUlll a fl.rtnig-ht of 
horrors, Thi
 morning an Indian fight ('ap}'l'IL 
thl> dima\., IIO\\e\el', I am \\ell and l:hl'C('!ul:' 
HI' c:,('a}'('d from the valle
, uut \\hen he "a:' on 
his \\ay home a IJaIul of 
\(Iaches attal'ked the 
stage-('oa('h in its pa

ag(' from \\ïckenburg to La 
Pa/., ,\rizona, killing the dri\'er and Loring", \\ ith 
four other I'a
sellger:,. A 
hort time helOl'c Lor- 
ing-'
 d,.ath. Charles H('ade, tlw nú\Cli
t, said that 
he :-;t't"lIIpd to him tile mo
t }'rombing of uIl the 
nHlII
 ,\mel'iean author:-:. IIis collel'Íed writings 
Ìnclwle "Cotton l'ulti\ation in the South," \\iÜl 
('IHu'II'
 F, .\t"in
oll (Bo
t()n, 1I:)li!)); "The B040n 
Vip. 1H.Il1 other Y er
f's" (1I:)j1); and "1\\0 Collcgp 
FrÜ'nd,-," a no\"el (1
-; 1), 
ton I X(;' l
c'n..g... ßail(')', agriculturist, U, in 
1\OI'th AlHlover, )Ia..;
.. 
 Ko\"" itH j, Ill' was grad- 
uatl'd ut lianaI'd in l1;:IH, and at tl((' mf'llieal de- 
pal"Ì1!lent i
I 1
-1
, Ill' \\ a
 sUI'geoll._to the mari!Ie 
ho
pltal. lhebea, )Ia"
,, III 1
-1:;- ,)0, a commlS- 
"inner to revi
e the Co S, marÏlw ho"pitul s
 s- 
tem in 1
-lfl, and postma"'Ìer at Salpm, :\Ia
s., in 
11'1.;:j-ì, Ill' t,ub
e<<lupntly devoted himself for 
man
 
 ears to pral'tical mul seientific ag-ricul ture, 
and to the prepamtion und df'livery of addrc:-:..;l's on 
that anll kindred topics, Ill' ha:, been IH't'o.:i.lent 
of the X ew England ag-rieultural socif'ty since 1:--fi-l, 
\\ as a delegate to the Xational Hepubliclln com en- 
tions in 11'1Gt;, 1t)j
, and. 1
7G. chairman of the 
)Ias
achu
etts Republican committce in 1
fiU-'jli, 
C, S. centennial commis
ioner in 1ti7
-'ü, ancl 
president of the state senate in ]
ja-'j, lIe \\as 
elected to congre
s as a Rf'puùliean in 11'1j(i, and 

cl'\-ed till 181'11. "hen he ueeame commissioner of 
agriculture, holding officc till 18
:;, Among his 
numerous addres
e
 are .. Helation of Agril:ulture 
to the :-\tate in Time of \Yar" (('on cord. )[a

" 
18G
); .. ('Ia
:,ical Culture" (Amherst, 11:)(jG): "Eu- 
logy on TJouis .AglI

iz " (187a); .. The ('obdpll 
C'l u b and the .American Farmer ., (\V or<<'('ster, 
11:)t;fI); addres
 at the cotton eOIl\-ention in 
\t- 
lanta, Ga, (11-'1;1); and ., The Farm-Yard Cluh of Jo- 
tham:' a sketch of Xcw England life and farming 
(Boston, H
jli), 
LOUI:XU. Israel, clergyman, b. in Hull, )Iass" 
1:; .April, 1Iis
: d, in Sudùury, )lass" 9 .:\Iarch, 
1 jj'3, He was gradmlted at Harvard in 1 j01, and 
in 1 jÜfj became pa
tor of the Congreg-ational church 
in :-;uùhury, :\lass.. continuing in this charge for 

i\.ty-
ix years, )11', Loring \\as one of the read.i- 



;28 


LOIUXG 


e!"t writers of his day. wa!" an ardl'nt temperance re- 
former. and wa
 often callc.l on to ::,peak on special 
oceasions, Tn llXi he deliH'red thl' annual elec- 
tion sermon, in the pre
enee of Uo\', Jonathan 
Udeher, in whieh he urged that ., the infamy lIlay 
be taken from the memor\' awl names of tho
e who 
had suffered fmm Uw witèhcraft dd lIsion. amI rep- 
arntion made to tlH'ir children for the injurie
 done 
them," He also oppu
ed the sy:-;tem of re\'ind
 
as conducted hy 'Vhitefil'ld, and wrotp a paper on 
the 
ubject. entitle.l .. Tl'stimony Hgain
t tht' He\', 
George Whitt'field and his Comluet." Ill' left a 
manll
cript. journal of thirty volume...;;. biogrnl'hi- 
cal awl hi!"torical, mo
t of which has heen lost, 
I'(HU
H, .JU1H(,s Sp('ur, author. h, in Boston, 
:;\la!"s.. () .\ug" l'ìB!J: <I, in Brooklyn, X. Yo, 12 
.April, 188-1, !lis father. James. \\as for fifty-fi\e 
Yl'ars a ROston printer anti hook.
e]ler, e<<lih'll the 
"(,hristian \Vatehman," amI pl1hlislw<<l the .. 
la
- 
saehusetts State Hegi
ter" ill ltìO()-'4
, The ::,on 
wa!" for thirt\' years a book::,eller in Uo
ton, and a 
contributor of historical and hiographical articlc
 
to the" K ew England II i
tOl'ical and (fl'nl'alog-ieal 
Hegister," lie afterwarll removed to Brooklyn. 
X, y, He was the author of .. A Hundred ßo
ton 
Orator!"" (Roston. IH:)2), 
J.()UI
V. .Joshua, naml officer, b, in Roston, 

Ia
s,. in 171(;; II. in Ilighgate. Englawi. in I ;fH. 
He was a captain in the royal navy in 1 i.,Î, com- 
manded in the operations on Lake George and 
Lake Champlain in 1 Î.JU, and on Lake OnÍlu'io the 
next year, af'eoml'an) ing nen, ,Tl'1frey .Amlll'rst to 
l\Iontreal. He wns !"Uh::'l'quently proscribcd and 
banished, the committee on confiscated e
tates nd- 
\,prtisin,Q" for sale his .. lurg-e lIulll
ion-house. to- 
gdher \\ith allout sixty-the ueres of mowing- 
lamI:' in H()xbur
. and his house and gimlen in 
BI)
ton, "next to the South wl'iting-
dlOIII adjoin- 
ing the common:' He went to Englan<<1. arlll in a 
contemporary reconl of his death is de
('rihed as 
"one of thl' oldt.
t captains of tht' royal navy, ILnù 
httl' commodol"l' of the lahes of 
orth .\meri('a," 
I.()IUX(
, .Jo!';hna, commi":
ary of prisOIll'rs, h, 
in Ilingham, )Ia
s" ill Decemhf'r. 1 ia;: d, in E.lge- 
fil'ld, Englan<<l, in .\ ugust, 1 Î
n, lie was high 
sheriff of :\la::,sachu
ett:, in 1,tjH, 
uh
t'quentl
 
mayor of Ilinghum. RIllI one of tho::,e who !"ig-netl 
an adtln'
s to (
O\-, Ihlt('hill
on in I ;i
, awl to 
Go\', Gage in 1 iÎ". tlppl"O\'ing- their l'ourse, One 
of Gage's la
t offieial aets \\as the appointnH'nt of 
Lorillg, in .r une, 17Î.J, as .. 
ole vendul'-mastpr aTHl 
auctit>>leer," He \\ent to lIalifa'\: \\Ïth the ro\'al 
army the next year, anll early in I iÎi was appoiilt- 
ètl hy Sir William I Iowe eOllllni

ary of pri::'OI11'rs, 
tow anI whom he \\as ace\l
etl of exc('

i\-e erucHv, 
(ien, Ethan Allen 
aiLl of him that ,. he murderëd 
precipitately. in ('oM hloOlI. Ileal' or quite two thou- 
sllHl hdple
s pri,.:om.rs in Xl'W York" But Gen, 
GolLl 
elleck Sillimall, in his let tt'rs to his wife, 
dI'Sel'ih('
 IJorillg- as hadng- treat('(l him \\ ith 
.. kinùnes
, complai
ance. anLl friendship." Otllf'r 
authoritit'
 ag-ree that Lorillg stal'\-erl pri::,Ol1l'l'S so 
that :{O() die<<l hl'fore an exehange cöultl be p1fe('ted, 
II is \\ iff', 
li
s Llo)'l1. of Dorche
tl'l'. :;\Ia

,. wa
 a 
hrilliant anll unprincipll'd \\ OIIUlIl. noted for her 
extmnlgance anù love of play. at whieh !"he OCCI1- 
:"ionally lo
t as much as ::00 guinea
 at a 
ittin,
, 
Loring owell his appointment of commb::'aI'Y of 
pri,.:onel''': to her influf'nce with Howe, 
I.OIU
U, WiHinm Wing, 
oldier, b, in Wil- 
mington, 
, C" 4 Dee" HilS; d, in X ew York ('ity, 
30 Dl'C" 1HH(i, 'Vhf.'n he wa!" about thirteen wars 
old he enli4eLl in It company of volunteer::, to 'tight 
the Seminole Iwlians in .Florida. participated in 
several battles, Imll was promoted to a 2.1 lieu- 


LOHIXG 


tenanev, Hi June, It<:!'j, Ill' was sent to !"chool at 
Alexmidria. \'a,. and 
lIbSf'fjl1ently at Georgetown, 
0, C" wa
 g-nuhmted in the law in 1
4
, awl. re- 
turning to Florida, \Ht
 eledecI to t hI' legi
lat me, 
Early in 1S4(j he \\ as maùe senior captain of a new 
regiment of mounted rill('men. and on 1G F('h.. 
1H-1i. was placed in command, with the rank of ma- 
jor, In the a::,
ault on the :\Ie).ican intn'nehed 
eamp at Contrera!". Loring's regiment was tpmpo- 
rnril
 detached for f:pedal :senice, whieh resulted 
in its being first in 
t he main V. orks of 
thc :\Iexiean!', amI 
leading- in the pur- 
suit of th(' enem\" 
as far as San Ari- 
gel. But at this 
moment counter 
orders were re- 
cpi ved, Loring 
awl his r('giment 
\\ ere the first to 
enter the :;\Ipxiean 
halterie!' at Cha- 
I,ultepec on the 
side np'\:t the capi- 
tal. amI. though 
without orders, 'he 
led the fighting on 
the eaU8ewav from 
that point to the R('len Gate, where hp rccei ,"cd a 
wound that Tll'cl'ssitatetl the amputation of his 
left arm, For" gallant and meritoriou
 conduct" 
at Contn'ras awl Churuhu::,eo he rpeei\"ell the hre- 
vet of lielltenant-eolonel. awl for l'lwpllltl'pec and 
Garitn dl' Bl'len that of colonel. Ill' wa
 pro- 
motelllielltenant-coionei. 5 :\larch. 184
, The ('iti- 
zens of Appalaehicola. Fla" presented him \\ith 
It sword on \\ hich \\ ere eng-I"a ved the "onls that 
Ul'n, Scott had adtln'
:<ed to the Hint's on the field 
of Chapultepec: .. Brave Hiflf'
, you have gone 
through fire flml blool1. awl come out stl'el." In 
April, 1 
49, hI' succes
fully marched across the 
contincnt to Oregon a
 escort to a party of golù- 
:seeker
. and on 3 0('1. he was a!'!"igned to the com- 
mand of the 11th military departlllent, ::;ome time 
after\\arll he \HIS ordered to Tt').as, where },e re- 
mainetl till .\ugll
t, 1
.)(i, and was promoted to the 
rank of colonel on ao Hec, Till 8 April. l
,,)H, he 
was en,gaged flg-ain!"t ho!"tile Tndian
 in X ew )lði- 
co, and Ill' afterward took part in the Ctah eÀ- 
peLlition of lH,')8, In IH;)f) he reC'eiwd lea\-e of 
nhsenC'e to vi
it Europe, Egypt, anLl the lIoly Land, 
awl on hi
 return he commautletl the Department 
of Xc\\'" :;\fL'xico until W .:\la\", l
fil. whl'n he re- 

igned mill was appointed brigadier-general in the 
('pnfederate arn\\', lIe sen-ed in the Army of 
Xorthern \ïrginÌa. on 15 Feh.. 18ü2, \\as 'pro- 
moteLl to nmjor-general, and lell a dh isioll till the 
end of the ch-il war, freqllL'ntly comnHlI1ùing a 
corp!", In the :-pring of 1F:(i::, when (Jen, Graut \\a
 
operating for the inn4nll'nt of Vicksburg, Loring 
was 
ent to Fort Pemberton. "here he mounted 
two heavy siege-guns that silenced the fire of the 
L S, gun-hoat .. Chillieot he." 11 is exdamation. 
.. Gh e her a hlizzard, bO\'s!" on this ocem,;Ïon, was. 
the origin of the name of .. Old Blizzard," by 
\\ hkh he was afterwarù known, Gf'n, Loring ac- 
cepted !"en-ice in the army of the khellive of Egypt 
in Dl'remher. l:-;li!I, a!" a liwa pa('ha. or general of 
brig-nlh', :-:\hortly after his arrintl in Cairo he was 
assigncd to the command of A It'xanllria and its tle- 
fencl'::' extpnding alon,g the eoa
t to the Ro
etta 
mouth of the Xile, On 10 Dee,. 1I'
Î.), he was 01'- 
delwl to aceomIiHny, as ehief of staff and military 


-- 


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l,f- \ 


( 


1 
. -.""L 
to: "'
."11::. L. 
Yl.f-
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5 -
 


It- /r 
 



LOHXE 



Ldviser, the general-in-dlipf of the Egyptian army, 
Uatih Paeha. who was ordel't'd to the command of 
nn expedition to Abyssinia, Uatih rt'fusl'd to fol- 
10\\ tilt' counsel of Gen, Loring and hi::- 
tatI of 
.\nu'riean olticers. allIl tilP E
yptian arm
' wa... al- 
mo4 annihilated bv the 
\I)\
=-inians at the battle 
of Kuya-Khor, Gèn, Lorin
, shortly after his l'e- 
turn to E
ypt. WIlS decorated hy the khedi\e with 
the imperial order of the Osmal'iah amI promoted 
to fprik. orgPTwral of divi...;jon, In 1
7f). \\ith the 
.\merican ot1icers. he \Hl
 mustered out of the 
Egyptian sen'ice and returnell to the Cnited States, 
(
pn, Loring- puhli
hea .. 
\ Confelleratc Soldier in 
Eg
'pt " (X ew York. 1

tn, 
I.()H
E. JohIlU('oJ'
(, t:dnuJ'd H(,IlJ') UUllg- 
las SlItlH'J'lund f;llll)llwll. :\Iarqui... of. gOY- 
{'rnor-gpneral of l'awula. 11. in :-\ta {fonl Ilou:;;e, Lon- 
don, En
hulll. G .\u
,. 1H-1:>, lie is the eldest sun 
of the cÌ
hth Duke 'of \rgyll and Lady Elizaheth 
Geor
iana :-\ut herlanll Le\ ison-< .ower. eldest daugh- 
ter of the :-pl'(md Duke of :-;lIthedaTHl. Ill' \\as 
educatell at Eton. the lTnin'rsitvof St. 
\ndre\\s, 
and Trinity colll'gp, f'amhrillge, . In 1
(iü hp tray- 
('lle<<l in the West Indies. tlH' Cnitell :-;tates, aTHI 
C'awl<<la. the same year was appointed captain of 
the Lon(l.m Seotti.;;h volunteers, 111\(1 in I
IiS com- 
mis=-ionell lieutenant-colonel of the 
\r
vn and 
BuÏJ' voluntcer artillerv bri!!atle, In 
\:hrual'\. 
IHli:-:, he was elel'tell a inemher of I'urlianlent f;)r 
.\r
yllshire in the Liberal interest. al\(l in f)ee('m- 
hpr of that :n>ar he hecame private secrl'tary to hi... 
father at the India office, He \\as re-elc('tp(l bVal'- 
damation in Ì\\O :mh
ef(Ul'nt 
el1eml elections, "1
(ifl 
nnd 1Rj4, On 21 '1areh, 1t;71. hp married Prin('e

 
IJouise Caroline -\lherta. the si\.th child and fourth 
daughter of Queell Yietoria. h, 11'34:-:, Thl' nl:U'- 
riage took place at 
t. George's eluLJ)pl, \\ïlHlsor, 
alHl on that occasion thp marquis wa
 created a 
kni
ht of the thistle, 
On L 14 O('t.. 1t'7
. he 
was appointed govern- 
or-gl'neral of <. 'a nada. in 
succession to Lord Duf- 
ferin, and soon after- 
\\al'd he was creatl'll 
knight of the gmn(l 
eross of :-;t, :\liehael and 
St. George, .\ccom- 
panied h
: the Princess 
Lfluise. he went to Can- 
ada in Xovember. It178, 
\\ here t hpv receh."d an 
enthusiastìc welcume, 
and during the snmmer 
of 1Rjt/ they \isited the 
principal èities, The 
chief political incident 
of his term of office was 
his refusal to dismiss 
the lientenant-go\'Crn- 
or of l1uehec, Luc Le- 
tellier de Saint J u.... 
from office, at the reque:,t of the admini
tration, 
referring the (luestion instead to the home gov- 
ernment, which ordered him to take the 
1.(hicc 
of his minister:,. The marquis and marchioness 
were popular \\ ith all elasses of people, and among 
t
e Freneh ('anudians they were probably more 
hIghly esteemed than any of their predecessor:" 
His term of office expired in 1

a, At the general 
election in 1
8,; the )1arquis of Lorne conte:,ted 
Ilampstead as a Liheral, but was defeated 1)\' a 
large majority, Ill' ha... written for the mugazines, 
and is the author of .. 
\. Trip to thp Tropics and 
Home through _\merica ., (London, 1
li;); .. Guido 




 
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, 




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 P- 
...... 
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t 


" 


LOS \D
\. 


29 


and Lita: a Tale of thp Hh if'I'Il." a poem (lH7,;); 
aTHI .. The PSlllms literully rl'ndl'rt'll in Yl'r
l'" 
(1H77), The ::\Iarl'hioness has gained 
oIlle rl1 JUte 
as an arti
t and IIIu=-ieian, The ilIl1
t rations in her 
hu
hmurs poem, .. (j uido HIlIl Lita," fir\' }JY her hand, 
UHUH' ET, I.ollis -'li('ha('l I)ulrmon. I1ay- 
tian sohfier. b, in 1I1l
 ti.:> [)l'e" 1
:.?,j; d, there In 

\pril. 1
71i, lIis father \\as a colOlwl in tl\(' anny, 
_ \fter )pa \ ing 
l'hool. Lorquet entpJ"('d the ran hs of 
the re
imPlIt, and 
oon aften\ urd bCl'ame Sl'l'retary 
to (iell, T nginae, After the revolution of 1 H4:l. 
\\hen Pre
itll'nt Bo
er flI'll to .Jumlliea. 
oung 1,01'- 
l}upt attpllllp(1 him. amI rl'IIIainptl \\ ith him till 
]
4;), wlwn he returned to lIa
 ti. Ill' \\US up- 
pointetl ehipf eJt'rk in the ('ustoIll-house. hut \\a
 
remo\(,(l h
' (,('n, FUlIstin SouloTH'jul'. and \\ ent to 
rpshlp at nunai \('S, In 1 
4!1, \\ I\('n Sou louque \\ U
 
pl'odainwd eIllpl'ror, mull'r the title of Faw4in I.. 
through the inf1uen('p of the I>uhe de Saint - Louis 
(lu 
lTd, Lorqul'Í \HIS Ilppointell jtHlw'at GOllaÎ\es. 
and on 2S 1\llIrch, H
,;-L lit' \\ as f"(lnlllli,:-ioned puh- 
lic pro=-l'eutor for t hat place, In IIl'el'lIlher. U.(..)
, 
\\ hen (;ell, Fnbre GefTranl }Jpeallll' pl't'
idl'nt. he 
apJlointt.(l Lonp\('t ('hid ju=-til'{', mini=-tl'r of in- 
st l'l\('tion, :Hul telll porary ('om lIIè1lull'r of t hl' re- 
puhlielln fOl"C'e=-, ()n 11 K 0\", 1
(i,). 11l' was nHuh' 
genpml of the arm
', and nn till' o\l'rthrnw of (jpf- 
franl 
hare(l his e:J\.ile. hut rl'tut"lIl'd on H :\Ia\, ]
IiR. 
find tonk pllrt in the T't'\ olution of that 
 ('<iI', On 
1:3 :\Iay, ]
71. Ill' \\a=- uppointt',1 eOIll/lI<\1ul('1' of HI{' 
city of Port au Prinel' b
 Presi(!I'nt :Ki
"'n
e 
a
et. 
\\ hieh post he filled fOl' 
e\ eral yr'ars, 
I.OIUL-\I
E. 
tl)'('is
(' Z('llhl'ill. C'lUwdian It 
(', hi
hol', h, in :::;t. :\1 mtin, Lowl'r ('anndu, 13 .J nne. 
IH-1
, Ill' \\as ('dueutl'd at the S('lIIinal"\' of Sainte 
Th(.rèse. and tit Lfi\ ul universit y. \\ h('re Iw \\ as 
grmluuted in 1t:;Ii-1 as IJfi.l'heior of seÏenj:es, lie was 
ordainerl pri(.st on 4 
\ug.. 1
Ii7. and appointed as- 

i
tant dirl'etor of tll{' 
elllilUln' of 
aint{' ThÍ'rè=-e. 
whieh offiee Ill' held till 15 
\ IIg.. 1
li!l. when he be- 
came pa...tOl' of t hi' congT('gation ut Hedford, Clin- 
ton co,. K, y, On 
 
\ug" 1t:;
n, Jw \H\!' appointed 
viear-gf'neral of the dio('e
e of :\Iontreal. find on 21 
:-\,'pt., 1

:!. he \\as ('on
eemted titular hi=-hop of 
('ythera. and vicar-upo:,tolie of Pontiac. \\ ith re::-i- 
dence at Pembrohe, In 1
tì-! Bishop Lorraine. 
while on a mi
sion tour, \ isited thl' Temb('amin
ue 
region and the eountry around Hudson hay. nOlI 
travelled about 1.,;(10 mile
 in a bark eanoe, In 
1

7 he made a pa::-toral visit to the fmlian mis- 
sions on the upper ()1taw<l. Hupert'
 Luntl. und 
the upper St. :\Iauriee, _ !Turing the fi\e 
ears he 
has hcen in Pembroke, Hi
hop Lorrnine ha<; paid 
off a large debt that had eneumbCT"el1 the ehurch, 
built a fine epbeopal residence. und purcha
ed :::-ites 
for se\ eml charitable in
titutions, 
I.OSAIH, l)i('
o d(. (Io-
ah'-dah), Spanish ad- 
venturer, b, in 
an Lncar de Barrmneda in 15H1; 
d, in Tocu yo. Yenezuela. in 1,3m), of his em'l y life 
little is kno" n, Ill' prohahly 
ened under Ì}edm 
de Heredia (q, t',) in Carthagena. and he certainly 
participated in the e\.pedition that was 
ent umler 
Felipe de Crre for the di:;;('oYeryof the fabulous 
El Dorado ill 1:;41-";}, Ill' continued to 
ene 
under the different gO\ emors of Yene7uela, and in 
(.'5üü was intrusted h\' Pedro Ponce de Leon with 
the conquest of the countryof the Caracas In- 
dians. which had been partially settled by Fajardo 
in 1;JliO, hut afterward ahandoned, The valleyof 
the Camea
 was said to be very rieh, and densely 
populated by nearly 1,30.000 TIldian
: hut Lo
adå 
left thp eit\. of :\lariana in January, 1,;1)7, \\ith 
onh' 1,jO 
òldiers, 1R of whom wère mounted, 
After fighting a
llin!'t the warlike Arbaces und 
Teques, he arrived in _-\.pril in the valley of Cara- 



30 


LO::;
\D.\ 


cas, and, after routing part of the Indian forces, 
founded at the foot of a high mountain a city 
"hich he named Santiago de Leon de ('ameHs, 
The Indians soon rallied and attacked Losad.l. 
cutting off his supplies; hut as the tribes were 
under command of many different caCilllleS, L()
ada 
cau
ed di
sC'nsion amon
 them. and gained o\'er a 
chipf named Guail'ata, throu,
h whom he ohtainell 
the neceSSal'y supplies, Incen,o..;C'd at the treae/wry, 
the other tribes formed a leag-ue, and, under com- 
malHl of the eaeique GuaieHpuro, fell with a 
numel'Oll:'l army upon Guaipata, who demanded 
sueeor from Losada, The latter. after a l'rotraeted 
war. defeated thf' allies, and was appointed by 
1'onee a(' Leon gO\ f'rnOl' of the ne\\ ly founded 
eolonv, III' be,ran to reward his followers "ith 
rieh grants of l,
nd and [Illlian comnHuHleril's, but 
cau:--
d dissatisfaction hv the distribution; and 
thoo..;e who thought themsel\'es unjustly dealt with 
alliell themselves with the Indians, al1ll thf'rp was 
an insurrection, Losalilt applied to Ponce de Leon 
fOl' hell'; hut, in order to restore peaee. the luth'r 
divcstell him of his eommand in 1.)1.m, tran
ferrin,
 
the spat of the general gmel'nmf'nt to ('araca
, 
Losada retirell to Tocu)o. where he died of grief 
after \'Ilin el1l1ea\'oro..; to obtain justice, 
J,OS,\ D.\, or I,OZ,\H'\, )[:11111('1 (lo-thah'-Iluh). 
:Mexiean handit. h, in Santa '1'1'rl'o..;a. eanton Tl'pie. 
ahout I

,); d, in 'ff'l'ie. 1n ,July, IH;:t 1IC' wa,.; of 
mixed whitf', Ill'gro, aIIll Indian race. but was born 
and bl'(,ll among- thC' Iwlians, TIe pa
s('d hio..; youth 
as a farm-lahoreI', .\hOllt IH.),) he aLllueted tIt(' 
dallg-htpr of a rich [llliian of 3Iojarre
, who had 
heen rpfuo..;ed iu marriag-e to him, allli fh'll to tllf' 
neig-hhoring mountain
 of Xa
-arit or .\lif'a, Soon 
he beeallW It cattle-thief. luul in one of his dl'seC'nts 
to the plains wa
 captlll'eli. tog"C'ther \\ith his wife, 
hut both manag-el1 shortly to e
cape, On rl'turnin,
 
to his mountain haunto..; hp hpcame a high\\ayman 
out (If a dl'
ire fOl' re\ C'ng-f'. whil'h was incJ'ea
l'd b
 
the barbarous flog-
,6Il,g of his motl\('r. from whosC' 
hut hI' had ju
t e,,:cuped, hy the g-O\ el'l1lllent Ornel'I' 
who pm'supil him, III' snon gatlH'red a largC' band 
of Iwlian
, aIul tll(' fHl'mC'rs on the plains werC' in 
!'u('h fear ot him that tll('v dill not Ilare to <l:-:,...ist 
t hi' g-on-rullll'nt troops agaii1St him, while he lC'\ iC'l! 
from them cOlltrihutiollS of al'lll
, hor
e
, allli pro- 
\ i
ions, Owin
 to internal strifl', the authoritil'5 
wC're too weak 'to sllpprC'
s hrig-allliag-f'. so that 1.0- 
I'wla :-:nOIl hl'e<llllC' a tl'rl'or to 0)(' inlmhit:ulto..; of the 
plains, awl l'xal'tl.d trihute f!"Om ('Vf'I'y pach-train 
hetwel'll tit.. 
eapnrt of Sail Bias awl the to\\ Il of 
'1'C'pie, awl from all till' proprietors of fanns, 
When he capturell the Offi('C'l' that hIli 1 tloggl'd his 
mother. hf' hillC'Ll him awl his command with cruel 
torture
. <lwl followed the
l' with othC'r harbaritÎC's, 
which g-ave him the wImp of .. the tiger of 
\liC'a:' 
I>llrillg the strife bl.t\\ een the Liheral and ('on- 
spn-ati \-e parties, Losada joillC'd the lattf'r. Hnd 
soon IH' hecame the autocrat of the mountain
, 
dividillg the population into distrif't
, aTIIl ('xa(.tin
 
from e\ ery \-illagp a tribute <lnll a eC'rtain lllllnber 
of W,ll'I'iol'S, \\ hOIll he arml'll with 
\mC'ricun gun:-:, 
amI \\ho ohl'yell him e\'('11 UIul C' I' the most outr<lgf'- 
ous opprc

ion, .\ t la4. Hamon ('orona. a miner 
from Acapul1eta. \\ ho h;ul hee11 pl'r
ecuted hy Lo- 
slula for his Liheral idl'as. attackl.d the brkand in 
U';.)H. fir
t with a force of partis;llls flml aftpl'\\Hffl 
with Liberal troop
, hut WI1
 unsucce
sful. awl 
LOsIIiIa rf'nHlined undisputed master of tl)(' depart- 
ment of Tepic, The government of 
Iiramon flat- 
terell amI dpf'oratell him, and aftC'r the fall of that 
leluler in 11'ì(i0 the returning Liberal govpI'nment, 
husy wit h internal strife, left him undisturh('(l. 
Aft'cr the Freneh innlsion the authorities rccog- 


LOS SAXTOS 


nized his grade of general-in-f'hief and commander 
of the l)C'partment of Alica. Rnll the bishop of 
Guadalajara cmne to bless him, 31aximilian sent 
a conllnis
ion to deliver to the Indinn bandit gen- 
eral n co
tly sword and the empel'Or'
 picture in a 
frame wlorned with di:ullonrl!', TIll' commission. 
on arrival at the village of San Luis, found" his 
e"{('ellenl'Y "ehul in coarse eotton garh and raw- 
hiùe sandals behind the ploug-h. Aftl'l' the fall of 
the empire, Juarez failed to punish tllC' handit for hi.. 
breach of faith in tlisreg"
lJ'(ling the neutrality that 
he had promised in IH(j:,?, Cntil lB.:.? IJos,lIla 
reigned supreme in the mountains of 
\liea, In 
that year he !'C'nt mes
C'ngl'l's to the )Inyas of Yuca- 
tan, the Tarascos of )[ichoaean, and the Yaquis of 
Sonora, asking them to rise at the same time 
against the Liheral gon>rlHnent. as hf' intended lo 
estahli
h an hlllian empire, .\t the bC'ginnin
 of 
l
j3 he hall g-athered at San Lui
 an finny of about 
:.?O,ooo Iwlians. which he di\ idell into thrC'f' bodks, 
scnrling' one I1gain
t Zacatf'cas and anothel' again:--t 
Hinalml, and Ill' maJ'eJwd lit the heml of 10,001) men 
on 17 Jan, toward the cC'ntre of .Tali
('o, p1"Oelaim- 
ing to his followcrs that they Wl'l'e to tal-.c their 
pay from the capturC'd to\\ ns, IIis fornwr anta,go- 
nist. (h'n, <.'01"Ona, was military commander of Ja- 
lisco. lIIal nWl"('hed wit h seare'eh- l,fiOO J))C'n to dp- 
fC'llll tlll' eity of {;uadalajam frtnn plUllller, The 
two forcps nll't. 2
 Jan., It>;a. at )lojOlll'l'fi, nC'ar 
Guadalajam. allll. aftl'r a desperate battlC', Losada 
"US totally routl'll. awl. \\ith a lo

 of nearly :3,000, 
flC'd to tll(' 1lI011ntain
. wOUlHIC'd in thf' arm, The 
g-O\ C'rnment troops lo
t fewer than -tOO, (tPl1, ('C'- 
\mllns. \\ith a large force, \\as Sl'nt in pursuit of 
Lo
adu, and aftl'r dl'fl'ating him in sl'\"eral C'neoun- 
tel's, in \\ hich hI' "as gl'a
luall
 ahaIHlonell by his 
followl'r:-:. Co!. HosalC'
 at la
t (,HptUlwl him, 1.0- 

llIla "as tahC'n to Tt'pic, quickly tried. by fi mili- 
tary court. allli e"peuÌl'd 1Ieur that to\\ n. 
LOSKIEL. (;('on
'(' 1I(,III"r. )[ol'a\'ian lti:-:hop. 11, 
in 
 \ ngt'I'mueIIllp. ('ourland, Hussia, 7 X 0\'" I. -to: 
d, in BethlellPlI1, Pa" :,?:
 Felt"IHl-1, He \\as f'llu- 
eatl'll at the :\[ora\'ian collC'ge I1ml theolo
ieal sC'mi- 
nar\' of Gf'rmlll1V, In l
():.? he was eonsecratC'll to 
the' epi
('opa('
-, nwl appointC'd pre
il1ilJg bishop of 
thf' nortlll'rn rli...triet of the 
\nwril'an provinr'e of 
the 
[ora\"ian ehurch. allli hC' fillC'(l the OffiCI', \\ ith 
gC'lwral al'l'f'ptlllll'e, until l
ll, \\hen his health 
t'nill'(l. In the following- ymr he wus dectl'll to tlw 
chief ðl'<.'utive bOIll
 of his ehllrl'h at I
prtJ}('lo..;- 
dorf. Saxon
 : hut the condition of hi
 health 1)1'C'- 
H'ntl'd him from IC'I1' ing this country, TJcskid 
\\ Il"i an eloquent preaeher and a gooù "ritC'l', Two 
of his wnr1..s arc especially important: h Etwas für5 
IIC'rz," mf'ditation" for C'\-erv da\' in tIll' \ I'ar, 
which has pas
f'a through more thàn l'i,
ht l'diiions 
and still l'njoys hi
h rl'lHlte (Ba
lf', IHUG), mIll the 
.. I1iston' of tlw l\lol'ttvian :\Iissinn 
lI1lOn
 tll(' XOl'th 
. \ merica'n Indian<' tran:--lated into .t:nglh..h by 
('harll's J. Latrohf' (LoIHlon. I.U4), 
T,OS
. L('wi... nOllll'i. ('lerg-yman, h, in Augusta. 
X, y,. I ,Tuh-, 1H0:3; II. 10 .Tulv, IHli.), Ill' was 
nlll- 
lwtl>(} fit rT.imilton collC'gl' in' l
:?t>. nrdaim,a to the 
minio..;t!"v of the Pr('
h\'terian ehurC'h in 1

!), and 
hela \-ariou!' pastoratès in the states of X l'W York. 
Ohio.lllinoi
. and IO\Ht, He f'rC'etellmnnv churehC's 
in t he \\'e
t, aUll wa
 af'tÏ\-c in the C'stablÍshment of 
Hockford ff'male 
eminaI'v mill Dcloit f'ollegp, 
LOS S.\:XTOS. Thoni:ls d('. ('kr,g
-man, h, in 
('ordO\-a, Argl'ntine Hepuhlic, in IH:?ti; d, in ßll('- 
nos 
\vres in l
fiR, 1If' was eduC'ated in Blwnos 
.A \Te

 ana in 1 

O C']1ÍC'red the HmninieHn orller in 
the convent of ('or(lO\'Il, wherC' he ga\'e f;uch evi- 
dC'neC'
 of supl'l'io!" intl'lli
pnce thnt hI' was appoint- 
ed profl':-:
or of theology and philo:-:ophy at the ago 



LO:::;SI
G 


LOT Bl
 IÈIO
 


31 


of hentv, He WitS ordained prit'st in 18,30, and I "JJin's of the Presillents of the Cnitl'11 Stutes" 
uppuinte
l sUl'l'l'::,::,ively reg-f'nt of studies, suh-prior, (1t:;4i);" Seventt't'n lIuwlrell uwl 
eventy-
i\., 01' 
amI muster of nO\ iet's in his c,ln wnt. In l
lin he the \Vur for I ndl'pl'mlt'I1l'e " (ltì4 i); .. Life of (;en, 
"H::' Imll'n'll tu )Il'mloza to ol'!!lLnize the studil's in ZHcharv Ta \ lor " (lH4 i); "Life of Gen, \Vinfit'ld 
the conwnt of thHt eity, Wlìile hl' was lecturing- 
eutt '''(It)47); "The Xew World" (1
4i); .. Lives 
ht'fore his brf'thren there \\<IS an earthlluake, dt'- \ of the 
ig-ners of the I>edarHtion of Indepl'ndf'llI'e" 
:-tl'(lyin
 the cunwnt a::. well as the whole cit
, awl (1t;4H); un iJIll,.;trated "lIi::,turv of till' Cnited 
hllr
ing the greater part of the monk::, under the I 
tates for :::;('hools" (1
,3-1), which "US follO\\ed by 
ruins, I Ie m
Hle Ill'roie effurts during the ellta,.;tl"O- the othl'r volume::, of a g-mded ::-eries; .. Biogml'hies 
phe, and 
awd se\ eml lives, In lSljU he \\ as Slllll- of Eminent _\.ml'ricans" (ltJ5;j); .. .:\Iollnt Yernon 
monell to Buenos ,Ayres: but, as he in::,isted on and its 
\s,.;ociations" (1
.'j!1); .. Life of \\Ta
hin1!- 
making the journey on foot;it tuok him two years ton:' iJIll,.;trated (l
(j0); .. \Tussar College amI its 
to rcaeh t he capital. Tmwlling acro::,s the pam- Founder" (lHlj
'): .. Pictorial f)eseription of Ohio" 
pa::" he uded as mis::,ionary on the \HI
. ('onwrting (ISm));" :\Iemorial of Lient. John l'rout (;reblf''' 
sewml Illlliun trihes, Ill' \\US elected priur of the (printed prhately, 1
iO); an iJIllstmtell .. 
lf'moir 
conn'nt of Buenos _\.yres in IH(i
, and in l
lii W1 - of 111', _\.le\.ander 
\.Jlderson:' the fir,.;t engmwr on 
appointed provincial of his order in the Argentine wood in America, Pllhlisllt.J by the Xe\\ York 
Hepuhlic, 
hOltly after hi
 appointment there hi
toricul so('iety (lH-;OI; a "lli,.;tor
 of Eng-land" 
\\as an outhreak of cholera, and he devoted him
elf for schoolo.; (1Hi1); a large hi,.;toryof the {-nited 
entirely to the ::,e1'\ ice of till' si<'k, until he him:-:elf ;>;tates pntitled .. Our Country:' with ;jOO illu,.;tm- 
hecame a yif'tim, Ill' wrote sl'veml \\Ol"k::" the tions hy Felix 0, (', Dllrll'Y (H \-ols.. IHiH); an illm,- 
principal of whieh are" El Tercero lnstruidu" and tmted \\ork on the progres
 of industries in the 
.. )[étodo 
piritual." Cnited 
tates lll'tween l-;-;li anll H:
-;fi, entitled 
J,OSS[
c;, ß(,lIson ,Julin, author, 11, in Bt'f'k- .. The Anll'riean ('{'JIll'nary" (philudell'hia, It'iü): 
man, Dutl'hess co" 
, y" 1
 Feh" 1t;1:t Hi::, ":Story of the l
nitell States Xa\'y for Boys " (Xew 
father, a farmer, died when the son was an infant, York, ItJ80); ,. C'yelopa'dia of lTnited State's Jli::,- 
_\.fter attemling school. Benson wus apprenticed tory," with on'r 1.000 illustrutions (1

1); "Hi- 
to a watchmaker in Poughkeepsie, who, when he ogmphy of Jmlles _\, Garfif'ld" (1

1); an illustratell 
had sen-ed nearly SL\'(,(l years, took him into h History of lÙ'w York ('it) " (lHt'4); ":\laI"Y and 
partnership, Two years later he became joint p1'o- :\Iartha W n
hingtoll .. (IHtìfi): " Two :Spips : X at han 
prietoI' and editor of the Poug-hkeepsie "Tele- Ilale fiwl John .Andr6 .. (1
:-:(j): HlIII .. The Empire 
graph:' and in 1 
jG he began \\ ith his partner the :State, a Compendiou
 Ilistory oftllf' ('ommonwl'ulth 
l>ubJieation of a litPfUry jOIl mal called the" POlIgh- of X ew Y nrk " (1t
Si), .!\II', Lossing annotated 
keepsie l'n
ket:' :\11', Lo:-:::,ing J )lace,l himsplf un- Fram'is Il(lpkin
on's "Pretty 
tory," \\ith a bi- 
ller the instI'uction of a \\00 -l'ngm\l'r in Xew ographyof till' author of thl' nllegory, whieh was 
Yurk, hecame an eng-m\er on wood, and was en- puhli..;lll'd undel' the titlp of "The Old Fann and 
,Q"aged in HtJ8 by the pnblislll'r of the .. Family the Xe\\' Farm ., (1\l'w York, IH,ii), With Ed\\in 
)[agazine" to hecome its editor and illu
trator, \\Tilliams he compiled the" :-\tatesman's 
Ia1lt11l1 " 
Ill' performell thi", s('l'\ice for the la.... two of till' (-I \ols.. l,...,i
) and the "XatiOluti IIi
tory of the 
eight volumes of this the f'adiest fully illll..;tratl.(l lTnited :Statl's" (2 vols.. It;,i
), lIe also editcd 
lIld 
_\.mel'ican ma,!!a.line, In IH:m hf' e..;tablished him- annotated the "Diaries of \\"I1
hington" (18.itl), 

elf in Xew York as a profe,.;sional \\o()ll-engmwr, anti the" He<'olll,etions and PrÌ\aÍl' :\If'moirs of 
a craft that had then hut three practitioners he- Washing-ton:' h
 (;eorge W, P. Cu:-ti:- (lHliO), I:dit- 

idl's himself in the ('itv, and t\\O wars later hl' cd the .. Poem
 " of \\ illiam \VilsOIl, \\ ith an ac- 

e\"I'('(1 his bu
illl''';s cOlinection with the Pough- ('oml'an
 ing biography (Poughkee}'sie, IHli!I), and 
kee1'sie puhlieations, In l
-t
 hl> matured the }'l'el'11l"el1 an l'dition of John Trumlmlrs .. .:\lc- 
plan of his principal work, the" Pictorial Field- Fingal:' \\ it h ,a life (X e\\ York, lRil), 
Buok of the Hl'yolution," \\ hich \\as puhli...hf'rl I,01'BI
 IEla.:, )IÏf'h
H'1 En
hl(,(, (
aslmrtl. 
in thirty illustrated numuers (Xew York, 11..,')0- .
), :\Iarquis de, Canadian !'.'oldicr, h, in Canada in 
For twenty years )[1', Lo,.;...;ing \\u...; a frequent ('on- 1-;
:
: d, in Xl'w York in l-;HfI, lIe ('mhraeed the 
tributor of illustrated 1'l1l'ers to Harpel.'s " :\Iag-a- military l'rofl'

ion, hel'ame (,ne of the aule::,t en- 
zinc," For the Lowlon .. \. I"t .1 ournal" he 1'1'('- gilll'l'rs of hi,.; tilllC', and \\ as appointed engineer to 
pared a seril.:" of artidf'
 rle:-cl'iptiye of the sf'enery, thf' French ('olon
 in 1-;,1:t Suon aftf'r the defl'llt 
hi..;tory, and leg-enll... of the Iltul,.;on riwr, whi('h \\ ere of Ba I'on Dieskau in 17,).; he built Fort Carillon 
puhli
lwd. \\ith illustmtions from his sketches, in <Ti('olilleroga), with the ohjeet of III.e\-ellting the 
that monthly in l
I;I)-'1. and uften\'ar,l in it yolume .Englh,h from entering Canada, In 1 i;jtJ he con- 
entith'll ,. The IIud>:on. from the \\ïhh'f!w,,;,,; to the tributf'rl mOl'(' than allY other per
on to the defe!1Ì 

.'a " (
ew York, 1
li(i), 1-'1'0111 thf' paper", letters, of the English at Carillon, whieh .:\Iontealm oeeu- 
and onll'rly hooks of Oen, Philip Schuyler he pl'e- pied reluctantl
' at hi,.; earne"'t mh ice, F(,I' this 
parwl" The Life and Time,.; of Philip ;>;('huyler" and other sel'\ice,.; he \\I1S mUlle chemlier of 
t. 
(
 vols" :Xew York, 1
fiO: new ell" l

O), Early Louis in 1 i(;O, awl :-hortly afterward a marquis, 
in l
ü
 he hegan the ('om pilat ion of a "Picto- He wa,.; deprived of some of his domains by the 
rial Field-Book of the Civil War in the rnited English government. and on his return from 

tates," which \Va.;; i:"sued ill three illustruted \"01- England, \\ here he hall gone to demand the res- 
umes (yol. i.. Philadelphia, 18GG: yols, ii, and iii.. toration of his property, he met hi:" death from 
Hartford, 1:-:ljtJ). On its eompletion he preparell a yellow fever in the city of Xe\\ York. The :\Iar- 
.. Pictorial Fieill-Book of the War of IH12" (Xpw qub de la Lotuinière 'Hl" it memuC'1' of the In
ti- 
York, It;li
), 
in('e 1
li
 )11', Lo
,.;ing has residerl tute of Franc'e, ancl other learned societies in 
on a farm near Dover Plains, Duche::,s co" 
. y, In Europe.-lIi,.; eillest son, Enstn('(' Hasparcl J[j- 
V
-;:{ he received from )Iichigan uniwrsit\' the de- ('hapI Ch;lrtÏ(>I' tI('. Canadian statesman, b, in 
gree ()f LL, D. In 1
-;
-'5 he edited the'.. Ampt'- \ Canada: d, there in 1821. inherited hi,.; father's 
iean Historical Record amI Repository of X ote::, and title, but did not use it, He aided in defpnding 
Queries," published in Philadelphia, Be"idp:" the Fort St, .Jean against the English colonists in 
works ah'ead\" mentioned he is the author of .. Out- I 1 ii.i, se\"el'al veal'S afterward wa
 elected to the 
line History òf the Fine Arts" (Xew York, lRll): chamher of a

embly, amI in 1-;9:3 unauimously 



32 


LOTHROP 


LOTTER 


named orator, .An effort that the English party' State constitutio'1al convention of lR;)
, nis so- 
made to abolish the use of the French language in ciety removetl to a lIe\\ Imilding- in 11'1.3, but dis- 
the Ipgi
lature wa
 defeated by his efforts, By his solved in 18.G, when VI'. Lothrop resigned tIll' pa
- 
conciliatorv attitude he gained the esteem of all torate, Ill' \\a::- a memher of the Bo
ton school 
partie
, an"d his influence with the governor, Sir committee for thirty Yl'a.rs, and ('hairman of its 
Georg-e Prevost. was successfully used to ohtain committee on the English high-school for twenty- 
for the French Canadians a larger sharc in the ad- six, 
\mong his literary \\orks are a life of his 
ministration of affairs, grandfather, Samuel KirkllLl1II, includl'd in Sparh.
:s 
J,OTH ROl). Charles H(,lIr)". surgeon, h, in .. 
\merican Biography," and a .. Hi::-tory of Brat- 
Taunton, )Iass" 3 Sept., 1t331. Ill' was t'ducated tIe Siltwre Church," 
at Brown, and grarluated in metlieine nt the Gni- 1.4)1'11 ROI" Thnllla
. soldier. b, in England; 
versity of XC\V York in H
.ïf), amI e:"tahlished him- d, near Blood
 Bl'Ook, l>el'rfil'hl to\\ nship, .:\Ia

" 
self in practice at Lyons, hnm, Ill' has ::,uccess- 21.1 Sept.. 1(j7;J, Ill' resided for many 
 ear::- in Sa- 
fully pel'formed many difficult surgical opprations, lern, of which town he hpcanll' a frcl'nuiIl in or he- 
ami is the inventor of un apparatus fOl' treating fore 1fj:U, Ill' wa..; a represC'ntatÏ\ t' in the general 
fractures of the leg, and of a rubbel' appliance for court in Hi47, W;):t Hlul Hi(i-!. :::;uh
('(luC'ntly he 
club-foot, Ill' served during the civil war as sllr- remo\-ed to Bc\erly. ami with otlH'rs organi/.l'd a 
geon of the 14 Iowa cavalry, and has heen an cx- church there, and n'l're
C'nted the town for fUUf 
amining ::,urgeon for pensions since 11'1fi8, In 1
7(i wars in the geul'rul court. In the beginnm,g- of 
he edited the .. 
outhern 
ledicall{ecord." )Üng- Philip's \\ar lIl' was eho
en captnin of militia, 
LOl'HUOl>>, (
{'or
e Yan Xr;;;s. lawyer, h, in Ill' had a Sf'\ere hattle \\ith the Indians IlL'ar Jlad- 
Ea"ton, BrÜ.;tol co"l\la

" H Àug" 181., He was ley in 
\ugu:--t, 1(j 7;) , ami after tll(' hurning of Heer- 
graduatell at Brown in 1t':J1'I,.mHIl'ntpred the Ilar- field, \\ hile guarding the road to lIadley, \\ as killed, 
yard 1It\\-sehool, but on account of ill health joined with eighty-nine of his mcn, only eig-ht e..;eaping, 
his brother in 1N;3!) on a farm near 
dlOolcraft, LOTT, John A., jurist, b, in 11"0,;: d, in Flat- 
.:\Iich, In l\Iarch, 184::. he went to Detl'Oit, com- }1U
h, L, I" 
O July, IHì
, Ill' \\a
 graduated ut 
pleted his preparation for the uar, and hegan l'l'aC- rnion in 11'1
a, 
tudied law, and he,
an pntdice in 
tice in the following spring, He \\as attornl'
- Brooklyn, X, Y.. in 18:3;), In 1
3H he was eleetl'd 
g-mwral of l\lichigan in IH41'L.,')1, reconler of the count
 judge of Kings county, \\hil'h of1ice he held 
city in 1$ïl-'3, an unsuccessful candidate for cun- for four \par:-, In ltì41 he \\as a member of the 
grè:-s in IH.j(j and IH(jO, mlll in IHHO a delegate to :-tate a..;seinhly, amI in 1842-'(i a :"tate :--enator, Ill' 
tll(' I)emoeratic national con\ention in Charleston, \\a
 justice of the supreme conrt in It'".-'(j;), and 
S, ('" where he supported the nomination of Ste- judge (If thC' court of :1ppeal
 in 181m, Ill' wus al:-o 
phen A, Douglas, He was also nominated three a n\('mller of the commission of appcl1l:, from It'7() 
times ùy the Democmtic party for {T, S, sl'nator, until it eoml'l(,tl'd its lahors in IH7:ï, In the lattef 
and was a dl'legate to the 
tate cunstitutional con- ) car he \\ as appointed on a conunission to dmft a 
wntion in 18(;., From 18.,-1 till 181"0. when he re- nniform law for the g-oH'rnment of cities in the 
signl'd, he was general counsel fur the )lichigan state, Cntil a short tinll' hefore his dl'ath he \\as 
Central railroad company, In 
Iay, 11'11'1,), he \\as l'rl'sident of the Flathu
h IIIlll Coney Island rail- 
appointed L. :-;, minister to Hu:--:-:ia, road, He 1'C'l'eiwd the dC'gree of LL. 1), from 
I,OTIIROl\ Harrit.tt Jlnlf'nrd, author, b, in Luion coJll'ge in 11o:;jf), 
Xew lIa\ell, ('onn" 2:J June, 1844, lieI' maiden J.()TTE:\SflHOI.U,l\lathi:ls(lot'-ten-ske-ohl), 
name was 
tone, She was educated at sC'minaries German e
plol'l'r, b, in lìreifeuber
, Ponwrania, 
near her home, travelled exten::,i\"elv in the enited in 1.
f): d, in Arolsen, ""aided" in 1j

, lie was 
States, IUHIl'arly bC'
an to pradise Ìiterary eompo- a J p::,uit, amI was ernplo
 ell for fifteen )'C'ars in the 
sitioJ1, but puùli"he,l nothing before ahout 1
77. mist"ions of ('rug-nay and Pamgllay, \\ here he had 
whl'1l she began to contribute stories and sketche::- ::,peeial charge of the nWllUfa(.turing that was done 
to the magazines, Before her third work wa.s by the Inllians for the (,OJnpan
, After the C'
pul- 
issued in buok-form she married Daniel Lothrop, sion of the ordl'r in 1 j(;7, he remained in the c,oun- 
n publisher of Boston, ,All her writings ha\"e ap- try as It teaeher, and sevel'l'd hi::, cllnneetion \\Ïth 
pl'arell under the pen-name of ., )Iargaret 
idney," his former colleagul'::', hceoming ('(HlVerte(
 to I'rot- 
)Irs, Lothl'llp's summer re
i(l(,lH'e is at Concord, estantism to\\ard the close of his carper, As lIt' 
,Ma..;s" in Xathaniel Hawthol'lw's old home. \\ hif'h \\as in eomfortable eircum::,tances, he de\ oted :--cV- 
he called .. The \Va}.side:' lIeI' published works eml year.... to the C'xplorat ion of Sout h Ameriea lIe- 
are" So as hy Fire" (Boston, 1
1'Il); ,. Five Little fore J'l.turning home, visited l\'ru, Chili, ami Cen- 
Peppers, ami 1I0w they Grew," (IH1'I
), a juwnile tral .\mprica in 1 j'.()-'4. and puhlblll'd ")letallur- 
story, whieh first appeared in the" \Vide .\wake" gisehe Heisen durch Amerika" (2 ,ob., Leipsic, 
magazine: " Half Year at BrOJll'kton" (mS2); 1'ì7(j);" Geognostische B('merh.ungen UhC'r (lie ha- 
"' The Ppttibone Xame;' a novel of Xpw England salti
chen Vebilde del' COl'llilJeren \'on Peru ,. (Dn'
- 
life (IH
:}): .. What the :::;e\'l'n Did" (1t;8:J); .. Who den, 1 7
t1): "Reise auf dem La Plata- und Para- 
told it to 3Ie" (ltj84); .. Ballad of the Lost Harc"' guay-Flusse" (2 \'ols.. Leipsie, 1 7
0); .. C mgehun- 
(ISH4); .. The Golden West" (U-85); ., How the
 g-en yon Rio de Janeiro" (1 Î
O): .. Gesf'hichte del' 
\\. cnt to Europe" (l
H;j); "Hester, atHl othpr Xew Entdeckung von Paraguay" (1 7
1): .. Gesehiehte 
England Stories" (11'11'1(j); .. The .:\Iinute- .:\Ian" uml ZusWlHle d('l' Indi:lIll'r in :'iüd-Amerika" (2 
(l
Sfi); "Two .:\Iollern Little Princes," (1
87); and \'ols" 1'ì1'l
): ami seyeml le
s important works, 
.. Dilly atHl the ('aptain" (1
H7), LOTTEU. rl'('d(,I'Ït' An
lIst. GerJllan ùohmist, 
L01'IIUOP. SanllH'1 KirkhuHI. clergyman, b, b, in Kleinaupe. :\Iofa\'ia, in 1741; d, in (.otha in 
in Ctiea, X, y" 1:1 ()et., 1t;04; d, in Bo:4on, .:\Iass" 1t)0(;, He stUilied in Pmgue, and in 1'ì8f) \\ a
 at- 
1
 ,Tune, 18
(j, lie was g-nuluated at Harvard in tached as uotanist to the l'xpedition that was sent 
l

,'ï, and at the di
inity-school there in l


,t3. ,In I ùy tliP 
panish g:owrnment aro
ll1d the world 
m- 
11o:
U he was o)"{!auwd pastor of thl' (mtanan del' command of ('apt, l\lnla
pll1a, Lotter bemg 
chureh in Doyer, 
, II., and on 17 June. U-;H. took taken siek in Coneepl'ion, ('hili, was unaùle to 
('harge of the Brattle :-quare church in Boston' l llccompan y the expedition, lie rejoined it fit 
:\Ia,.;s, The degwe of D, J>, was eonfl'lTed on him 
\eal'ulco in 1 ì\ll, uut soon left it again and ex- 
1Iy Ilarnml in 11'l.j
, Ill' was a llelegate to the l'lurl'd the interior of l\Ie\.ico as far as Lower C'ali- 



LOCROIS 


LOCGHLIN 


33 


Cornil1, Afterward he visitell PI'I'U, Chili. mu1 the ol"llination, he Wit!' nn ÏllC'apable ntH1 irresolute 
.\rg-l'ntine prO\ ince
, rdurning in 1 i!l,) to Europe. ol1iet'l', .\ftl'r cO])l'cting- a force !'ufiieient to cm:-h 
\\ here he Leeame profe,.;sor of natural hi:4ory at the Fn'nch, he dj,.;halld
'd the pro\'incial
 and 
f'nt 
tllt' College of (
otlllt, rr e publi!'hed .. De r su t'i the regular!' into winter-q1UlI'Ìer
, illega Ily billet- 
ratione l'xpl'rillll'ntornm in perfil'il'ndi hi,.;toria na- ing the o!1if'ers on tlH' citizens of 'KI'W York and 
tllrali" (Prague. 1 iS7: revised nllli enlargl'd ed" Philadelphia, He further illcl'lI!'ed the American
 
Gotha, 1 i!IU); .. Vermium fluvialum Aml'rieana- h
. impo,.;illg- an embargo on comm..n'l'. UIII] on 
() 
rum. :sin' animalium infu...orium hl'lminthorum et JUlIl', 1 i,)i, aftf'r impre

ing .tOO ml'lI in Xew 
te!'taceorum hi:-:toria ., (Gotha. 1 i!lIi): .. Flora l\[exi- York :1Iul committing- other arbitrary nct:-;. suilell 
can a " (2 vols,. 1'j!)8); ,. Flom Peruana" (2 vok. for Halifltx. Kova 
cotia, He hud tht're nn arm v 
IS00); .. Rt'isen durch )[ðieo und 
ild-.\nll'rika" of 10,000 troops Rnd a fleet of !'ixteen sail hè- 
(
 vols.. 1S01); .. Compendium plantnrnm :-;pontf' sides frigatt's. and. ufter wa,.;ting time in foolish 
cre,.:centium cirf'a Conef'ptium in quo familiæ per parade,.;. emnarkel1 tht' soldil\rs to nttack Loui:-;- 
tabulas di
ponuntur" (
 vols,. 1
():?); .. I('ones burg; Lut, on hearing thut tlH' Fn'lIeh hnd one 
1'Iantai'um Amel'icanarum rarium" (2 yols" 1
Oa); !'hip more than the Engli:-:h. r('vokel! the order and 
amI several less important \\orks, returned to Xew York. .Although the F.ngli!'h 
I.OI'BOJS. (,he\nli('r dt'. b, in France in the had heen driven from the lake },f'gion and the 'al- 
latter part of the lith century, He was ma
or of lev of the St, La\\rf'ncc. Fort WilliH1n Henr\' lU1I1 
Xew Orlt'ans in 1 i:m, when he was !'ent at the head fållf'n and the province of Xf'W York was tÌtreat- 
of an expedition against the Katehez, who hdd ened. yet Lon1 LOllllnun f'ncamped his forcf's on 
several French pri
oners. and attacked the Indians Long I,.;lund and rf'mainf'd inndin\, WIll'n "Till_ 
who were intrf'nched in two forts on the Ba,- of the iam Pitt Lccame prime mini
ter to\\'I1l'I1 the elo!'e 
Tonicas (now Bayou Sainte Catherine), Tile Xat- of 1'j.37. he resoln'd on a vigorous ('ampnign to 
chez made a vigorous resistance for several days, sa'.e the Engli:-;h ('olonies from the Freneh. "ho 
and Loubois, drea.]ing' trenehery on the part of encircled thf'm and \\ere alrendy in p,,
,.;t's
ion of 
his :-:avage allies, the Choctaws, allowetl them to threl' qunrter!' of the contÏIlf'n1. The ßrit i,.;h min- 
retire on condition of giving up their pri:-;oner
. ister declared that he ne,er }wartl from till' com- 
Ill' then rf'turned to 
ew Orleans, and !'f't out again mll1lder-in-('hid in .America /tnd ('ould not tt'll 
in 1 i:n at th
 hel1l1 of sixty men to the relief of what he "/tS doing. and, in spite of the prote
ts of 
Jucherf'au, ::;ieur de ::-;t, Dl'n)"s (q, 1',). who \\a!' lIe- Loudoun's man
 f l'if'IH 1-:. rcenlled him and ap- 
sÏf'ged by the 'Katchez at Fort Xat('hitoche,.:, But, point<,d LOl'Il Amher:-;t in his place. 
after admnc'ing 
ix leagul\s up Hetl ri\"('r, he \\as J.O('GIIBOUOr(
II. JnllH's )1001'(\ (lufT'-hnr- 
infOl'mcII hy a mf'ssenger from Juch<,rt'llu that 1'0), lawyer, h" nenr 
helhyvi1le. Ky" 2 Xov,. 1R:::J; 
the Indians were defeated, Louhni" was f'ngng<,d d, in Little Uock, Ark., 31 Julv. 18i(;, HI' left col- 
in ,ariou,.; e)"peditions, nnd his valor and exp<,ri- le
e at the I1ge of nineieen. to i,e('ome a clerk under 
ence ILre highly prai:-:ed Ly Charlevoix alllI other his father, who 'H1S the land-agent for IlIillllis 
historians of Kew France, . and )lis:-;ouri. III' served throughout the eÏ\ i1 'Hlr 
LOlU, .llar
IH'I'itt',st. 1,('011. poet. b, in "ry_ as It colollel on the :-;taff of the Conft'derate Gen, 
!'ox, Bl"lu1ford co.. Pa.. nhout 1
IIO, J[f'r maiden name 
terling Price. and \\ as for some time a prisont'r, 
wa,.; Bar:-;tnw, .\fter her marring-f' in 1
:?4 :-;he liwd .After the war he practised law in St, Louis, l\lo" 
in Philadelphia. e"eept during a bripf re:-:itlence in 
1IJ'erintended the lantl-snlt's of the ]ron )[ountain 
the south. and contributed poetry to the" (Tnite.] rlulwa
, removing to Little Ro('k. and was a mem- 
States Ga.ætte " and to the monthl
' milgazint's of bel' in lRi4-'5 of the Arkan,.;as leg-i:-:lature, whcre 
that city, .A volume entitlf'd .. \\.ny!'ide Flowers" he introdlH'ed a bill for the cOI\,"el':-;ion of depre- 
was pullli,.;hed (Roston, 1
,)1), ::;onie of her poems dated certificatl's into It funde(l debt, which did 
arl' reprinted in Gri,.;wold's" Female Poets of .\mer- mueh to rf'<:tore the financial credit (If the !'tatf',- 
ica" and in the similarcollecìions of Thomas Bu- lIi5 \\i((', JInn W('h
t('r, author, h, in Xl'W York 
ehanan Henl] nnd Caroline )Iay, eity, 
., .\ug" '1:-;;{U: d. in Little Hock. .\rk.. 27 
I,Orno[
, .John t'nmphèn, Earl of, Briti:-;h 
\ug" 18Hi. \\us tnkPn to H1. Louis, 1110.. in her 
sol. lieI'. b, in ::;cotland in 1 ill,); d, there, 27 . \ pril, infancy, graduated at :\Iontil'ello 
eIIlinary, (Jod- 
I is;'?, Ill' succeeded to the estate anll title in 1 i:31, fl"f'Y, Ill., in 1
,;:l, and in 185i was married, She 
rIp 'HIS a frienll of accoIIlpnnied her hu:-:banù during the civil war, 
Lord Halifax, nnd Ilnd kept a diary of the siege of Yiek!'burg, from 
when the bonrd (If which she prepared her fir:-;t hook. entitled ., :\Iy 
trade detprmined to Cave Life in Yiehhurg" (X ew York, 1
(j4), 
he 
unite the colonies afterwnrd contrihuted stories relating to the early 
under military rule hi"tory of 5t, Louis to .. The Land We Love," In 
nnd force th(.II1 to l
i1 she removed" ith her hu....bnnd to Little Hoch, 
support a perma- ;::;he wrote for ynrious lll'" 
papel'!'. and in 1


 e:;- 
nf'nt army wns eho- tahli:-:hed the" Southern Ladies' ,Journnl:' which 
sen to carrv out <.;;he edited till her cleath, In it 
he pnbli:-:hed a :-;e- 
thi!' policy, He" as rial entitled" For Better. for ". orse," 
1r5, Loug'h- 
appointed to suc- horough e:-:tnbli
hed abo a 'Y oman's exchange
 in 
cef'1! the pbpular Little Hock with the object of opening a wider 
\Villiam Shirley a!' range of remunel'n.tiw employment for her 
ex, 
conlJllnn(lf'r-in-c"hief I,Or(an,I
. .John. H. (', bishop, b, in County 
of the Briti...h forces Down, Ireland, in HHG. lIe emigrated to the 
in Xorth .\meri('a. enited f'tate,.; in early youth. !'ettIing in Albany, 

 nnd giwn the addi- X, y,. "as edul'ated at )Iount St, :\Im'y's college, 
'
./'_ 
 tional dignity of Emmettsburg, :\1.1.. tnug-ht thf're !'enral yenrs. and 
t/ 
 gowrnor of Yir- in IH42 wa... ordainf'tl prif'!'t in the Romnn Cat holic 
. ginia"aIthough Rob- church, He wa<; a!'
i:4ant prie-.:t in S1. Patrick's 

rt Dlll\,iddie contimlf'd to fulminister the pl"Oy- j cathedral. Xc\\' York city, in 1841-'4, nt th(' latter 
mce, IJoul1oun arrived in Yirginia in ,July, 1i,;fi, date be('ame rector, nnd, on the formation of the 
.Although df',.oted to the idea of colonial sub- dine:l:-:c of Brooklnl, "as con..;ecrated its fir!'t bblwp 


"" 


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_ I 


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...'-.
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.4. 
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VOL, 1..-3 



34 


LOUVIG
Y 


LOVEJOY 


in Xovember, 1RJ3, Hp introduced the Si
ters of he was retired on 15 :\[areh, 1883, for disability in
 
St, Juseph and Sisters of :\1ercy in 18;);), established curred in the line of òut\", 
churches throughout Long I:-:land, and in 1
(j8 he- 1.0 r E, SmoloU' })al;,('(', s01l1ier. h. in Lincoln 

an the erection of the Brooklyn cathedral. lIe county, Kv" 10 :\fa v, 1t;2(j, He 'HiS edue:1Ìed at 
has been a member of two plenary councils, an<l ('olmi\hia 'acadenw, ":\10.. and at the age of Ì\H'nty 
has held a diocc
an s
'nod for the purpose of cstab- enli!'ted in ('01. Doniphan's l!'t :\Iissouri volun- 
lbhing- the fIf>crees of the councils, teers and went on the expedition to Santa Fé, 
UÞ{-'"U;X\". I.oni
 tie In Port('. Sicur de, participating in the battles of Braeito an<l Sncrn- 
Freueh soldier, b. in France about 1(j,j-!; d, at sea, mento, I1e wa... mustered out of sel"\ ice in 18-!7. 
27 Aug" 1i:!.3. He came to Canada in 1GSj, and returne<l to :\luhlenburg eount
., Ky.. aud engaged 
in HiDO was sent to the west at the head of a great in teaehing from H,4!) till 18.37, At thp heginning- 
eonvoy. accompanied by Xicholas Pl'ITOt (q, 
',). of the ('ivil war he niùed in rnising- the 11th Ken- 
whom he was directed to obev on the routf>, At tucky infantry for the Katiomd àrmy, heeume its 
IJes Chats he was attacked by the IrofJuois. but de- lieutenant-colonel. an<l fought with it nt Shiloh, 
feated them and put them to flight. Ill' was COHl- ('orinth, Perryville, Stone HiveI', and Bowling 
matulant at :\Iackinaw from WHO till 1G94, when Grepn. He "as promotefl colonpl. joined llurn!'i<le 
he retul'ned from the west with a convo," of furs, in east Tenne

ee, Imrl was with 
herman in the 
In the winter of 1G!.JG he was sent at thè head of engagements around .\.tlanta, .At the close of the- 
300 picked men to attack the Iroquois in their war he settled at Greem'ille, Ky" qualified for 
hunting-grounòs between the St. Lawrence nnd the bltr, and hegan pmctice in 18û3, From 181iG 
the Ottawa, lIe mnrched through snow eight feet till 11';;4 he Wit:' pre!"iding- judge of :\luhlenburg 
in depth to within fifteen miles of Fort Frontenac, county, and in IH,
 was a pre!'identinl elector, 
and defeated a party of Iroquois, but, owing to LOr ":.'O\", E1ij
,h Pnl'i
h, nholitionist, h, in 
want of provisions, returned to ,Montreal, which Alhion, :\le" !I XO\'" 1HO
: d, in Alton, Ill" , Xov" 
he reached after great hardships, Ill' wa!' ,nade 183j, Ill' was the son of a Presbyterian clergy- 
adjuhmt-geneml of Three Rivers in 1 JOO, and mnn, wa:, grnduated at Waterville college in l
;!û, 
of :\lontreal in 1,0:30 In 1,0;; he went to :\1acki- and in 1

7 went 
naw to prevent the Ottawas from making war on to St, Louis. 1\10" 
the Iroquois, and succeeded in his mission, though and establishell a 
with great. ditJiculty, In 1 JOS he Was creater! a school. lie con- 
chevalier of S1. Louis, In 1712 he was sent to tributed prose and 
restore Fort :\lackinaw. which had heen destroved verse to the news- 
by the English, lie was appointed king's lieu ten- pnpers, was kno\\ n 
ant at Quebec in 17Hi, and led an expedition of as Ii vigorous writ- 

no Canadians allll IJ\{lians from Quebec. on 14 er. nnd in 182!) be- 
:\larch. to attack the Foxes. who took refuge in a came editor of a 
stoekafle, Lom ig-ny compelled them to surrender. political paper, in 
hut spared their lives on their promising to become whiph he fld vocat- 
allies of the French amI to pay the expenses of the ed the claims of 
Witr with furs, lle returned (In 12 Oct,. taking the Henrv Clay ns a 
sons of the Indian chiefs as hostages, lIe wus candÍdate for the 
shortly afterward sent as commltndant to LPl'er presidcncy, In 
Cana
la, a l nd remained f th T e } re til [ l 
'ì:!4, wh 1 e l n he was U
:
:.?, i f n C l onse- 
 . 
 
 
appomte< go\-ernor 0 lree {n ers, e was on quence 0 a c umge Il/
o 
the ship. "Chameltu," when it wus wreeked on its in his religious 
way to Quebec, und all on board peri,.;hed, views, he decided 
LO r}
, (;eor
'c' :\fa It b
". soldier, b, in Buffalo, to become a minister, amI, after a course of theo- 
'N, y" 1 Jan" 18:31; d, there, HI :\Iarch, l
Hj, logieal study at Princeton, wns licensed to pl'l>ach 
In the heginning of the civil war he entL'rcd the ùy the Philadelphin preshyteryon 18 April. IH;
:
, 
armv as a three months' volunteer, amI server! as On hi... return to 
t, Louis he established u religious 
sergeant and sergea.nt-mnjor, On his discharge he paper called the .. Observer," in \\ hich he repro- 
re-enli4ed, amI was commissioned 1st lieutenant hated slavery, Repeated threats of moù violf'llce 
in the 44th 
, y, infantry, IIp was promoted cap- impelll'fl him to remo\'e his paper in July, 18;3G, to 
tain on 2 Jan., lt
Iì
, mill participated in the sieg-e Alton. Ill, IIis press was destroypù hy mobs three 
of Yorktown and the hattles of HanoH'" COUl't- times within Ii year; yet he procured a fourth one, 
House nnd :\lah'em Hill. After his second term awl was engaged in sptting it up, when a mob, 
of service har! pxpired he was nppointed major of compo"nl mostly of :\1issourians, uguin attaekefl 
the 1 Wth X, y, volunteers on " Sept" 1
(j
, COlll- the otnee, "ïth his friends he defended the 
marulell the regiment in the Department of the buihling-, and one of his assailants was killed, 
Gulf, and WI\S severely wounLled in the assault on 
\fter the attacking party had apparently with- 
Port Hurlson, He '\"as promoted colonel on Hi drawn, :\Ir, IJovejoy operwLl the door. when he was 
July. uma. awl engaged at Cox's Plantation, at the instantly piereed bv fiTe bullets and died in a few 
battles of Sahine ('ross-roluis mHI Pleasant Hill. minutes, His" :\1emoir" 'HiS puhlished hy his 
111\(1 the skirmi
hes at Canf' BinI' Cro
sing and hrothers, .Joseph (', and Owen, \\ ith an introduc- 
:\1ansum, Ill' afterwnrd comuHullled a bri.rade in tion by John 
, Adams (Xew York, 1tt
8), 
ef', 
the Wth corps for eighteen months, serving tlu'ough also," XarratiYe of Hiots at .\lton. in Connection 
the :-;henanuoah campaign, lIe was engaged at with the Death of Lovejoy," by Edward Bee.che
; 
"ïn('hp
ter and Fisher's II ill. and for gallantry at (Alton. 1
:3
), and .. The Martyrdom of LoveJoy, 
Ceflal' Creek received the brcwt of hri
IHIier-gen- by Hemy Tanner (Chicng-o, m
l),-1I is ùrotlH'r, 
eml anll It bronze medal of honor, He "as mus- Oncll, abolitioni:-:t. h, in ,Alhion, 
Ie" (j Jun.. 1
11; 
tered out on !; J nne, 11;(i3, On 7 :\Iarch, 1
lj" he d. in Brooklyn, N. y,. ::?:) 
Iarch, tSli4, worked on 
wa:, appointNI a :!lIlieutenant in the re
uln.r army, hi:, father's 'farm till he was eighteen years 01L1. 
and l'ecei \ efl fOllr brevets for services in the war, and then entt'red Bowdoin, but left bt'fore gmd ua- 
Ill' was prornotell 1:<t lieutenant on 1 l\Iareh, m;". tion, l'migratp,l to 
\lton. 111.. anfl stufliefl theology, 
and ellgllged in gurrison and frontier seniee until I LIe was l'l"l':,ent when his urothl'l' \\ as murdered. 


I 

 

 
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LOYEL
\CE 


LOVELL 


35 


IUlll wus mowtl bv that event to tlevote himself to LO'"EI.I
, Fr{'dcrick Solon, lawver, b, in 
t hl' 0\ crt hrow of 'shn ery, III' bl'cume pa
tor of It ('hurlesto\\ n, X, 11., 1 
 ov" UH 4; d, hi Keno:,ha, 
Con"'I'e(J'ationul church at Princeton, Ill.. in It-:
t;, \\ïs" 14 1\Iay, 1t);
, lie was graduated at l.eneva 
_\ltl
m
h anti-sht\ery meeting-s \\ere forbidden b
 (now lIobtU"t) college, X, y" in 11":3,), studied law, 
the ht\\
s of Illinois, he opcnly held thcm in all antl aftl'r admission to thl' har in Xew York :-:ettled, 
parts of the state, announcing at mch one the time in 1
;3j, in ::;outhport (now Kenosha), Wis, He 
and phll'e for the ne
t meeting, This course sub- served for three sessions in the territorial council, 
jected him to fl'l'l[llent fines and to violence aIllI in- and took part in the constitutional conventions of 
timidation; but by his eloquence and { ,ersistenc y 1
4G and 1I'34j, In m;jj he sat in the ll'gblature, 
he won manv alllll'rents, and e\ cutua Iv the re- and was a commb:-:ionel' to re\ be the state statutes, 
pressive laws'wel'e rcpeall'll. lie resigneJ his pas- and in 1
.jt\ he wus speaker of the as...emoly, lIe 
toml cluu'gp in 1
,)-! on heing electctl a Illember of enteretl the Xatiomd urmy in August, l
li
, as lieu- 
the 1('(J'islature, In l
,'jti he was sent to congress. tcnant-colonel of the a:;d \Visconsin infantrv, and 
aIllI \;:'1:5 continuell there hv re-election until his served later as colonel of the 4:
d regiment "in the 
death, 
\t the beginning of the civil war he de- southwest. In Januarv. 18li;j. he \\as commissioned 
livered in the house of representatives a remark- colonel of the 4lith règiment, and on 2, ::;ept. of 
able sppech against slavery, in which he recounted that year \\as mustered out, and resumed the I'rac- 
the circumstance.; of his hrother's death, tice of law at Kenosha, 
LOr}
I..\(,E. .'I'aIlC.'is, colonial governor, 0, in I.Or.:I.I., John, etlucator, b, in Boston. :\Iass", 
EnglltlHI about lli;30, Ill' was the second son of IG June, 1 jlO; d, in lIalifux, XO\"U Scotiu. in 1;,
, 
Baron Lovelaee, of lIurley. Berks co" England, a lIe was graduated at lIarvard in 1;
8. suc('cedcd 
member of parliament. and a colonel in the British Jeremy Gridley as assistant ma::;ter of the Boston 
army, Ill' succeelled lUchard Xicoll
. as governor Latin-school in the following- year, and fmm the 
of 
ew ï ork in May, lGlj7, and den
loped more death of Dr, Xathnniel Williams in 1 j:Jt\ till the 
fullv the e
tortionate anll arhitl'al'Y s\-stem of gov- Hpvolution was its head master, In 1 j4:J he deliv- 
ernllll'nt that he found in practièe ihel'e, \\ hen ered the first address in Faneuil hall. on the occa- 
the Swedish settlers of Uelaware were provoked to :,<ion of the death of its founder, I Ie 
as a gooll 
resistance, he decreed fin arhitrary tax. a.;sertin
 scholar and, though a 
tem di:-:ciplinarian, a genial 
that h the method of keeping- the people in ord(.r and witty companion, :\Iaster Lovell taught the 
i
 -;C\rerity, and layin
 such ta'\.es as may give them men in Boston that were leaders in the struggle 
liberty for no thoug-ht but how to discharg-e them." for independence, yet he Rdhered to the loyalh-t 
In X ew York a tn'{ for purpo:,es of defence '\ as cause, find went \\ ith the British troops to lIalifax 
ordained, awl, when the to\\ ns of Long Island I on 14 .:\1 arch, 1,jG, His portrait. by John Smi- 
refu"ed to pay it unless they receivetl the right of hert. hangs in the lianaI'd gallery of paintings, 
repre:-õentation, the go\rernor ordered their protests 1 B6ides his Cuneral oration on Peter Faneuil, he 
to be burned, The people were 011 the vergp of published several politieal and theological pam- 
rebellion when the war began hetween England and l'hlets, and contributed artides in English and 
IIollantl, Xew Jer"ey and Delawal'e surl'entlered Latin to the" Pietas et Uratulatio" (Camoridge, 
willingly to Admiral Evertsen when he appeUl'ed IjGl),-Ilis son, .JauH'
, patriot, b, in Boston, 
\\ith a small fleet in July, lGj:J, and Xew YOl'k .:\lass,,:Jl Oct" lì:n; d, in \Vindham, 1\Ie" 14 July, 
capitulated within four hours after the Dutch 1814, was graduuted at Ilar\rard in 1 j;)li, and was 
squadron had l'a...t anchor off .:\Ianhattan island. his father's a.."sistant in the South grammar- or 
Lo\"elace departed on 3() July, Ill' had interested Latin-school till it was di
persetl on 19 April. 177,), 
himself in the settlement of Ulster county, where on account of the siege. lie Was also master of 
he laid out the town of lIurley, .A volume oC hb the Xorth grammar-
('hool, afterward called the 
"Specches " was published (London, WliO),-Hi.. Eliot school. He delivered, 2 .\pril, 1,,1. the first 
grandson, LORD LovEL.\.cE, succeeded Lord Corn- anniversary oration on the Boston massacrc, In 
bury as governor of Sew York in 1 jilt!, The as- the He\'olution he took the side of the Whigs. and 
:-:embly met in April soon after his arrÍ\-al, and was imprisoned after the hattle of Bunker Hill, 
in:-õisted on voting supplies annually and by specific carried to Halifax with the British army. and kept 
appropI'Ïations, Ill' died on 12 .:\Iay, 17'09, leaving in dose confinement, \\ hilp his futher was there as 
the contest to be waged by his successor, a Tory refugee. until. III Sowmoer. 17'j6, he wa... 
LOrEI.L. ('lInrh's Snnin. soldier, b, in Hull, exchangetl for Coi. Philip ::;kene, On his return 
:\Ia:-:s" 1:
 Peb,. 1811; d, in Loniwille, Ky.. a ,Jan" to Boston he was elected a member of the Con- 
18.1. Ill' enlisted a... a private in the 2d U, S, ar- tinental congress, and sened from Decemher,I,,(j, 
tillery in January, It\;H, and sl.rved in mrious gar- till 1782, During the quarrel between (jen, Horatio 
rison:5, rising- to quartermaster-sergeant, sergeant- Gates and Gen, Philip ::;chuyler. early in 1777. Lovell 
major, and. in Octooer, 1$
j, to :!d lieutenant. He wa" a correspondent and confidant of the former, 
was promoted 1st lieutenant in J uly, 1
:J
, captain, and the recipient of his plan of campaign, He 
IH J nne, It\-!f). ami took part in the battles of encouraged Gates in dealing directly with con- 
Churubusco, 
Iolino del Hey, Chapultepec, and the I gress. over the head of (jen, Washington, amI \\as 
city of .:\Ie
ico, He then served in the territories one of the malcontents that sought to mttke Gates 
till the civil war, and after promotion to major, on commander-in-chif'f, thrpatening \Yashington, in a 
14 :\lay, ISfH, commanded a brigade at Gaines's I letter date(l 11 Oet., 1 jjj, \\ ith a "torrent of 
:\lills, :\lah r ern Hill, the second battle of Bull Run, public clamor and vengeance," and in another 
Antietam. and .Fredericksburg, From 18G:3 till describing hIm as a g-eneral that collected men to 
1
lj.) he wa", on provost-marshal duty in Wi.;;consin, wear out 
hoes and breeches, and that had ,. Fabi- 
aIlll he was promoted lieutenant-colonel, 21 Jan" u"ed matters into a very di:-:agreeable po:-:ture," 
Il-;li:J, and colonel of the 14th infantry, IG Feb" Lowll wa" a diligent member of the committee on 
18G,j, He Wa'; brevettpd lieutenant-colonel for gal- foreign COl'l'f'...pondence, :';ome of his lettprs were 
Ian try at Gaines's 11ills. colonel far .:\Iahern Hill, printed in Richard II, Lee's' life of his ol'other 
alHI briga(lier-general, e.:;, army, for Antietam, _-\.rthur, Hp was receiver of taxes at ßo
ton f('om 
After the war he commanded hi" rpgiment at Fort 1 j84 till 1 jl"
, then colleetor of the port till 17!IO, 
Yuma. ('ul.. and on I,J Dee" l"jù, was retired from I and uftf'r that naml officer till his death, He 
acti\-e senice, puhli:-:hed sewral tract:-:, and a Latin oration on 



36 


LOVEIU
G 


LOVEWELL 


the death of Henry Flint (17fiO),-,James's !"on, chair he still (l
HÏ) retains, bpcomin
 also in 
.rallH's. I'oldier, b, in Boston, )Iass.. !) July, 175t): 1Ht'4 director of thp .Jl'fferson physil'al lahoratory, 
d, in ::;t, :\l.ttthews, ::;, C.. 10 July, m,)o, \\as 
radu- In addition to his college work, liP has gi\-en nine 
ated at [Janard in 1,ìl..i. Ill' joined the l{e\-olu- courses, each of twehe ]ecture
, on astronomy or 
tionary army as adjutant of Henry Jackson's physics before the LU\\l'll institute of Bu;ton, 
.:\]assachusetts regiIllent in the beginning of 17,7, Five of these courses were repeated, on the da)s 
fOlwht in many battles, and was severelv woumlell. follo\,ing those of their fil'st ùeli\'el'y, to another 
In r.ì!)-'t\
 he' served as mljutant of Gen, Henry audience, according' to the original pmcti('e of 
Lee's southern lcgion, with the rank of major,- that institution, lIe has ùelivprcd shorter courses 
The secoml .James's son, .Jost'ph, physician, h, in of lectures at the Smithsonian institution, the 
Boston, ':\lass" 2
 Dee" 178H; d, in \Vashington, Peabody institute of Baltimore, and the Charitable 
1>, ('" 17 Oet., 1S3G, was grlllluatcd at I1arvanl in meehaIiics' institution of Boston, and one or more 
IH07, studied IlH'dicine, and on 1.') 1\111)", 1812, \\as Ipctures in Illany towns and cities of Kew England, 
appointed surgeon of the m h U, ::;, infantry, lie Durin
 It!fìi -'.f) he \\ as connech-d with the U, S, 
served on the Xing-ara frontier, allll on au .1 unp, coa!"t sun cy, amI had dutrge of the computntions 
H314, was appointed a hosVital surgeon there, On fordeterminil\
tl'llns-Atlantielollgitudpsfromtele- 
It) April, IHIH, he hecame surgeon-general of the graphic ousenation
 on cahle lines, Pruf, Lover- 
U, 
, army.-,To
pph's son, :;\[allsfit'lcl, soldier, h, íng re('eiH'd the deg-rce of LL. f), from Jlal'\'arù 
in 'Vm;hington, D, C" 20 Ue1., 1tì22; d, in Xew in IH.!J, mHl \\as regl'nt of thnt colleg-e in H
,j:3-'4 
York city, 1 June, 1 tì
-!, was graduated at the U,:::;, and in 1H.)Î-'.U, an ot1ic'e no\\ merg-ed into that of 
military academy in 1"42, appointed a lieutpllallt dean, Ill- is a memhpl' of the American philo- 
of artillt-r)-, and :<erved in the oecupat ion of Tðu:< sophical society and of the KatiOll1l1 academy of 
in IH-!,)-'/i, and in the war with )[exieo WfiS ai(ll' :<ciellce
, l>urin
 1 H,)4-''ìa he wa
 permanent 
e('I'('- 
to Gell, .Tohn 
\, (luitmnn and assistallt adjutnnt- tan of the Amcrican w"slIl'itltion fill' the ndnlJlce- 
general of his di\ision, heing- promoted 1st IiNl- meilt of scipnce, nlld edit ell fiftel'n yolumes of its 
tellant on 1ü Feb" It:<4ì, Jlp was wounded at pl'O.ccedinw;,hecominginlHj:
 its president. In Htm 
:\Iontl-'re)". brcyettell captnin for hraxeryat l'hapul- he was p]ectel1 a memher of the .Ameri('an ue,Hh'mv 
teppc, allil severely \\ ounded at the Belen nate. of arts tln
l S('
l:nc::.:
, 
\}(l ].le \\ as i.ts C'()r!'e"I'I
,
l1

g 
Aftpl' the war he sen-ed on the Kansas frolltier for SI'<'I'(-tary m IH(.i!)- j,t Its Vlce-pres\lll'nt m18,lJ- t\O, 
two rears, On IH Dec.. ltì;j.t he allll his c1fiSSnH1Íl" alii 1 presil]C'nt in 1
HO-'7, Prof. Lon'ring- hns 
Gustavus A, Smith, resig-nell in order to tnhe hi
h been an inllefatigahle contrihutor of scientifil' arti- 
commlllHls in Gpn, (luitman's proj(.ctetl ('uhan ('Ies to contcmporaQ litl'rature, allit in addition to 
expellitioll, 
\.fter tl1(' failure of till' project thc)' :<pcdal nll'moirs on thc au rom , tcrrestrial magnct- 
found employment in connedion \\ ith Cooper and ism, allil the lletel'lnination of tl'alls-Atluntic longi- 
Jle\\itt'!" iron-works at Trenton, 
"J. Tn .\pril, tude, which \VcrI' puhlished hy thc 
\mericnn ncad- 
lK;
, Lovell was appointpd 
uperintpndcnt of emy, he has }In'parl'll a yolume on the" Aurora 
strept improvements in Xew York city, and in Bor('alis" (Boston, 18ì:l), and e(lited a w'w pclition 
Xon'mher of that ypar l1epnty street-commi:-sioner of Farrar's" Elect ricity and :\Iagnetism .. (1
42), 
ulliler his fril'l III Smith, At the heg-inning (If the to,..,:"'}:tl., .Johll. l'l'ntewu'inn, b, in Eng- 
eivil Wal' he- \\l'nt to the south with Gen, 
mith, lanù, ahout 1fi:
-!: d, in Ihm:-:table, :\Ia
s.. ahout 
was commissioned as a 111.i
lHlil'r-gelll'I'II1 in the 1,,)4-, lie \\as nn en
jgn in Olin>r L'rnmwl-lr
 army 
Confellerate senÍl'e, anù on 9 ()et" l
Gl, WIIS ahout lfi;j:J, nftel'\\llnl emigrated to Xl'W England, 
made a nmjor-genl'l'Itl mill plal'el1 in commallll at Sl'tt led in \Y (,)'1IIOUt h, MIIS:<" and \\ a
 \\ it h ('apt, 

ew Orleans, rc]ieving ({l'n, 1>a.\ ill E. Twig/;s, Benjamin Churl'h durin
 King Philip's \\111' tmd in 
When the forts were cal'turl'tl by the Xational the Karragansett Swamp fight of HI Pl'c.. W.,), He 
forel's he withdrew his troops, and, Oil the com- remO\ l'd to Dunstable, where he \\ns 
till e(lnstant 
plaint of the mayor that he hllll left the citizen:- in IIttl'1lI1allCe nt church at the uge of 110, and 
without military l'rote('Íion, eXplained that it wa
 wll('ll 11, \ cars 0111 uSl'd to chase hovs out of his 
for the purpose of sl.1\ing the tOWIl from a hom- 01"1,11111"11 wÌth a l'alle,-lIis son, Jè.bn, Indian 
Lardment. otfering to return if the citizens desired fighter, It, in tll(' I,orùer part of 1>uu!-'tnl,I(', J\lass" 
to continue the dpf'cncl', After tIll' 
urrellllpr of \\hi('hsuhsef)lIl'ntlyfl'l1withinwhat buo\\ Xa:-hua, 
Xl'w Orleans to Farragnt, 2GApl'il, ltì(.i
, he joined X, II., 14 lid,. 1fi!I1: d, ill the Pig'Wacket \\ildl'r- 
Uen, Bcauregard in llOrthern :\lississippi, allli com- Ill'S:<, uear Ossipce lake, tì May, li2:), wa:<, lik(> his 
IIHtnlkd one of tIll' divi
ions that werl' routeù Itv fathcr, It man of, rPllwJ'hah]p l'ouruge nud physical 
Gen, \Villiam 
, ]{Ilseeran:, at ('orinth, 4 Oct.. It'IÎ
, yig-or, aud fond uf mh-enturous enterpri:<es: and 
.At the battle of llntl'hil' his division constitutl'l] in tilllP of war engagell in l'),.ploring- the \\ilde1'l1('s
 
thl' I'ear-gual"ll of the retreating army, 11(' com- to find the ]urhing-phlces of the Indians, At the 
lWlJIdl'd the ('onfedel'llte forcl's at the battle of head of It company of thirty men, attracted by a 
CníTee\-ille, \Vhen Gf'n, Leonida
 Polh was killed, hounty of tlOO that hall bcen offered for e\ pry 
14 JmH', ltìli4, Lovell sllC'l'e('lkd to the commanl] of lndian !:'cnlp, II(' llwrehet! to the nnrth of "ïllJIi- 
the corps, and on 
7 ,lUlll' repellcil Gl'n, Sherman's piseogee lake, on III Dpc" 1.24,111111 rl'turnpd \\ith 
attaf'k on his intJ'enehments at [(enesaw, \\lll'n one :-;calp and u hoy prisoner, "ïth forty llWll he 
the \\ar \\as ended he retired tC) a riee-plantatioll surprised tell Indians lll'ar TumwOl'th, 
, II., un 
Ileal' 
a\'annah, (;a" hut not long afterward wcnt 20 Fl'b., 1.2:), and marf'hetl into I>owr with thl'ir 
to Kew York ('ity, and was engaged us an assistant scalp!" e
hiltiÌl'd on pole
, In hi
 thinl and last 
pn
inel'r under (;('n, .101m X l'wton in removil}O' pxpl'flit ion hI' 1('11 forty-six men to fittllck the I n- 
thè Ea,.,t ri\l'r oh"tl"llf'tiollS at Ilf'llgllte, to dian town of Pigwnchet. thp yillllge of the O:-::<ipl'e 
],OlER'
H. Jmi('ph. physi<'ist, h, in Charles- or Pigwal'ket trihe, Aftf'r 1ea\-ing twelw mpn in 
town (nuw It I,art of HO:<toll), :\[;ISS.. :!.) Dec.. IHIH, a fort that hI' Imilt near O
:<irl'P lahe, lw nUIJ'f'hed 
lie was gralhwtell at llanaI'd ill It'a:t alill atter to tJw north of the ]nkf' with his commaIlil. 1'e- 
tt'aehing for It ) ear ill ('harle:<town spent two Yl-ars duel'd to thirty-four, "ldle tlÌ nlOrnin
 pra
ers 
in Harnml llidnity-school. In l
ali Ill' wa
 ap- the company \\el"(, nlarmed by the rp}lort of a g-un 
pointp,1 tutor in mathemntif's and physics in Ihll'- and the tli
covery of an Intlian, They]dt thdr 
vfiril, :UHl two yeaI's latel' was m:1I1e l101li.;: profes- pa('ks, and lHhanced, seeking the PI1l'my in front; 
"or (If matJwlllatil''' II III 1 natural philosophy, whielJ J but the Tlllli:ms had gaim'd their real', amI took 



LOW 


J.o\V 


37 


po

e
:<ion of their camp, The savages outnum- 
f'rvf'1l for anot her term of two ,-pars, Shortlvafter 
bered the English t\\O to one, and \\I're comnuuHled hio; rl'til'I'IIH'lIt f!'OlIl ofTiee he \vf'nt aLroall, ;uHl in 
by their aLII' chief. PIlU
US, TIll'\' \\ere met in a )
!In I.1'('allll' pl"l'",illpnt of Columhia eolll'
f', 
si,urseh- wooded place, I
nd ut t hè fir
t fire ('apt. 1.0 n, I::d" art!, Engli,.;h huce:meer, 1
 in "
est- 
LOH'\\èll fell, Jllortally \\OUlHIl'd, Hi,.; ml'n \\ ith- min,.;tl'r, Lowlon: d, in :\Iartinil)ue in ) ì
,t He 
drew ill goml onlel' tit the lal-.e to escape Ill'ing sur- \\as entil'l'l
 unedueated and manife:<ted ,ieious in- 
rounded. and the fi
ht continued from 10 .\, )1, till elinations fwm I!is c
il,lhood, ,\ftf'r making 
ni,rhtfall, when tilt' Indians. having lo
t their ('hief. severul, "yag-l'''; "lth Ius brother. he \\ ent ulone 
retired froJll the field, Unly Hinl' of Capt. Love- tl) Boston. where he elllhurked on a \l'ssel that \\as 
well's cOlllpany l':<l'ul'e!l unhurt. The :-urvivors Itnll hound for the Gulf of IlolHlum
, Uf'I"l' lIf' quar- 
thf' \\ idO\\ s and children of the slain recl'iH'd a rellt'll with the l'aptain. and, putt ing to sl'a in the 
grant of Lo\ e\\ ell's t 0\\ II or 
unc()ok (now PeUl- long- - hoat \\ ith Sl'H'l'al COlli pa nion:-. ('apture!l a 
hroke), S, 11, .\ long balhul. entitled" IJO\e\\ell's small 
hip, on whieh thl'
 rai";l'd the hlaek flag, 
Fig-ht," "as eomposl'd at the time, Hev. Thomas amI hCl'ume pirates, By l;

 he had 
I'Yl'ral \e8- 


 Ìnml S publislll'd .. 11 istorieal )[ellloirs of the 
l'Is under hi,.; commalHl "ith w hidl he 1":\ nlge!l 
Fight of Pigwacket:' "ith a :-ermon on Lovewell's the coasts of Xl'\\ Eng-Iawl mill thl' .\ntilles, His 
deuth (1 7
.)), Thi
 wa,.; rl'puhlished, with notes by crp\\,.; \\ e!'l' cono;tantl v inerl'a:<l'd h\ sailors t hut 
Xatlumiel Bouton (Bo:<ton, 1
lil), 
ee nbo "1":\.1'e- dl':<erted their 
hifJ"; ('n' \\pre forcel!' to join him, 
ditions of t'apt. Lovewell," f'dited hy FredeI'Ïek In the roud:<tf'ml of 
t, l\JiclHIl,1 he took sP'l'ral 
Killtler (1
li"-I),-1Ii
 Lrother, Za('('h{'lIs, 
oldil'l'. b. 
hip
, and, being in want of water nnd provision:<, 
in Dun4ahle. 
[a,.;s", 

 J ul v, 17(11: d, tlll're, l
 he had the bolllness to demund them of the gov- 

\ pril, 1 Îì:? 
en ed in the FI:eneh \\ aI', sucl'el'ding' ernor of 
t. :\1 i(.hlll'l. III'omi:-ing to surl'l'ndcr the 
.Jo
pph Blanchard u
 colonel of the rl'g-iment ot capturl'
 he had ju
t millIe, und tlm'atf'ning to 
Xew IJamp:<hir'e volunteers in .\pril, 1 Î:;
, and wa
 hurn them if hi:- demaIHls '\('I"e not complied \\ ith, 
orderetl to join ('l'n, Pri']Plm,\: at Xiug-nm on 2!1 TIll' gOVl'rnor llitl \\hat the pirutl,:< u:<kel1.and Low 
.Julv, lÎ,")9,-_\nothl'r hl'llthl'r, .Jollathall, h, in kl'pt hi,.; \\ord, ()n returning to thl' _\ntilll's, Ill' 
Duibtahle. :\1:1....";" 14 :\[It\-, 1 ìl:J: Ù, in 1 ill:.? \\as a committed horrihle C'ruelties on those who fl'll into 
prl'aeher. and in latl'r lifè ",a':Ì appointed u. jwl,g'e, his pU\\l'r, l':-pf'eiull
 on thoo;f' \\ ho coneeuled tlll'ir 
Ln\\". .\bil'l _\hhot, merchant, b, in Salem, mone\' or threw it into tIll' :-l'U, In an eng-age- 
)[a
:<", 7 Feb" HHI. lie "u
 ellueated in the pub- ment" with a ship-of-\\ar, in JurIf', 1 ì:.?3, oìil' of 
lic schools, ear'lv became a ell'l'k in a mereantile Low's ye:<:<els wa" 
o hadly damaged that he left it 
house. allll suh,.;
quentlr for :<en'ml Yl'llrS \\ lIS \\ it h to its fute lInd fled, This ship wns tal-.en and 
hi
 father, who was an impol'ter of dru,g'
 allll lH'ought to I:hodl' },.;Iand, wlwl'l' two thirds of the 
India g-oods in Xew York city, and had ('('sided in erew' \\ ere hung-l'll. 
\ftel' this tllf' ca('('l'r of Low 
BI'ookh n. X, y" since It'
!I, In 1
:::J he sailell for \\no; marked hy greatl'r atrúcitil's, lIis fleet in- 
Canton", {'hina, whf'I'e he hecame a partner in an ('rea"el1. for he oftl:n manned thl' Ye

eJs that h(' 
.\meriean mel'(
antile hou
e in 1
37, Thl'l'e veur
 took, gÏ\ ing- the eommaIHI to one of his subonli- 
later he returned home amI engaged in the ('hina nates, Xot only Xew Eng-lund, ('''pc. Breton, 
tea and silk trade, _\s his Lusine:<s inc!'l'a:<l'd he Kl'\\ foundlund. and tlIf' 
\ntil\es 
uffl'l"ell from hi,.; 
built many of his own ships, lie was mlule a mem- ravages, hut they l'xtended as far a.... the eoasb of 
hel' of the Xe\\ York chamher of ('ommeref' in Guineu, Crueltv hud hpcome so familiar to him 
IS-tG. and in ltìü;} was eIel'ted it,.; presidl'nt. hoilling that he took Utl eagel' plf'a
ure in torturing and 
the offiee until the close of I:-<GIi, when he resigned, IntlI'llering his JH'i,.;oners, To\\ard the f'nd of July, 
He \\ as fr('lllwntly called upon to address the cham- 1 ì2:3, h(' captured a large veSSl'1. of \\ hif'h II(> took 
bel' amI other bodies, or to consult with the gOY- command. with the title of admiral. Hnd hoi
ted 
ernnll'nt at "r no;llÏngton in relation to commercial on the main-mast a black flag with a deuth's-hefl(l 
or financial intere:-ts. and hi" voice and influenel' in !'l'd, "-hen he was in the ('arihhean Sea in 
were ah\ays decidl'd ulHl 1'0wPI'fui in support of ,January, 17:.?4, a quarrd aro:<e hetween him and 
the plighted faith of the nation, During the war his crew, The officer ne,\:t in command sho\\ed 
he was treasurer IIf the l-nion defence committee of himself yiolently ol'po:<l'11 to an entprpri
e on 
Xew '\ ork, a ml'mhl'r of the '\Ill' fund committee "hich Low was bent. and the lattl'r aH'nt:'l'd him- 
of Brooklyn, and pl'e,.;ident of the general commit- <:elf by murdering his subordinate in iris :-lpep, 
tf'e of citizens in Brookl
 n that was appointed in The crew seized their leader und two or three 
aid of the sanitary :<en'iee, )[1', Low has been for of his partisan:<, lowered them into a boat, find 
many years president of the board of trustees of ahandoned them" ithout pro\ isions, A ship from 
,the PaC'ker institute, He h"", contrihuted gifts to 
[artinique met them and brought them to the 
the Brooklyn library. the {'ity ho
pital. and many island, wherc they '\ere recognii:l'ù and e'\:('cuteù, 
other edueational, benevolent. and relidous enter- See" lIi,.;tory of the English Pirates," l,y (,harle
 
pri....es,-IIis son, St..th, merchant. b, in Brooklyn, John....nn (London, 1 ì:34), 
X. y" 18 Jan" I s "")O, was graduated at Columhia in LOW. .'r{'dcri('k F{'('dinnnd. go\Crnorof Cali- 
IH70, bpcame a clerk in his father's mereantile fornia. b, in Frankfort, Me" 30 J une, 1
:.'!
, He \\ a
 
house, and in 187,) was tulmittetl as a partner, Ill' trainptl for mercantile life in Bo
ton. )[a::,::", "ent 
"as elected a memher of the Xew York ehmnher to California in 18-t9, and, ufter spending some time 
of commerce, and made addrp:<
ps on the earrying in the mines, estahlishpd himself in Lu:-ine:<s in 
tratle and relnted suhjeets, which commanded at- '"'an Francisco, and in 1
3-t remo\-ed to .ì\IaQsyille, 
tention, )[1', Low was a founder of the Rrookh n where he beeame a banker, Ill' was eleeted as a 
bureau of eharities and it
 first president, and Out Rppublican to congre:<s in l
liO. and. after till' ex- 
the same time he hpgall to take part in politieal piration of his term in 18G:J. \\a
 appointed collector 
rf'form, He wa., nominated for the mayoralty in of thl' port of San Franeiseo, He \\a,.; elected go\"- 
I
Hl a,.; a reform cantlidnte. and, heing elècted by a ernor the same ypar, and served for the four-, eurs' 
decisive mnjority. gained much praise hy his ad- tprm be!.rÏrming"1 ,Tan" IHG4, From 1
li!) tili I
Î4 
ministration of the city government, TIe was the he was C::;, mini..ter to China, 1n FdH"lmry. l
ìl, 
first mayor in the state to introduce the system of hp" a:-: pmpowPl'ed to negotiate with ('01"l'a for the 
compptitiye examination for appointment,.; to mu- protection of shipwrecked 
eampn and for a treaty 
nicipal offieLs, Ill' wns re-elpcted in It;
3, and J of commerce and navigation, 



38 


LOW 


LOWE 


LOW. Isaac. merchant, b, near Xew nrun
wick, UnrE. Du\id I
('arl,. juri
t, b, in Oneida 

, J.. about 173,); d, in England in 17t11. Ill' ac- countv, X, Y,.22 Aug" 1
:!:t lIe waS gradultted 
(luired It fortune by trade in 
ew York city, and in at thè law dl'partment L'f Cincinnati coIle
e in 1
,)1, 
the early part of the l{('volutionary conflict was un pru('ti
l'd in that city for tl'n 
 ear:" and th('n re- 
acth"e \Vhig, lIe made public 
pl'eche
 in favor moved to Kan
as, and took up hi
 residence at 
of re
istance to taxation without repre
entation, )[ounù Cit\r, lIe <ll'clilwd the nomination of the 
thOlwh oppo
e<l to the dl'mand for independence, Cnion party in l
li
 for attorney-general of the 
wa'" glmirman of the first committee of fifty that "tate, hut was elected u member of the state senate, 
wa
 appointed to eorre
pond with the othm= colo- and 
l'l'\'ed two year
, During the raid of Gen, 
nies, anll contilllH'<l as chairman of the 1H'W com- 
terling Price into Kun:,;as he performf'd military 
mittee, lIe was al
o elccted, with John Jav and service as a lieutenant-colonel on Go\'. Thoma" 
other consernttiws, to the 1st ContinentaÌ con- ('arnev's stfiff, lIe was defeated as a candidate 
gress, took part in its deliberation:,. awl was a mem- for cliicf ju
tice in 1
(jû, \\a:,; a dbtriet judge in 
bel' of the Pro\"Íncial congress of X ew York in 1 773, 1
(j'j-'71, and \\ as t\\ ice electl'd to cong1'C
s as a 
He was the fir:4 :-igner of the a,,::,ol'iation on 29 Hepublican, serving from 4 )Iarch, It'.1. till ;3 
April, Ii.,), an(L on that occasion delivered a vio- )Iarch, U,.,), He wa
 appointpd a commbsionel' of 
lent spee(.h again:4 the king and parliament; yd, pcnsions, am1 d('clined, hut accepted the chief jus- 
while his colleagues in congress emhraeed the re- tice
hip of Ctuh territory, alill suh,equently re- 
publican call!'e, he sought :-:afety 1Iy a.dhering to the sumeò pmetice in Fort ::;cott. Kun, 
crown, In 17.(j he was arrestecl on the charge of I.OW}
. .John. poet, h, TIcal' Xew Galloway. ::;('ot- 
holding trea
onable corresponùence with the enemy, land, in l"iO: d, in CulpC'per county, \" a.. in De- 
He remained in the city during the Briti
h occu- cember, 1'jtlH, lIe was a !'on of the g:ml('J1('r of 
pation, and was one of the persons nanwd in an act Kenlllure ca:-:tle, all(l WllS appn'nticed to a \\eaver, 
of attaindPl' that WfiS pas,.:eil l)y the X ew York as- bu t fOUIllIIIll'an
 to pur
ue the acaùemical course 

emhlv on 22 Oct., 1 'j.tI, '[I'. Low was appointed at Edinburgh. ami studied theology while teaching 
by ::;Ü: Guy Carleton, prf'viou
ly to the evacuation, in the fumily of a gentleman nanwdl\[cGhie, \\ith 
one of a hoal"ll of commissioners to enforce,the pay-' who
e Ilaughter he C'x('hanged \-OWS of affeetion, 
ment of debts that were due to the departing loyal- J[(> wrote, erses de:-:t'ripti\'C of the s('C'llery of the 
bts, lIe went to England, and his property. inc\ud- Hi\"er Dpe und IJoch Ken, and wa..; in
l'irC'd by the 
ing a tract of land in Tryon county, was confi
cated, ùeath at sea of the lover of It sister of his betrotheù 
-IIis wife, who \\as a daughter of the mayor of AI- to composC' a melodious and alIecting bull:1I1 called 
banv and a 
ister of 
ir Cornelius f'uder, was noted .. )[ary's Dream," hy whieh his fame a..; a poet hns 
for her heauty of p('l'son and gentle lnanners, She hC'en lll'eservc(l. :Xot ohtaining n. churge in 
eot- 
died in Lontlon in l

n, at the a:.re of ci:.rhty,-Thl'ir land, he emigratt'd to thi:-: countl'v in 1..3. to l)C'- 
only son, ISAAC, became a commi
sary-:.reneral in come a tutor'in the family of Heol'g.t' \Vashington's 
the British armv,-The first baae's In'other, Xic'ho. elder brother, lIe sllbsl'lluently conducted a board- 
Ins. merchant: b, near X ew Brunswick. 
, ,J ,.;30 ing-sehool at Frl'dl'rick
hurg. Va.. which wns at 
::\larch, 1 ì
tI; d, in Xew York city. 1,) XO\",. l
;!li, fir:-:t supces"fnl. hut cVl'ntualk failed, Amid lIeW 
heeame a prominC'nt merchant in Xew York city :,cenes he forgot the lady to'" hom his faith was 
hefore the ltevolution, e
pou
ed the cause of in- pledgell, and m:u'ried an 
\merican, but the union 
depemlence, and was electell a memher of the as- was nllt hltpp
 and he died at the hou:-:e of a friell(l, 
semhly, and of the convention that adopted the hm-ing, it is suspected, taken It dO"l' of laudanum, 
United 
tates con!'titution, lIe hecmne, in 17!lfi, His poetit'al compo
itions \\ere printed in Richard 
part proprietor of It large tract in Jl'ffer:-;on and II. Cromek's ,. Remains of 
ithe,.:dalc Ilwl Gallo- 
J1ewis cOllnti('
, X, Y.. huilt a hotel allli a cotton- way Song:' with n memoir hy He\, )11', Gillespie, 
factory in Ballston. 
, y" about 1
10, und after- ::;ee al
o Jame..; Grant \Yil
(ln's .. Poet
 and Poptry 
\\ard devoted himself to the settlement of his land, of Scotlmul" (XC'w York, l
j(i), 
which inchllied the sites of Adams, ""atertown, LOW"
. John Willia1ll!o\on, soldier, b, in Xew 
and Lo\V\'ille, Brunswiek. X, ,T., U Xo\'" l
O!); d, in Xicholas 
LOW. SalUlU'I, poet, b, 12 De(',. 1 iû3; date of county, Va,. 10 Sept.. lölil. lIe learned the print- 
dt'ath unknown, lIe puhlishell his h POl'ms" in two er's trade in K ew York dty, t-ettled in Batavia, 
\'olumes (Xew York,1t;OO), The first piece is an Clermont co,. Ohio, in IH:!:( 
tudied law, \\as ad- 
ode on the dea.th of Wfi",hington, which was recited mitteù to the hal', and praeti
C'd in Da
 ton. am1 
hy John l[odgkin
on in the 
ew York theatre on suh
('( \ Uently in Xenia, Ohio, Ill' \HI
 a captain in 
S Jan" 11'00, The collection cont:tin
 also sonn('ts the:!( Ohio \olunteers during the Mexican war, 
on nHLny suujects. humorous poems. patriotic odes anù in the heginning- of the eh il war joined the 
on the fourth of July anù the aùoption of the con- Xational army us captain of Ow fir:-:t conl)mny that 

titution, atHI a long descriptive l'ol'm on .. \Vinter wa
 rai
ed in Greene county, anll \HIS ele('ted colo- 
Displa
'etl." whieh was fir:-:t puLlishell in 1Ît'-t, nel of tIll' 12th Ohio infantry, whi('h formed p:lrt 
J.OW, Will HicuL.. artist, b, in Albany, X, y" of Gen, .1acob D, ('ox's brigade that opemted in 
31 l\lay, 1t;,i;3, He supported him
plf in Kew York we,..tern Virginia, and cleared the Kanawhu \'filley 
city in 1t;iO-'3 by making illu,.:trations for period i- of the enemy, Co!. 11m\'(' on 17 July, IHlil, at- 
culs, and in.18.:
-:7 wa
 a pupil of G
rûme 
nd ('a.ro- t
lC'kpd the enemy's position on Scary creek, but re- 
Ius-Duran m Pans, After completmg- Ins studies, tU"ed \\ ht'n his ammunition was nearl\r e
hau:-:t('(l. 
he I'l'tumerl to the Cnited States and opened a lIe took part in the occupation of Ch:;rlc:,tol1, Va" 
studio in Kew York, He was one of tilt' founùers und at Carnife
 Ferrv fell while ll'adin:.r his I'egi- 
of the Socictx of 
\meri('
n aI
i,.:ts: 
mon.g. his ment ir
 a ('harge agaill,.:t a strongl
" po
ted ha
h>ry, 
works arc" Xme of the Flr
t EmpIre, e
hlulted I 1.0" E. Martha Alln. poC't, b. m Kpene, X, l[" 
at t.h,
' P(,lri
 salon (1
'j(i); :. P()

l'ait of .:\l
le: Al- 21 XO\'" IH:!tI, l1
r maidl'n name Wll" PeI:"r. 
he 
bam, .. CallIng Home the Cows (l/;:::!O);" 
kIpper wa" educated at h.eene aemlemy and at ElIzaheth 
Ireson" (1/;
1); ".Arcades" (mR2); ùIHL .. Telling Seclg\\ ick's s('hool in I1enox, :\la:,,.;,, find m;IITied 
the Bees" (1t'
4), Ill' has illnstmtf'd two volumes in 1/;:)'j U('\" ('harles IJowe, of Exeter, X, II, She 
of Keats's poems-the" [Jamia" (1S
5) aluL .. Odes accompanied her husband to Europe in 1/;.1. and 
and :O;onnets" (188'j)-und has done sOllie good work during two years' re
illl'Iwe there corre
Jlnn<led 
in stainell-glass and house decoration, with the ,. Lib(,l':ll Chri
tian," J leI' puhlished 



LOWE 


LOWELL 


3!) 


w(lrks are .. The Olh-e and till' Pine" (Roston. of cavalry on !) :\Iay. lRG1. s('rycd through tho 
1:4,)H): .. LI)\"e in Spain, and other Popms" (1::;07); )llI.lH


aS campaign. and during the following 
.. The Stun of Chid Jo
cph "(It\
I); and" )I...moir winter organized tht' 5th regiment of TO\Ht volun- 
of Chllrh'
- Lowe ,. (1

:;), t('er cavalry. of whi('h he was made eolonel on 1 
LUn K 'l'Iuulcieus S, f'., Rl:ronaut. h, in ,Tdfer- ,Tan.. l
ü:?: In }<\.hruary he partieipatpd in tho 
son, S, Jl" 20 .\ug,. ltì3:!. He made his earlie
t Tl'nne:-sl't' cmnl'uign, and wa" engaged in thl' cap- 
vovarrr,.: n.hout 11'!,)8, Illlll during one of them rose ture of Fort I>lIIwlson, of \\ hich he wns cumman- 
to'a hei
ht of :!:J,OOO feet. On:!O April. H3Gl. he dùnt till )larch, l
fi:J, repdling various attacks, 110 
rl'se from Cincinnati. Ohio. at 4 A, 
I" in R hal- subsequently ('ollllnan(!t.d a brigade or u division 
loon, anll driftt
,l first wcstwartl, but afterwul'll to in cavalry operations in middle Tennl'

ee, nOl'th- 
t he southeast, IIttaining un altitude (If 1
,O()O feet. ern 
\Iahama, awl Gporgia, receiving the hl'ev('t of 
He descendeù in Union (-ounty. 
, C.. after heing major for gallnntr." in un en.
agement near Chil'ka- 
in the air eight hours Ilnd traversing 3,30 miles in mauga. Ga,. and that of lieutenant-colonel fur a 
a strai"ht line, lIe next announced his intention cavalrv nction n('ar Huntsville. 
\la, In the ad- 
of cro
ing the .\tlantic ocean hy means of a bal- vance' from Chattunuoga he comnmlllleLl th(' Hd 
loon. an,l for this purpose constructed one of cavalry Lli\'Ïsion until relieved hv Gen, Jmbon Kil- 
()iled cotton \\ ith a cupaeity of 7:!3,OOO cubic feet; patrick. and ng-ain after that ùfflcpr wa.s wounùed, 
hut ufter several unsucce!'sful attempts to inflate From ,July, ltìli4, till JanUatT, l
fi,\ he was em- 
it. he abandoned the attempt, Soon al1er the be- ploved in. remounting euyalrÿ at Kashville. heing 

inning of the ch il war he visited Wa
hington mu
tererl out of the yoluntecr seryicf' on 24 Jan" 
for the purpose of recommending to the goyern- 186,), III' sub:.equl'ntly sl'rwd as chid mustering 
ment the tlesirabilitv of usin
 halloons for obscrv- and dishursing- oflicpr for KanslIs, Sel,)'fiska.. l>a- 
in
 the movements òf the eTl
mv, lIe made several kotu, and Colorado, lIe was brevetted colonel allli 
earth e ascensions (those in which the halloon is brigallier-geneml for f.:l'I'\-ices in the \\ aI', and pro- 
held to the earth. awl finally drawn down, by mot('d major on 31 July, 18G(j, lIe left the army 
.a long rope) fl'om the grounds of the Smithsonian on 2:1 June. IS(i!), organi.ll'd smeltmg and refining 
institution, allli was then made ('hief aëronautic works in Omaha, Keb.. engaged in mining in utah, 
cngineer of the army, Several balloon
, in the constructed a railroad, huilt on the Salmon river 
hand,.; of his assistant. made a
censions; but us the fir:.t smelting-works in l11aho, and more rceent- 
they \\ere independent of any branch of the s"er- Iy prospect('d fer petroleum in Wyoming territory. 
vÍC'e, t}H.'ir efficiency was greatl v im pai red, :\11', anrl discoY('red a \\ ell of lubricating-oil on the 
Lowe was the first to make experiments in 
ending Little Popoagi(' riycr, 
messages In'the electric telegraph from a balloon LOWELL, JaIlH'
 Un...:o.t\lI. poet ana essayist, 
to the grouilll; but, although he was successful, his b, in Cambridge. :\Ia,..:-" 2:? Feb" 11-! 1!), lIe i
 a 
on 
de\-ice does not appear to hu\.e b('en put to any of the Rev, eharll's I;O\vell (q, v,), anrl in genius 
sntisfactory emplûyment, lie in ventL.d allli put and eharactpr is the hcreditary representatÏ\ e of 
into practical use a portable apparatus for gencr- the heart anrl brains 
fiting hyLlrogen gas for war balloons, Ttll'se he that founded New 
had constructed from the closest woven and strong- England, lIe was the 
cst pon
ee silk, \ arying in capacity from 1,):000 youngest of five chil- 
to :!O.Ooo cuuic feet, During }Ir, Lowe's connec- I drpn, Fl"Om both par- 
tion with the Armv of the Potomac, Gen, Fitz- ents were tmnsmit- 
John Porter, Gcn, George Stonpman, J1nd others ted high intt>Uigenee, 
made ascension
; but )[1', Lowe's relations \\ ith sound principles, an,l 
the military authorities became strained. on ac- right ideals, but the 
count of his independent alJpointments, ana many poetic and imagina- 
()f his bills remaiul'd unaUllited. 0\\ ing to the feel- tive faculty came from 
ing between him and the engineer otlicers. so that the mother, His birth- 
he severed his connection \\ ith the army long be- place was the old Tory 
fore the close of the war, ::5ubsequently he maae mansion now culled 
captive ascensions from Philadelphia and Se\\ .. Elmwood," a large, 
t ork: but these proving financially un
uccessful. three - story, square, 
he retire,l from aëronuutie pursuits after dis- wooden house in the 
posing- of his apparatu" to the Brazilian govern- early I'ulonial style, 
ment. )[1', Lowe then turned his attention to in- situated in spacious 
venting, and obtained patents on various mechan- grounds, surrounòed 
ical de\"ices, one of the first of whi{'h wa., an ice- by magnificent plms 
making machine, Later he invented a machine and pines plantell hy hi., father, with an outlook 
for making \\-ater-gas by the addition of crude on Charlp
 river, (Spe \ iew on page 40,) Lowell 
petroleùm, which has resulteù in the production of \\a" fitted for college by "-illiam \\TeUs (who was 
an illuminant equal to that obtained from coal, anù the !'enior of the firm to whom we o\\e the s('ries 
at a much less cost, One of his more reCf'nt in- of 'Yells and Lillv classics), entered Harvard 
vent ions is light produced by means of a coil of in his sixteenth ycùr, and was graduated in It\:3t3, 
\\ire heated to incandescence by a jet of non- His first-published literary production. unless pos- 
luminous water
gas under heavy pressure, }Ir, sibly i"ome poems for" IIarvan1Ïana," \\hich he 
Lowe is now (IHt\
) engageò in perfecting a system edited in 1R:37-'t3. was his notable cla
s poem. com- 
for the use of water-gas as a fuel for cities, and in po!'ed under peculiar circumstances, At the time 
the production of appliances for cooking and heat- of writing it the collegiate senior wus undergoing 
ing, a<lapted to the use of water-gas, a brief perio<lof rustication at Concord, in eonse- 
LO WE, 'rïlliam "nrrell. soldier. b. in 1ndi- quenee of inattention to his text-books, His forced 
ana. I:? Oct., l
in, He was graduated nt the G. S, sojourn in this Arcadia of s(;holar
hip and reform 
military academy in 18,)3. commissioned as a lieu- brought him into relationship with the transcen- 
tenant of dra
oons on 22 Uct., IS;-)4. and was en- dentalists, who at that day were m the habit of 
g-ageù in scouting and on frontier duty till the 1Ie- gathering at the home of Emerson, with whom 
ginning of the civil wat', He was made a captain I then began that friend
hip \\ hich, despite the play- 



 


\.. 


-, 



 



40 


LOWELL 


ful 
:lllies of the younger poet in his earlier writ- 
ing-,.;, only terminated with the death of the elder, 
The young- satiri
t SLW the humorous side of the 
sOl;ial Illovenwnts of the day. and the class-poem, 
seintillating with wit, attackell the aholitionists, 
Carl vIe, 8merson, and the transeendl'ntalist,.;, In 
the law-sehool of IIulTal'ù, Lowell reccived the de- 

ree of LL. B., awl was admitted to the har in l
-!O, 
The only record of the practice of his profe
sion 
is found in a story entitled "1\1y First Client," 
puùlished in the .
 Boston )lisceÌlany," IIence- 
forth hc ga\"e him,.;elf entirely to literature, In 
UHl a volume of pocms, written under the influ- 
ent'e of affection for a \\ oman of genius who be- 
came his wife, W;lS puùlislwd untIl.r thc title of 
,,
\ Yl'ar's Life," The key-note of the poems, 
ùnoyant with youth and love, is in the closing 
lines: 


" The poet now his guide hath found, 

\nd follows in the steps of LO\"c," 
The volume was never re-publi,.;lwtl, and o,f the 
seventy poems only a small part h.n e been deemed 
\\ orthy of n'-printing ùy the author, lIis marria
c 
to the woman who inspired thcse poems took placo 
in 11:')44, .:\Iaria White was an ardent aùolitioni,.;t, 
and no doubt her influence a...
isted in turning hb 
thoug-hts to the serious side of that eause to \\ hich 
he rendered illllllOltal sen"ice, To undcrstand 
Lowell's career, it is necP
sluT to rememùer that 
he was not only a poet, a scholar, and a humorist, 
but always a conservatiY"e and a critic, No man 
was morè thoroughly imbued than he wit h the 
fumlamentalprinciples of Alllericun democracy- 
It democracy without delllagogism-no man Illorf' 
jealous than he of the ulltarnb:hed reputation of 
Ampriea in politics and literature, no man more 
quick to see any departure from the high ideal of 
the republic, and his flaming pen Was turned to 
attack whate\Ter assailetl this ideal-at one time 
sla\"ery, at another time vieious political mptllOc]s 
threatPning the purity of democratic society, I lis 
radicalism was always consl'rvative, his critici,.;m 
alwa\-s constructÏ\'e, Lowcll and his wife were 
reguiar f'ontributors to the h Liberty Bdl," and his 
name appear
 in 1t'-!8 in "The Anti-Slavery Stallll- 
ard " as corre,,;poIHling editor, I n this paper, from 
1
43 to 1S4li, his poems during that periml mo
tly 
appeared, Luter the "Boston Courier" was the 
vehicle of his productions, and in its cnlumns the 
fir,.;t series of the" Biglow Papers" was given to the 
public, beginning in the i:Nle for June, 1t-;-lli, atlll 
ending in UHS, This satire wao; an t'vent of the 
first importance in the history of the world's litera- 
ture, In wit, scholarship. and penetrating knowl- 
edge of human nature, it took the place, which it 
Iws ever since maintained, of a masterpiece, .Age 
has only increa
ed its reputation, and it is a recog- 
nized classic hoth in England and _\nwrica, The 
te
t of its power and univeJ'sality is thc constllnt 
quotation from it on both sides of the .\tlantic, 
Locally its effect wa,.; amazing, It consbted of a 
series of poems in the Yankee dialect. ostensibly 
hy 1\[1', Hosea Biglow, awl el1ited, with an intro- 
duction, notes, glo,.;sary, indcx. and "notices of an 
independent in'e,.;s;' by .. Homer \Vilbur, 
\, .:\1., 
pastor of the first church in J aalmn, anll pro- 
:-;pective member of many litprary, learnp(1. and 
:-;cientific societies:' In the main it was a satire on 

laverv antI the )Iexican war, hut there wa
 
scarcely anv cant, hypoeri
y, or meillme,.;s in poli- 
tics, thp pulpit, and the pre:<s that was not hit by 
it, The hit.hcrto dpspi:<ed aholitionists, tlll' suhject 
of giLps and satire, fOlulll a champion who turned 
the batteries of the spholar. in uUl'qualled wit. merri- 
ment, awL ridicult'. upon their enemies and the ene- 


LO'\YELL 


mies of the free repuùlic. exposing to the Inughter 
of the world the sneaking attitude of compromis- 
ing politicians and of tho,.;e \\ ho wore the lÏ\-ery ûf 
heaYen in the cILu:>e of human slayen", Thereafter 
the fight took on a wry diíIt'I'ent' chamctpr: it 
was re:<pectable to he on the side of freedom. The 
.. Biglow Papers" \\ ill no douht !H'p:o:cn e the 
Yankee dialect, and cause it to l,e studied a
es 
hence in Ol'der to thp cOJDlJrehension of the effect 
upon our national life of one of the most oppor- 
tune allies t hat freedom ever had, 
I1is intere:.t in the anti-sla, erv cont
st did not 
prcycnt Lo\\ ell from purely litèrar
' lahor:;, In 
1843 he undertook the editing of "The Pioneer. a 
Literary and Critical l\Tngazine," in joint editor- 
ship with Roùert Carter (q, 'l,',); and Poe, lInw- 
thorne. X pal, D\\ ight, Jones Yery, Parsnns, Elim- 
l,eth Bal'l"ptt ()Ir
, Browning), Whittier, allll Will- 
iam \\T, Story were contributors, Only three num- 
bers \\ ere Pllhlished, the venture faiiing through 
financ'ial di:,a:-;ter to the publishers, In thi:-; maga- 
zine \\as ùeguH a series of e,.;says nH the popt,.; and 
dramatists, \\ hich afterward formPll the matprial 
for "Conversations with Some of the Old Poets" 
(Cmnhridge.1H-!,;), In 1
-!-! came a volume of verse, 
e()ntainin
 .. 
\ Le
end of Brittany," with thirhr- 
three mi
('eliaHeolis poems awL tliirty-
en'n SOil- 



 ... 


..;:. . 
'......... 01- 
'd;
E - 

:



. -- 
...",


 H" ,",r 
-.; . 


""'... 
i, 
.._ 

 .

 
"I
, 


fill! 


,. , .i. '... 't;,'-iJI 
.
 \'1 r
-'
 
 
)- 
 'J 



r. 
'""" .1. .!, 
&1,
 ß 


 J 


I 01 
,.;Öf 


. . 


1.1 
= ""IL 


(ipor 
.. 


nets (among them sonnets to \\? enddl Phillip,.; and 
,To:o:hua It (iiclding:o:), written in a ,dn that fore- 
shallowed amI eyen announced the poet's po:<ition 
in the great anti-slavery rp\"olution, The
c \\ el'C 
follo\\ed in It;4.j ùv "The Yision of f'ir Launfal," 
one of the most exquisite productions of his genius, 
a poem founded on the legend of the J loly Grail, 
which is said to llll\'e been C{)(Uposl'cl in a sort of 
frenzy in nhout forty-eig-ht hours, durin
 \\ hich 
the poet searcply ate òr sÌept, The" ConH'rsations 
on the Poet,.;" wus Lowell's fir:;t work in literal'\" 
eritieism, and "'us thc basi
 of his IpC'tUl'ps before' 
the Lowell institute, 11:');)-!-'.3, nml of hi,.; It'et ures in 
Ilarnlrd unh pr:<ity during hi
 profes:<or:<hip of 
modern langlla
es und belles-lettres, _\ thinl yol- 
ume of poems, t'ontaining lJIuny new nnti-shl\ ery 
pieces, \\ as publi,.;hetl in 1R-!t-:, and the same ypal' 
W11S brought out anonnnously the .. FlIhle for 
Cl'itics." ìi youthfully llarin
 "but amw..:ing and 
racy skit at the _\ merican poets, in which the 
laughing nuthor diel not spare himself, In 1H-t!1 a 
colleetpel edition of his poem,.. in two' nlunll's was 
puhlished, the "Bi
low PappI's" and".\ Year's 
Life" being omitted, In the meall time LO\\ell 
had been a contrihutor to tllf' .. Dial," the .. Demo- 
cratic HpYÏew," the" :\Ins:<achu:<etts QWlrterly Rp- 
\'iew:' in which he redewed Thoreau':-; fir:<1 volume 
in 1
-!!). mlll to .. Putnam's 1\[onthly" in 1R;):
 
anel several years later, In u.',)1 the j10pt ancl his 
wife tmwUpel in Europe. visiting' England, Fr1ln('e, 
and Switzerlan(1. anel residing for some time in 
Italy, The ('hid fmits of tl;is joul"Iwy \\pre the 



LOWELL 


LOWELL 


41 


c'):.:,tys on Italian art and literature awl his emi- I tained the honor of the \merican name, awl re- 
nenee ItS a student aIHl interpreter of Hunte, In ceiwd the confill('IU'l' awl admimtion that hatl 
t he autumn of 11",)
 he \\ as ug-ain in 
 \ nll'riea, anll in been formerly e
tl'ndl'd to \Vashington ll'\ ing', 
Ocfoh('r, 18,3a, he sustain('d the grelttcst :-:orrow of 11 is l"l'sitll'nee in London, althoug-h doulll'li awl 
his life in the dmth of his \\ ife. "ho had long 
llllt1ened by t he long illne
:, and hy t h(' Ill'ath in 
heen an invalid. In Janual'y, 1
,).), on )11', Long-- Fehruary, 11"
.). of his seeond wife, :\1 iss Francps. 
fellow's resignation, 1..0\\ ('11 was appointed hi:. Dunlap, of Portland, :\Ie" \\ hom he had Jluu'l'ied in 
:-:UCCl'SSor as profes:,or of mll
J.prn l:mg-unges :lIld ::-:eptemher, U"',)"ì, "as as honorable to him as to the 
hl'lil's-lettres in Hananl UniH'I':-:ity, and attl'r t\\O eountry he reprcsented, un unbrokpn Sl'ril'
 of suc- 

ears' study abroad, durin; which timc he greatly c(':-:ses in the \\orld of !'>ociety and the world of let- 
L'xtended his kno\\ ledge of Italian, FrL'nch, and tl'I'S, ('aIled upon to :'oettlc no 
eriuu
 international 

panish, and u('('amc one of the first authorities in dilfel"l'nce..;;, he b(l['e himsl.lf \\ ith tl\(' tact und dig- 
01(1 French amI Provençal po('try, he as:-:umed the, nity that was to he dc:-:ired in our rppre:-:pntath'e to 
Iluties of his pl'Ofe
sorshi)1, From 1S:); till1Hli2 he It gl'eat awl fri('wlly power. miwlful nlways that his 
\\ rote manr e"
t
 s, not :-ince rC-Pllu1ished. for the mission was to mainfl:tÏn cordial nmity instc1Hl of 
" Atlantic Monthly:' mHl in 1
fja he becaml" "ith sed.ing caUSl'S of ulienution, Awl no man in OUl' 
Prof, Charles Eliot Xorton, joint editor of the gC[ll'ra.tion has done more than LO\\('1I to rai:-:e' 
.. X orth _\ merican Review:' a conlll'etion \\ hil'h he . \merican institutions mill _\ meriean ehameter in 
maintained tiH 1t'\;
, The" .Atlantic )[onthly:' the l'stimation of our English kin, His grael'Íul 
foundeLl in 1'';,);, of "hieh LO\\ ell wa... the first allll natuml ortltory was in demand on Sl'ores ot 
editor, was set on foot by Holmes, LongfeHow, pub1ie ocea:-ion:-:, 'I'll(' most note\\orthy of his )1ub- 
Emerson, and Low('ll, and Emerson's study was the Hc n(ldres:-:c=, \\as thut on Col('ridge. dcliverl'(lut the 
scene of the gathering of the great litt'mry lights um'ci1ing of tht' hust of the poet in '" e=,tminst('r 
of Boston, when the entcrpri...e was discu:-::-:ed awl .Ahhey in )[ay. 1
1".), The volume entitled "l>,'moc- 
the character of the magazine settled upon, rucv and othl'r 
\(ldr('
sl'''''' (Boston, 11"
7) inehules 
The Kansas strllg-gle. 1R.)li-'
, enlistell Lowell's till' foreig-n 
pecche
, and those 
poken at the (le(li- 

ympathies; he \\ as in aceurd \\ ith the leading anti- eation of the public library of ('hcl:-ea nnd aL the 
slaycry men, and at one time, 
ays Frunk It San- Harval'll anniversary, 1\11', LowpH\: politicallifp is. 
110m, contemplated tran:-:ferring his IIosea Biglow confined \\ it hin the eight }ears of his terms of o1Iice 
to Kansas to report in the vernacular the doing:-: at )[adrid and London, 11 is reeull brought out 
there, but" the flighty purpo:-:e 11Pvcr \\ as o'cl"Ìook:' e
prl':-::-:ions of dl'l'\! I'l'gret in the Eng1ish pl'('s:-:, 
The outbreak of the ch il war caused ß re\ ivai of and he rl'Ìurned to the L'nitcd Statl's to reeeÏve th(' 
the drama!i8 ppr
()næ of thl' " Biglow Pap,>r<' plaudits of his countr
 m('n, T('mporary political 
in whieh the disunionists at home amI their
) m- l'[ iticisms there \\ er(', but they \\ ere sUI'h th It man 
pathizers in England \\('re equaHy In'ollg-ht undl'r can utTord to lca\'e to the judgment of timl', \\ hich 
the lash of hi... sting-ing satire, It went straight to \\ ill not fail to compare hi
 own i(leal of \\ hat the 
the 
\merican heart, This 
econd s('ries of" .liiglow repub1ic should be with thl' notions of his critics, 
Papers" fir
t app('ared in the" .\tlantic;' and was 
illl'p his rptum to private lifc 
Ir, Lo\\eU's home 
published in a volume in 11"fi7, Th(''' Fin....ill(' has hcen with his onh' child, the wife of Ed- 
Tra\ els;' containing the plcasant gossip about w:wl Burnett, ut ::-:ouUihoro, l\lass, He rpsumed 
h Cambridge Thirty Years ,Ago;' the delightful his lectures at Cambridge, and in the \\ intL'r of 
h :\Ioosehead Journal," and notes of travel on the 1

7 gave a cour:-e on the Eng1ish dramuti
ts be- 
)[editerranean and in Italy, had appeared in the fore the LoweH in
titute, The sume \\ int('r he 
mean time, The" .\t1antic" for Januury, 1t;li;, con- read a papPI' before the lTnion lefigue club of 
taincd .. Fitz 
\dam's Story," a poem intendl'd to Chieugo on the authorship of Hichard III. [n the 
form part of a long-er one, .. The X ooning:' which summer of ] 

; he again ,isited Englund, re('eiv- 
has been announced as about to be published a=, ing ever
 where the higlH'st honors that could he 
far back fiS 1
,)1, but has never been completed, paid to a prÏ\ ate citizen, The dpgrel' of D, (', I.J, 
It was omitted from" 'Gnder the Willow
, and other was conferred upon him by the Lniversity of Ox- 
Poems" (Boston, 18(;9), \\ ith the follo\\ ing ex- ford in l
;:
, and that of LL. D, by the l.niver::,itv 
planation: '" Fitz _\ùam's Story,' \\ hidl 
ome of Camhridgc, Englund, in 1
ì.t During his re
i- 
g-ood friends wiH miss, is al
o left to stand over, dence in England as minister he wa
 elected rector 
becau:o:e it belongs to a connected series, whieh it of thc Cniver:,ity of S1. Andrews, 
io; hoped may be completed if the days should he The foHO\\ing is a list of his \\orks and their 
propitious," The volumps of prose, ., Among my various editions: "Cla

 Poem" (llu:-ton, 11":3
); 
Books" and ,. .:\Iy Study \Yindows," is
ued in 1
;(), "A Year's Life" (1
41): .. Poems" (Camhridge, 
comprising the choicest of Lowell's literary ('s:-:ays, 1844);" The Yision of Sir Launfal" (Boston, 
seemed to mark the close of his greate
t literary ac- 1843; 2d ed" 184
, and included in .. Y cst-Pocket 
tivity; but the appearance recently of such a papt'r ;:;eries ''); "Conyersations, on 
orue of the, Old 
as that on the poet Grey 
ho\\s that only oppor- Poets" (1R4,)); "Poems' (1848); "The BIglow 
tunity is n('eded for the gathering of the Ìnature
t Pap('rs" (1
4R); "
\ FahIe for Critics" (184t-:); 
fruits of his critical genius, In 1
;2 he made "Poems" (2 vols" 1849); "Life of Keats." pref- 
another visit to Europe, and on his return the acing un edition of hi
 wArks (18.H); ,. Poem
" 
" Centennial" perio(l called out his ('ffort
 in the (2 v()l
" 1
54); " Poetical 'Yorks" (2 yols" 1t",)I)): 
production of three patriotic odes. the first at Con- ','ra"on and ::-:lideB, a Yankee Idvl " (l
lit): "Fire- 
cord, 19 
\pril, H
7,j, the second under the "T a:-:h- side Trawls" (1Hü4); .. The Pre:-:ident's. Poliey" 
ington elm, 3 Jul
' of the same )'par, and the (18(;4-);" Ode recited at the CommemoraÌl
m o
 the 
third for 4 ,July, 1H;ü, He was a presidential elcc- LÏ\ing and D('ad Soldiers of Hanard emwrslt
.,,, 
tor in l
;ü, 21 .Tulv. 1Rli,): "The Biglow Papers," 2(1 senes 
In 1
77 )[1', Lowell was appointed by President (18li7):'" Under the 'Willows, and other Poems" 
Haves to the ::-:pani:-:h mission, from whieh he (1
(;!)); "Among my Books" (1870); "The 
was transfel'lwl in 18
n to the court of 
1. Jame
, Courtin' " (1874); :. Three ::\Iemorial Poems" 
His (liplnmatic career clo:-:ed with his reeaH by (187ü): "Among my llook
," 2d serips (1
7(i); 
President Clewland in 1f<R.). In 3fadrid in un at- and "Democracv, and other Addl'f-:'sP:''' (l
87), 
mosphere congenial to him as a :-tuden't, he sus- ., The Literary \\'orld" (Boston) of 27 June,1885, 



42 


LOWELL 


i
 a Lowell number, containing estimates of :\11', 
Lowell's literary and personal qualities, with testi- 
monies from prominent writers, and a bibliogra- 
phy, Francis H, Cnderwood pu!Jlished in I8H
 a 
hio
raphical 
ketch; and Stedman's .. American 
Poets," a volume called .. Homes and Haunts of 
our Eldel' Popt:-;," and llaweis's" American Humor- 
ists." contain e:-;says upon )11', Lowell.-James Hus- 

ell's wife, Mal'hl "'hitt>. poct, L. in Waterto\\n, 
:\[as,.;,. I) J ul v, I
2I; d, in CamLrid
e, 
Ias:-;" 2, 
Oct.. I
.)3, m
u'ried )11', Lowell in It;Ü, She pos- 
sessClI g-reat beauty of person aIllI character, and 
was an ficcomplished linguist. Her death, which 
took place the same night that one of )11', Long- 
fellow's children was Lorn, called forth from Long- 
fellow his poem b('
inning, 
.. Two angels, one of Ii fe and one of dmth, 
Passed o'er our village, as the morning broke," 
A volume of h('l' poem
. whif'h are charaeterized by 
ten(l('l'nes
 and delicacy of feeling, was print('d pri- 
vatclyafter her death (Cambridge, H
,ï;;), The best 
known of them are" The Alpine Shepherd" and 
.. The )[orning-fHory," 
LOWELIJ. John. stat('sman, h, in Newhury- 
port, l\lass" 17 .June, 1i4:3; d, in Ho
bur.v, 'Mass" 
6 :\Iav. I
02, His ancestor. Percival. a merchant, 
came' from Bristol, .England, to Xewbury, )las5,. in 
1(i:m, and his father, 
John, was the first min- 
ister of Newburyport, 
\\ here he officiated in 
1 i:.?6-'67, The sun was 
graduated at lIarntl'd 
in 1 iGO, and in I7G2 ad- 
mittetl to thé bar, where 
he soon ga.ined a high 
repu tation, II e repre- 
:-;pnted Xewlmryport in 
the provineial a,.;sembly 
in 1 i,6, and was an 
ofTIcer of militia; but 
he removed to 13o,.;ton 
in 1 ÎÎÎ. and serv('d in 
the legislature fmm 
that city in 1 i.
, Ill' 
was a d
legate in 1 i
O 
to the C011\ ention that 
framed the constitution of :\Iassachusptts, took an 
active part in it:-; proceetlings, and served on the 
committe(' that. wa
 appointed to draft the consti- 
tution, lie sef'ured the insertion of the clause 
that dec1are
 that" all men are born free and equal." 
avowing- his helid that slavcry would tlm,.; be abol- 
ished in the state, 1\11', Lowell's position was de- 
eidell to be legal by the state supreme court in 
1 .
?', and :-;laverv was thus abolished in )Ia:-;:-;achu- 
1'etts through his agency, Ill' wa" a memher of 
the Continental cong-ress in 1782-'3, and in the 
fonner year \\as aPÌ,ointet! by that hody one of 
three jwlges for the trial of appeals from eourts of 
mlmimlty, ne was appointed in 17t;4 on the com- 
mi
:-;ion to decide boundary disputes between )[assa- 
(.hu:-eUs and 
ew Yor
::, In I7
n he hecame U, S, 
jlHlge fùr the district of l\1assachu<;etts, and in 
IS01 he was appointed chief justice of the 1:-:t cir- 
cuit, including )laÍlw, X PW IImnp:-;hire, l\la,.;:-:a- 
ehusetts, antl Hhode Island, Judge 1.O\\ell was 
president of the )Ias:-:achusl'tt:-: agricultural society 
for veal's. and f'ontributed toward the estaLlish- 
mpnt of the botanic garden ut Cambridg-p, lIar- 
vard gave him the deg-ree of LL, D. in Ij02, Ill' 
was for eighteen yC'ars a nwmhel' of its corpora- 
tion and one of the fountlers of the Anlf'riean 
academvof arts and _
('iellces, before which he de- 
li vered: on 2G J an" I.!},:;, an oration on the death 


" 



 


A"\ · '-. \ 
\ 
-w 



 


I't 


/\^ 
:\' 


- ') ,'" 
1
 ,\ ,',\ 
\ \" 


I
JL. 


LO\VELI.J 


of the elder ,James Bowdoin, This is prefixed to 
vol. ii, of thc academy's ,. )lemoir,.;." Ill' ,\as also 
the author, shortly after his graduation at lIar. 
yard, of an EngJi,.;h poem in the ,. Pietas et GrHtu- 
latio" (1 jGI),-llis :-;on, John. political writer, h, 
in X ewhuryport, 6 oct.. 1 j6!}; d, in Boston. 12 
:\Iarch, IH-IU, was 
raduated at Han ard in 1 ,
G, 
studied Jaw, and, after his udmission to the !Jar in 
1 .
!). practised with 
uccess till 1t;oa, when he vis- 
ited .Europe, 
\.ftèr his return in It'llfi he devote.1 
himself to literature. writing on politics, agricul- 
ture, theology, and other topics, under various sig- 
natures, such as .. Citizen of )[a:-;sachusetts," .. 
las- 
....achusetts La\\yer," .. Layman," and .. Yankee 
l"armer:' He attacked the supporters of the war of 
1
12 \\ith great severity in his writings, in which 
he showed both skill and vigor, and \\ as of emi- 
nent :-;ervice to the Federal party, From 1 SlO till 
lS2
 he \HlS a memLer of the corporation of [[ar- 
val'll, which ga\e him the degree of LL, D. in HH4, 
lIe was for many year:-: pre:-:ident of the :-\tate 
agricultural society, inherited his father's love 
for horticulturc, and has Leen ('aIled the "Colu- 
mella of the Kew England 
tates," lIe died sud- 
d{'nly of apoplexy, .Edward Everett said of him: 
.. He po
ses:-;('d colloquial powers of the highest 
ord('r and a flow of unstudied eloquence Ill'\ er 
surpao;setl, and rarely. as with him, unitetl with 
the command of an aecurate. elegant, and logical 
pen," _\mong his political pamphlds, of which he 
puhlished ahout twenty-five, are" Peace \\ ithout 
Dishonor-'Var without lIope, an Inquiry into the 
Subjeet of the 'Chesapeah(,'" (Boston, I
OÎ); 
.. Candid Comparison of the "ra:-;hington nnd ,Jef- 
ferson _\.lministrations" (It;lO); ., Diplomatick 
Policvof )11', :\Iadison rnwiled" (1
10); and" )[1', 
)r1l(li
on's War; It I>i
pa

ionnte Inquiry into the 
Hea:-:ons all('getl by :\IIHli,.;on for declaring an Uf- 
fl'nsive and Huinous \\'ar again,.;t Gn'at Britain" 
(1812). lIis theological writing,.; include .. .Arc you 
It Christian or a l'nlvini:-;t If" (11'!1.3), II is funeral 
sermon was d('liwred In the Hev, Francis "., p, 
Greenwood (l
-lO),-Another son, }'mu('is C:1bot. 
nwrdulIlt, L, in Kewbur)port, 7 April. Ii.,); d, in 
Boston, 10 Aug" 11"17, \\as graduatl.tl at lianaI'd 
in 1.9:3, lIe visited England in I
lO, amI on his 
r('turn in I
la hecame ('onvinced that it was pmc- 
ticahle to introduce cotton-manufncture into the 
Lnited States, lIe prul'o"'ed to his hrother-in- 
law. Patrick '1', Jackson (q, 1',), to make the ex- 
periment, and the result \\as the establishment 
of factorie:-; fit ".altham, :\Iass" and finally, after 
his df'ath, the foundation of the ('it\' of IJowell, 
whieh was nanll'd in his honor, l\lr, Lowell vis- 
ited 'Vashington in l
Hi, and, by his personal 
influence \\ ith John (', Calhoun and other mem- 
ber,-; of congr(':-;s, did mUf'h to iniroduce into the 
tariff act of that year the clause thnt imposed It 
duty on cotton fahrics,-_\notheJ' son, ClIarl('s. 
clerg
.man, b, in Boston. 1,) _\ug" 1 .
2; d, in Cam- 
britlg-e. Mas,.;" 20 ,Tan" II"Gl, wa:-: graduatt'd at liar 
yard in lHIII). and Legan to study law, but ahan- 
dOIll,a it for theology, Ill' sp('nt the years 1
O
-'.3 
ahro:ul. studying two yeurs in Edinhurgh and aft('r- 
wanl travelling on the continent, and after his re- 
turn he was st'ttled, on 1 ,Jan" 1
Oli. as pa:-;tor of 
the ". e:-;t IT nitarian church in Boston, where he re- 
mained until hi:-: (leath, In 1
a" on Ii("('ount of his 
feeLle health, Dr, CHUS A, Bartol wa" on1ained as 
his colleague, amI fl:om that year till IS-IO he trtW- 
elIed extellsiwly in Europe amI tlw ea:-;1. During the 
Jnttel' part of his lift' Dr, fJowell officiated only occa- 
!'ionallv in his church, lIe" as mud} Ldo\'ed hy his 
congregation, a graceful and for('ihle orator. aÌld It 
zealous opponent of slavery. Harmrd gave him 



LOWELIJ 


the d('gree of D, n. in 1
:.?:3. He was a fellow of its 
corporation fwm l
IH till U;:;:l, fillli a ml'mber (If 
lih'mrv 
o('ieties in this countl'\" and fihroad, Ill' 
eontl'ilmted larg'l'ly to pl'riod{eal literature and 
publi
hl'd man) separate disl'lIur:,l'
, a volunll' of 
.. Oceasional Sermons," IInd oIle of "Praetieal Sl'r- 
mon
 " (Bo:,ton, 1:-<,),}); ., :\[editations for the .Af- 
Hided, Siek, find Dying": awl .. J>l'votional Ex- 
erei
es fOl' CommunÌcunts," The" Proeeedin
s .. 
of a parish meeting that \\as held in his m
'm- 
ory v,ere published (l:-<fH), Ill' married lIarriet, 
daughter of Hohl'rt '1', Spenee, of Portsmouth, 

, [I., an olJit'er in the U. S, navy,-Francis l'a- 
bot's son, J oil II. philanthropist. b, in Bo
ton, 11 
l\Iav, 1 ì!)n: d, in Bomhay, India, 4 )Iun'h, It33ü, 
stu;lil',l in the high-s('hooi of Edinburgh, SC'otland, 
:nul entert'd Harvard in 1:-<1:3, hut ll'ft in un,) on 
account of impaired hl'ulth, and in 1816-'17 nwde 
t\\O voyage
 to India, lie then engagl'd in com- 
Inl'rce for a fe\\ years; but in HtW-l his wife unù 
his two daughter
, his only ehil,lren, died within a 
few month:" and the rl.maimler of hi
 life \\as 
spent in travel in the Fnited States, Europe, Asia 
.:\[inor, Egypt. 
\.rahia, and lIindo
taIl, ':\[1', Low- 
ell was a. tine scholar and po

e

('d a valuable pri- 
mte library, lie LequeathC'd ::;:'?,jO,OOO for the 
maintenanee in Boston of annual eour
es of free 
puhlic lectures on relig-ion, sl'ience, and the nrts, 
This e
tahlishml'nt. the Lowell institute, went into 
operation in the \\ inter of 1$m-'40, amI JutS been 
('ontinued sinee that time with eminent !'u('cess, 
:\[1', Lowell's \\ ill wa,.: nUllk "hile he WfiS in Eg-Yl't, 
nt the ruins of Tlll'hes. alII} El1\\ ard Everett said 
of it, in an introduetion to the fir
t course of in:-ti- 
tute ledures. a 1 Dl'e" IH3!1: "The few sl'ntences. 
penned \\ ith a tireù hand b
' our fellow-citizen on 
the top of a palace of the Pharaohs. will do more 
for human improyenwnt than, for aught that up- 
pears, was done by all of that gloomy dyna
ty that 
ever reign!:'ll." See" )[ellloir of John Lowell, J 1',," 
hy Ed\\arll E\'erett (Boston. 1
40),-CharJes's son, 
Uobcr1 TmiU Sp{')l('(', clergyman. h, in Doston, 
l\[a
!":" 
 Uet" tHHi, \\as at Hound Hill sehool, 
Korthampton. .:\[a:-:s,. in 18
:3-'
, under Joseph G, 
COl!
welJ and George Bancroft. and was grwluated 
at Haryard in 1833, lIe then took a full course at 
Harvard medical school, aIllI eng-figed in mercantile 
pursuits for a time, In H
:m he began the study of 
theolog-y under advice of Dr, Alonzo Potter (after- 
ward bi
hop of Penn:-:ylyania). and Ill'epared for or- 
ders, lie was inyiteù by J3i
hop Spencer, of Kew- 
foundland, to go to Bermuda, where he was made 
ell-aeon in December, 1
-t2, and prie
t in )[arch, 
184a, and was also appointed dome
tic chaplain to 
the bishop and in
peetor of schools in the colony, 
lIe went to Xewfoundlanù in 1
43. an,l was ap- 
pointed to the charge of Bay Hobprt,.: (" 1'cterport " 
III his novel, .. The Kew l)rie
t "), \Vhile he \\ as oc- 
cupied in duty here, a severe famine came upon the 
peopJe (184ü), during which :\11', Lowell's meùical 
training proved to be e:-'pecially seryiceable, Ile 
was chairman of the relief committee of the r1is- 
trict, and earn ell the thanks and gratitude of the 
government and people, His health and strength 
gave way, and he found it nef'e:-:sarv to return to 
the G nited States in 11:34;, lIe nexfbegan mis
ion 
work among the poorer people in Xewark, X, Joo 
gatherell a congregation called Chri
t ehurch, and 
built a stone chul'(
h in 1849-'30, which was ópén 
and free to all, with dailv servic'l's, In 18.)!) he ac- 
cepted a call to Christ church, Dmmesburg-, N, ïoo 
whidl po....t he held for ten years, Thenee Lhe went 
to SOl1thborough, l\Ias
,. where for four years hI' 
was head master of St. .:\lark's school. In 1
7a he 
became professor of the Latin language and litera- 


LOWELJJ 


43 


tnre in Cnion college, fÌ('henectady, N. y" anll ùis- 
charged the dutie
 of that dl'lmrtml'nt for six 
vear:-:, 1>1', LO\\ ell's publication:-: are "The X eW 
i>I'il'
t in ('olleeptioll Ba
 .. (Boston. 1
,)8; ]ll'W ed" 
illu
tratl'll by F, 0, (', Darley. l
(3); "Frl'sh 
I1('arts that faile,l Three 'l'hou
aIllI Y ('aI'S .A "0 
and othel" Poellls" (18(iO): .. ,\lItony Br:lIle,
:
 
Story of School-Boy Life " (1874); "Burgoyne's 
l\larch," the poem at the Saratoga coun1\'. Cl'n- 
tennial ceJebmtion at Bemis Ih.ip:hts (1877); 
and "A Story or 'J\\ 0 frolll a 1>utch To" n " 
(11:'7S), Ill:' has also heen dUl"ing n large part of 
his lite a frequent contl'ibutor in hoth verse and 
l"'o
e to re\"ÏC\\::-, mag-aziI\('
, and Jitemry journals, 
One of hi
 most striking productions, ., A Haft that 
no )[an :\[I\(le," is an inmginati\e story, "hich a 
year or two aft('r its puhlieation \\as almost exadly 
parallt'led by the ul'Ìual e\.l'erit'nce of It portion of 
the erew of the" Polë,,'is," (See ]JALL. CHARLES 
FRAXCJs,)-_\nml t'nlwt, author, h, in Boston, 
l\Ia
s" in IH1!I; d, in (':un bridge, l\Iass" 7 J an" 
1
74, was th(' wife of CHARLES l{(;SSELL, anoth- 
er son of Churks, Her maiclC'n-nalIw \\as Jack- 
son, She }Jubli:-:hed ., Theorv of '!'ea('hing ,. (Bos- 
ton, 1841): "Edward's .First Le:-:sons in (
I'ammnr" 
(1
43); "(;}eaning
 from the POf't!", for Home and 
School " (l
-ta): .. Ell ward's First Les
OJls in Geom- 
etry" (1844): .. Olympic Games" (It'4,)); "Out lines 
of Astr()nom
, or the World II
 it 
\ ppears" (1
5()); 
"LetÌl'rs to )[mlnnll' Pulk:;ky, hy an American 
Lady" (IH,j:'?); .. Thoughts on the Education of 
Girls" (IH:ï:l); "Sl'ed-Grnin for Thought antI I>is- 
cU
sion" (lI:'JG); and .. Po
ies for ('hildren, a Book 
of Yers('s" (1870),-I1er son, (,hul'l.'s Unss.'Il. 
soldier, h, in Boston, 2 Jan" 1"3,j: d, near 
[iùdle- 
tllwn, Ya,. 20 Oct., l
ü4, was graduated at lianaI'd 
in 1 t',,)4 , with the first honors, und after se\ eml 
years of European tra\ el \\ as l'mplo) ed. for some 
time in :<teel uml iron v. orks, and on the Burling- 
ton anù )[b
ouri Hi\er railroad, In the spring of 
l
fH, while superintending iron-works in l'umher- 
land yalJey, l\Id" he offerel} his services to the gov- 
ernment, and on 14l\1ay he was eommi
sioned cap- 
tain in the (jth cayalry, Ill' sern-Il on Gen, .Mc- 
Clellan's staff till KoveÌnlJPr. 1
G2, when he organ- 
ized the 2d l\Iassaehusetts clLvalry, and on 15 April, 
18(i3, was mmle its colonel. lie commandeù a hri- 
galle' of randry in Virginia, v, as activelyengnged 
in the pursuit of )[osby's gucrillns, and afterv.ard 
under Sheridan in the Shenandoah vaHev, and v. as 
made brigadier-general of volunteer
, to. date from 
In Oct" It'64, on recommendation of Gen, Shf'ri- 
dan, for his Sf'l'Yicf'S in the Jatter eampfiign, In his 
three veal'S of service twelve horses hatI heen shot 
undf'r' him, yet he cscapeù wIthout injury tiJI the 
hattle of Cedar Cl'l'ek, \\ here he \\ as woundeù while 
in the advance of Oen, Getty's divbion. but refused 
to Jea\e his command, In the moment of victory 
he receÏwcl additional wound
, which eau:-,l'ù his 
clf'ath on the following day,-IIis wife, J oS('!lhinc 
Shun-. philanthropist, b, in Wl:'st Hoxbury,1\[ass" 
1ü Dee" 1
4:J, is a. daughter of Francis George Shaw, 
She was educated in schools in Europe, Boston, and 
Xew ï ork ('ity, and travelled in central Europe, 
Italv, and Great Britain from 18,')1 until 185,), She 
was. married on Staten island in October, 1
(j3, 
From 187ü until the present time (1887) l\Irs, Low- 
elJ has officiated as one of the three commissionC'rs 
of the State board of charities of X ew ï ork. She 
is also one of the counC'il of the Cha.rity organiza- 
tion society of X ew ï Ol'k city, amI fayorably known 
for her effieiency in the cause of public charities, 
and for her private hC'nevolence and untiring efforts 
to elemte the condition of the needy and deserv- 
ing, Besides numerous reports and' several pam- 



44 


LÖWEXT1L\L 


LO\VXDE::3 


I'hkt
, 
he has publi
hetl "Public Relief and Pri- I He enterpd the U. S. navy as midshipman in 
,ate Charity" (Kew York, It:;t'J),-Charles Hu:,;
elrs )larch. It:;IJ. was lJromoted lieutenant. 13 .Jan" 
youllg-er brut her, .J aml'S .J Ul'l"SOIi. was graduated 11":2,). comlluuH.lef', t1 Sept.. 1
-.u, captain, 14 Sept" 
;tt. Ifan-ard in It!J8, entered the .Kational senice, 1t1."}J, and wa:, placed on the retired Ii:,!. 
1 Vee., 
mHI was mortally wOUlHleù at (Hendale,:30 June, l
fj1, being- comJllis
ionl'd comlllOdore, 1ü July. 
1
(i:2, Spe" The PUl'cha
e by Blood," a trihute to It<Ci:!, In l
fiO-ï he was in command of the steam- 
his memory, by Hev, Cyrus A, Bartol, J>, D, (Bo
t(ln, sloop" Ilartforù," and he sel'Yed a:' a prize eom- 
I
(4), and an mldres
 at hi
 funeral by George Put- missioner in It:;G-!-'.), He was a lJrother-in-law of 
Ham (Camhrillge, 1I:3li4),-The second .John's grand- .Franklin Buchanan, amI was su
pected of 
ympa- 
son, John, juri:,.t, h, in Bostvn. l\Ja
:5" 11:3 oct" thizing with the Confederates, ,\hieh may explain 
1
'!4. was g-nHluated at IIarnll'll in H,.t:J, studied his being plaeetl on the retired Ibt at the com para- 
law, was admitted to the bar in 1
4G, mal prac,tised tively l'III'ly :Ige of sixty-three, 
in Boston till 11 )I:m'h, 18(j,j, when he was ap- ],()W
ln:s. UU\\ lillS, statesmall, b, in the 
pointed U, S, judge for the district of )Iassachu- British We
t lnùil.'s inli
:!; d, in Clwrleston, S, C" 
setts, On 18 Del',. 18i
, he was appointed jwke '24 
\ug-,. It;OO, llis parents having- refllon'ù to 
of the U, :-;, circuit court, aIllI hplù that oftk'e till Charleston when he was ,ery young-. Ill' was t>ùu- 
1 :\Tav, l

-I-, v. hell he re
ignell. II is decIsions lun e I ('atetl there, studie(l 1:\\\, and took a high rank in 
heen . puhlished in two volumes (Boston, l
j:!-''ì), his profession, In 1.üß hl' was appointed hy the 
and he has writte _ n especially on the suhject of I erowll associate jwlg-e, \\ïthin the sueeeeding 
IJ;l,nhl'Uptev,-Francis Cabot's g-raIH1
on, f:dward three months he deli'ereù till' opinion of the ma- 
.J
H'kSOIl, author, h, in BO:-.ton, :\[ass.. HI Oct" 1I
4!}, jority of the ('ourt, which was contruf'y to that (If 
was g-raduated at Irarvanl in 18
ì, and then spent I the ('hie! justi
e, in f:nor of the legality of puhlie 
several y('ars ahrowL Ill' l'l'actJ..,ed law for some lll'oet'edmgs \\lthOllt the f'mployment of 
tafllpetl 
time in Boston, but of late years has devoted him- Ipuper, waiving- aU eonsilleration of the stamp-act 
self exc!usi\-cly to literary pursuits, Ile is the I us n ('oJ)stitutional measure, unù onl
 arguing from 
author of ., The lle

ians anll the other German the eommon law with reference to the neeessitie
 

\uxiliaries of Great Britain in the Hevolutionaf'v of the ca
e, III li(j/; he mowd a resolution. "hich 
"'aI''' (New York, U
8-!), whieh has taken l'Unh lis I "as pas:'l'd in th(' ::-:outh ('Ilrolina assembly, for th(' 
an f'xhaustive nut hority on the suhject of whi('h ef'eetiofl in Charle
toJ) of a statue of William Pitt, 
it treats, He has also coutrihuted man, artides in achnov.ledgment of that sÜlÌesm:IIl's sel'\ ices to 
to reviews and magazines, and is the autllor of the the colonies a'nd the British constitution, In l'ì.,'} 
chapter in \Yinsor"s .. Xarrative aIllI Critical llis- he was elected a memher of the council of 
If('ty 
tory of America" (Roston, 18H-!) on .. The Diploma- and of the committee that was appointed undpr it. 
cy nntl Financf' of the l:evolution." In lijG he was one of a committee of ell'ven in- 
1.0 WEl';T H.\ L. .J olm J a('ob. dle
s-plaYf'r, b, struptecl to draft a l'onstitution for the proYinc'l" 
in Bwla-Pesth. Hungary, in July, l
lO, About and :,;uh:,pquentlya Ilkmber of the legislati,-e coun- 
1841 he bel':une kno\\n as one of the best analvtical cil ercall.d hv the constitution, In 17./; he wns 
c'hes::;-pla.yel's in Europe, In 18-W he left II uilg:H'Y ehosen pf'csidi:.ut of the pr(}\ inee, and ga \ e his om- 
for political reasons and eame tv the l:"lIited :::-;tate
, cinl a

ent to the up\\, constitution, ::-;anmnah \\ as 
arriving in Kew York eity on 
!I Dec, There he 
O(ln captured hy the British fOl'l'es, Georg-ia suc- 
remaineù until the following 
[arl'h, Whl'll he went cumhell, awl South Carolinn wa
 threatenf'cl. 
Ir, 
to IJexington, Ky, During- his sojourn in Xe\\ Lowndes made u vigorous rcsi:<tnneC', Lut, IUt\'ing- 
York he met all the strongest players of the city, fpwer than 10,000 nll'n in the field, he was unahle 
anll won a larg-e majority of the games that he to oppose o\'erwhehuing- fon'cs hy Sl'a al1l1 lund, 
played from all exeept (,harle
 [I, 
tanley, ,\ ith Charleston shared the fate of Sl1nmlluh, and 
whom he made eH'n games, ,\\Yhile in Lc'\.ington LO\\ lilIes was eal'turl'I1. He was :.-uhse'llll'ntly a 
he ('npountered :\11', Dudley, the strouge
t we
tern member of the ::-\outh Carolina assemhly when the 
player of the day, and dpfeatf'ù him in three set e, S, constitution was submitted to the 
tates for 
mat('hes, Un 10 A pril, 1
,')(), he left Lexington atloption, He strl.nuously opposeù it, objecting- to 
for Cincinnat i, stopping- on the way at Frankfort. the restrictions it plael'ù on the slave-trade, 1,vhieh 
alllI Louisville, at both of which places he mðt and he fleelmwI to be the great sourep of the strength 
defeated the chief pla
ers, Be ulTived at CineÏn- and prosperity of the south; to the clau
e ghing 
nati on IG April. a.ud left on 10 )[:ty for X ew power to eong-ress to reg'ulute commf'ree; and to 
Orleans, On 27 )Tay he met Paul .:\lorphy, who the C'entrali7ation of power in the Fedl'ral gOYern- 
was then not yet thirh'en years of agp, and of this men1. prote
ting' that it would reduce the states to 
meeting :\Ir, Lö\\enthal him
elf 
ays: .. I do not the coudition of mel'e l'orporations awl give a d:l.n- 
remember whetlwr we plaYl'Cl in all t\\O or three gerous superiority to the north, The e:ll'flestJless 
g-ames; one was drawn, the other or other
 I lost:' of his antugonism may be inferred from the ('lo:;:ing' 
in June, [Jöwentlml returned to Cincinnati, awl, senten('p of one of his speeches: ., I "ish for no 
with the assistance of fril'wls, e
tahlished a chess other epituph than this: . Here lies one who op- 
tlivan in connection with the ('he:,.s duh there, posetl the Federal constitution, holding it to he 
Early in 11:),')1 he l('ft Cincinnati to takC' part in the fatal to the liherties of his eountry.' "-lIi
 son, 
chess tournament in LowIon. intpnùing to return, Thomas. merehant, }j, in C'harll'ston, S. C., in 
hut never revisited this country, He Was a.fter- 17li5: d, there, 8 ,July, 184:1, receiwd an I1cudemi- 
ward etlitor of the chess department of sevcral Lon- cal education, cngag-l'd in f'ommen'ial pllrsuit
, anll 
don jouruals, conduc,tc-d thp" ('hess-Playcrs' .:\Iaga- hecame one of thl' chief mCf'ehants of his native 
zine" in 1
(i;;-''ì, a.ml wrote seH'rnl books on till' city, He was chnsen a memhpr of the ith and 
th 
subjef't, In 1
.:;
 hC' wus eleetefl secrptllry (If the coi]gre

cs. 1111(1 sPl"\-ed frÒm Î J)pC',. l
O1. till a 
St, Ueorg-e's, ana in 1
;;; prcsitlC'nt of the S1. James\':, )Tarch. I
O,"), - 
\nother son, William ,J OIH'... 
chess cluh, In IHGÎ-'!I he puhlishell .. Trausactinns statesfllnn, h, in CIIIIf'leston, S, c., 'ì Feh.. 1 i
2: d 
of the British Chess 
\s
oeintion," and while in the at 
ca, 
2 Xov" lR:!2, was takpn to Englanù whe]ì 
e-nitpil Stall's lIP contributed to the" nook of till' he 'H]
 sewn years of a
l'. and sent for three .rear
 
First .AnwriC':ln (,hess ('ollgre:,s" (Xew Y ork, l
.ïf)), to an Eng-li:-.h g-rumnmr-school. On his return tú 
1.0W
DF.S, f'hul']('s. fHl\'al offieer, h. in :\[:lr
'- ('harleston he wa:-. gradu:JtPd at Charleston college, 
land in 1 jf)
; d. in I<:a
to]], )111.. 14 Dl'e'" 1

,), I studil'd la\\, nnd wa
 ndmitted to the lmr in 1804, 



LO\\l{EY 


LOWHIE 


45 


hut hc 
oon abanùonetl hi
 proft'

ion to attl'lllI I 
ubsl'quentIy a membl'r of the leg-islature for st:'v- 
to his plantation, \\'hile::-t ill n. yuung man hc eral 
 l'ars, alltl Was afterward elel'tl'd L S, senat or 
tra\ l'lled in Europc for ml'ntal im I H'u\l'ment. It from I \'nllsyl nlllia, and H'n"erl from Ii Dec" It:;W, 
is related that while in London he ulppened to he till a 
Iar('h, ll"
,), On the e\.piration of his tel"ln 
left alone at' his hotel, \\ hieh \\as fretluentetl by I\l' \\as ele('ted Sl'('I'l.till'y of the l-, S, senate, an 
nonc Lut men of rank and dbtinetion, \\ ith Will- omee he held tor t\\ 1'1 H' vear
, \n1ill' in the lat- 
iam l{oseoe, authur of tel' Lod v he made his intluelwl' felt as a deC'ided 
the .. Lift:' of Leo X,:' awl ear:nl'st religious man, Ill' \\ a..; a fuunder of 
who \\ as much his st'- t he Cong-re
sional pm
 l'r-meeting ullll the ('un- 
nior, The two fell gl'essional tl'mpl'l'anel' so('il't
, and for many years 
into ('01\\ er
atlOn, and 
en ('ti as u mcmLer of the t'\.erouti\'e committee of 
the elder gentleman, the 
\merican colonization so('il't
., III 1
;lü hI' he- 
leaving' the room after ('Iune corr('sponding Sl'l'l't'tal'Y of the \Vestern for- 
a time, ml't the Duke eign mi
sionary society, aftel'" anI the Pre:-ob
 terian 
of 
\q:yll in the strl'l't, board of foreign missions, lit:' continue<<l ill the 
.. I ha\ l' been spending charge of his yarious duties until he \\ us disahled 
a most agreeahle hour:' b
- old ag-c in l
liR-lIis 
on, .J uhn {'
IIII('I'un, 
hp said to the (luke, clergyman, b, in Butler, Pa" 1Ii })ee.. It'O
, \\as 
.. \\ ith a young _ \ meri- graduated at J elfl'rson collt:'ge in H
:.?!I; IH'C'pared 
('an g't'ntIl'man, who is for the ministry at tlH'. \Vl'stt:'rn and Print'eton 
the taBest, \\ i
est, and t heologicnl sl'minaries, and \\ as li('en
t:'tl to pn'ach, 
be
t brC'd 
O\1l1g man I 21 JUIll', 1
:l2, On :!:J )Ia
, l
:l:
, Ill' \\as oI'lIaint:'tl 
hu\ e eYer met:' .. It a missionary and \\ as 
ent out hy the \\restprn for- 
must lune I'l'en )Ir, eign missioiJan r societ\r to northè1"ll Tntlia, but hi..; 
Lo\\ nrlt'
, of ::;outh ('a 1'- h
alt h fnill'd, imd hl: retnmed in H.;:Hi, In 1
::8 
olina,"replit:'d thetluke, Dr, LO\\l"ie \\as mw!l- nssi'4ant. 
eeretnrr of the 
., TIe i:, 
ueh a man, I know him, niltl 1 know no hoal'd of foreign mis
ions, his father being 
l'Cl'e- 
-other like him, Hcturn and make his acquaint- tary, In 1
-t,) he \\as caBed to taJ..f' chnr,g-e of the 
Ulll'e," In I
(lfi )11', LO\VIHh's was {'lected to the 4
<<1 stre,-t PI"I'..Lytt'rian churc'h in Xew York city, 
lo\\er housC' of the general assembly of South ('aro- a eonneetion he continued to maintnin until 11".ÎII, 
linn, retuining his 
eat until IH10, \\ Ill'n he \\us \\ lll'n he \Vus ele('ted one of the eorrt'sponding Sl'C- 
cho
t'n a memhcr of cong-re::;s as a Democrat, anù retnril's of the hoarrl of forf'ign missions, In l:-';fj,) 
re-l'leded fh e tÏInes suece

iYely, ::-en ing from 4 he \\ a..; cho::;en modl'l'ator of the generul as:'t'lJlbly 
XOY.. 11"11. till 8 )[ay, 1t':!:.?, when failing health of his church, He i..; the author (If h Trawls in 
{:'ompelled his resig-nation, He was nn t'aml'st 
nrth India, etc," (Philadplphia
 1R41 : samp \\ork 
sllpportl'r of the \\ ar of 1
12-ï:;, and spoke fre- issued in X l'W York, 1
,ÎII, under tit Ie of .. T\\ 0 
quently on matters pertaining to the nrm
, thl' Y t'ars in L ppt'r lIulia "): ".\ 
Ianual of the 1"01'- 
navy, the finaneps, the national hank, the )li
souri eign ,Mission::; of the Pn-
hytt'1'ian Chureh in till' 
compromise, the Spanish treaty, and the tariff, Cnitt'ù :-;tates of .\nwriea" (:\ew York. 11':,),): 3d 
lIis fl'iends re
anled him a.. a suituble clllltlidnte ('(1., 1
liH); aIHI" )[issionar
' Papers" (J 
R2), hesidC'<; 
for the pre
idenC'y, Ulal he was nominated by the many reports, sermons, and al'tielcs in the " Prince- 
legblature uf South Carolina, I1is health luning ton He\if'w."-.\nother son, "'nit.'.. 11
H'oll, mis- 
been hl'lll'fite(I hy a visit to Eng-Iand in ItH 9, IH:' sionary, b, in Butler, Pa" It! Feh.. It-:W; d, 1!) 
,deeidl'd to return to that conntr
, and had em- Aug.. 1847, was g'ruduated at ,Jefft'rson in U';:17, 
harkl'd with his family from Philadelphia, but diù sturlied at l'rinct'ton theological sf'minary, and 
not lin' to complete the Yo
age, .As a dehater he \\as ordained in Xo\remher, 1:-.;41. On I!) Jan" 
()ecupied the front rank, in ",pitf' of a \\ eakncss of 1
-t2, he sailf;d for ('hina to join the Presbytt'rian 
voi('c ('au sed hy diseased lungs, while hi::; memory mis
ion there, After laboring ahout t\\O years in 
\\as remarknhly retentive, It is said that Henry :\Iaeao, he remo\"eù tn Xingpo in 1!:!45, I1aying 
Clay expre
sed the opinion that )[1', Lowndes \\ as occasion to attpnd a confeJ"l'nce of missionaries at 
.. the \\ i
t'st man he had e\rer known in congress," 
hanghai, he \ i:-oited that eity ùuring the Sllll1J1ll'r 
The only portrait of )11', Lowndes was hy Morse, of 1847, and on the vo
age baek to Xingpo his H'S- 

nd is i':1 the ('orcoran gallery, \Vashington, 
ee scl was attackeù by pirates, and he \\as thr(l\\n into 
IllustratIOn ahO\re, the sea. lit. \\as the author of .. The Land of 
1.0 W n E\'. G('o,,
(', Cherokee chief. b, on Ten- Sinim, or an E\.position of Isaiah xlix, 12" (Phila- 
nessee rhrer about 1.;0; d, 20 Oct., 1:-:,)2. lie \\a..; delphia, 1
,ÎO). :mù .. :-;ermons Preat,hed in (,hina " 
one of the delcg-ates that yisiteù \Y ashin,
trll1 in (Xew York, 1
,)1), See" )It'moir of \y, 
I. Lowrie" 
1 ;!l1, was pre:-oent at the 
igning of the treaty of (Xt'w York, 18-t!J: Philaùclphia, 18::>4-'::> and l

O), 
1
17, a memher of'the cOl1\ention that franwd the e<<Iitf'd bv hi
 futhcr,-Another son, Jonathull 
constitution of the Cherokee nation in 1:-:;!7, and nolJt'rt
: law\t'r, b, in Butler, Pa" Hi 
Iarch, 1t';!:-;; 
wa..; ehosen assistant principal-chief, lIe fille<<1 d, in \y aJ"l'ior'
 )[ark, Pa" 10 Del'" 1
8,Î, \\ as gradu- 
various local uffi('e
, and wa..; regarded a
 an hont'st ated at .J efferson college in 1:-.;-t:!, and studied law 
man and a patriot. He '\\rott' a tra('t on telllp('r- \\ith his cousin, ,Judge \\-alter II, LO\\rie, Ill' at 

Ulee in the C'herokt'e tongue, anti fI!'sister! in tran..;- first settled in IIollidayshurg, Blair co.. Pa.. hut 
lating- the Scriptures into that language, soon remO\-ed to \\-arrior's l\lark, IIuntingùon co" 
tow HI E. W
lIt('... senator, iI. in E(1inhurgh, whrre he pa.;;sed the remuinder of his life, There 

cotland, 10 Dee" 1 ;H4; d, in XI'W York city, 14 hI' hf'c!une the legal a(h-ber of a finn 0\\ ning- 01H' 
nec.. l
n
, lIe was brought to the {Ynited 
tate
 of the largest estates in central Pennsyhallia. He 
when ei!:ht 
 cars of figI' h
' his parents, \\ ho settled spent mu(;h tinlP in the study of the natural :,ci- 
in II unting-don county, Pa.. but subsequently n'- ences, p:-opt'cially botany, and converter! the grounds 
mOH'd to Butler county, Young- Lowrie recei\-erl attltched to his residence into nn arboretum, made 
a g-ood erlncation, but prosecuteJ his 4udies amid I large collections of thf' 1'31"('1' plants. and diseovereù 
man
' difficultif's, .\t the ag-e of ei!:hteen, he beg-an one new species, Prunu<: _\lleghaniensis, anù seyeral 
a ('oursI' of study with a view to entering thC' min- 1 others that harl not prC'viously been found in the 
istry, but was lcd to dlllnge hi:, purpose, III' wa... . state,-
\nother "on, Rt'uht'li. mi.-sionary, b. in 


., 


'l 


-' 
...,- 



 



 



46 


LOWRIE 


LOY 


Butler, Pa,. 24 XOy,. 1
:!j'; d, in Shan
hai, China, l..OWRY, Roh('rt. clergyman. b, in Philadel- 
:!f) _\pril. 18GO, was graduated at the UnÏ\-ersity of rhia. Pa., 12 )larch, 1
:!ü, lle was graduatl'd at 
the city of Kew York in 1::;4ü, served there one Lewisbur:; univer:-ity, Pa" in 18.34, studied theol- 
year u; tutor, and studied theology at Princeton, ogy, entered the Uaptist ministr), and has had 
heing graduated from the seminary in 1849, He clmrge of churches in Xew York city and Hrook- 
W:iS licensed to preach by the Luzerne, Pa" pres- lyn, X, y,. \\' e:-:t Chester and Lewi:-;burg. Pa.. and 
hytery in 1::;.')1. at which time he was engaged in Plainfield, K. J, While at Lewisburg he acted as 
mi:-:sionary work among the Choctaw Indians, lIe professor of literature in the university, From 
was ordained as a missionary in 1::;3:3, and sailed for 18H() tilll
Hfj he wa..; presillent of the Sew Jersey 
Shanghai, where he applied himself to the study Bapti:-;t :-5umlay-school union, lie took part in the 
of l'hine:-:e. and translated the .. ::-\horter l'ate- Rohert I{aikes centennial in IJollllon in 1::;::;0, lIe 
ehi:-;m" and a "Catechism on the Old Testament receÍ\'ed the degree of !>, D, from LC\\ b:burg uni- 
lIi:-:tory" into that lan
uage, He de\-oted much versity in 1::;7,), Dr, Lo\\ ry is a compo:-:l'r of music 
time to the completion of a "Dictionary of the and a hymn-writer, fie has edited "Chapel )h'lo- 
Four Books," that had been hegun hy his brother dies" (Xew York, 18(8): .. Bright Je\\els '. (lKüU); 
\y:tlter, and had al:-:o nearly fini:-:hed a .. Commen- .. Pure Gold " and" Hymn Service " (1871); ., Royal 
tary on the Gospel of :\latthew" in Chincse when Diadem" and" Temple Anthems" (1873); "Tidal 
he died,-Walter's nephf'w, WnIter Ho
re, jurist, \Vave " (1::;74): "llrightest and Best " (18;5); 
son of Mathew ll.. b, in Armstrong county, Pa" B " ,,- elcome Tidings" and ,. Fountain of 
ong" 
March, IHO;; d, in )leadville, Pa.. 14 Noy.. IH76, (1::;;7); .. Chautauqua Carols" (18.t1); h Gospel 
was gra<luated at the "-estern university of Penn- Hymn- and Tune-Book" (IS;!}); .. Good as Gold" 
svlvnniu in 11:\:!ü. 
tUllied law, and \\ as admitted to (IS!:!O);" Our Glad HosannlL" (1

2): "Joyful Lays" 
the bar. 4 
\ug" 1::;2H, In August, 184G. he wa
 ap- (11:\84); and" Glad l{efrains '. (1t'
ü), lie has also 
pointed to the judgeship of the district court. of 'written many Christnms and Easter services, and 
Alleghany county, Pa" and occupied that office sin,de songs, )[ore than B.OOO,OOO copies of his 
until he was elected to the supreme court of Pl'nn- compositions have been issued, 
sylvania in It1,}1. He remained upon the bench LOWT" Eft. (;corg(', English buccaneer, b, in 
twelve )"ears, olIiciating- during the last six yenrs England; d, on llianeo island, off the coa
t of 
as chief justice, lIe then practised law for a few Venezuela, in 1722, He wa:-: an officer on one of 
years in Pittsburg, amI sub:-:equently was chosen the ships belonging to the Royal compan)" of Africa, 
president judge of a judieial distriet in western and in 1721, ",hill' stationed at the mouth of the 
PenlJsylvania. where he remained until his death, Gambia, seizell the ycssel with the aid of Capt. 
,J udge'IJo\uie \\ a:-: a contrihutor to the Princeton l\lassey, an officer of infantry, Lowther harangued 
"Repertory" and other periodicals, Several of his his follo\\ers, sho\\ ing th('m that it would he mad- 
rapers that he read before the Âmeriean philosophi- nes:; to return to England, and that it was better 
calsociety have been printed, including t hose on the to sl'ek their fortunes on the high seas than expose 
.. Origin of the 'Tides" and ., Cosmieal 3[otion,"- thl'msel VI'S to certain denth, The crew applauded, 
Another nephew, John 
Inrshan, C'lergyman, son and a cmellant was signed by them \\ith their 
of l\Iathew B., h, in Pittsburg, Pn" Hi July, HH.; leader mIll s\\orn to on the Bible, They sailed for 
d, in Fort Wuyne, lnd" 21j Sept.. 1
li7. was gradu- the Antilles, where th(')' made sf'veral captures, .A 
ated at Lafayette in 1::;40, He studied theology at quarrel then took place between Lowther and .:\las- 
Princeton, was ol'(lained, and in 1"43 installed pas- sey, who wished to attack the French colonies, and 
tor of the chun'hes of lllairstown and Knowlton, the latter was allowed to take charge of a captured 
J'í, J, lIe was sub
equently settled at \Vellsville sloop. with ten men, Ill' sailed for .Jamaica, \\here 
and Lancaster, Uhio, and at Fort \Vayne, Ind, In the governor treated him kindly IInd gave him 
alillition to frequent contributions, both poetical money to go to l.ondon, He confessed his mis- 
and prose, to the periodical press, Dr, IJO\Hie puh- deeds to the African company, and was tried and 
lished .. .Adam and his Times" and" Esther and executed in July, 17:!3, :\lemiwhile Lowther seized 
her Time
" (Philadelphia. 1
li2); "The Hehrew many 
hips, but afterward, when he had put into 
Lawgiv('r" and" A \Yeek with Jesus" (1
ü(j): "The Porto l\la\"o to r(':-:t and refit, was attacked bv the 
Tran:-:luted Prophet" (l
ü
); and "The Prophet inhahitant-:-:, and forced to retl'l'at '" ith loss, Àfter 
Elijah .. and" Life of David ., (I H li9), He is also the this Lowther \\as for some time very successful, 
author uf a traet entitled .. Christian in the Church" but afterward he attached n vessel that beat him 
(18;9),-A grand-nephew, S:1I1111('I Thollll)!'oòon, off and pursued him, and he was forced to run hi:-: 
clergyman. son of \\T alter II., b, in Pittsburg, Pa,,' ves:-:el aground in order to escape by land with his 
!j Feh., 1$
,), was educated at the "'estern unÍ\-er- ('rew, Ill' lost so man)' men in this action that he 
sityof Pennsyl vania and at )liami university, where was obliged to I"l.tire to a 
mall i:-:land, where he 
he was graduated in IH;):!, after which he studied pas::-ed the \\ inter of 17:!:!, On t he return of spring 
theology at the Presbyterian 
emillary in Alleghany he sailed for X('wfOlllHlland, The pirates :<topped 
City in lti;):!-'li, and in Ileidelbprg, Germuny, in on the wav at Blanco i:-:land, off the coast of \T ene- 
IS,')7, On his return to the Lnited States he \\as zuela, \\IIl:l'l' Capt, "TaIter Moore, who eomnumded 
called to the Pre
byterian church in Alexandria, a \ essel bl'longing to tlw South sea company, at- 
Pa" where he remained untiI1Hli;
, and suh,.;equent- tacked them and took many prisoners, hut Lowther 
ly helll pastorates in Philadelphia in 18ü;)-"9; in and some othel"s escuped t() land, :\loore sailed to 
Ahing-ton, Pu., in 1I:\GU-'7-1; and jn Ewing, N, J,. Cumana, an (I ufterward to St. Kitt's. with his pris- 
in 18.!)-'
;;; al:-:o o(,Cl1p
 ing- the profe:-:sorship of ..;oners. mo:-:t of \\ horn were hang-ed, 'Ill(' Spanish 
X ew Testament literature and exegesis in the \Vest- governor uf Cumana- sent a detachment of soldiers 
ern tllPological seminary in Alleghany City during to Blanco islalll1. \\ here Lowther was di:-.;covered 
1
74-'8. Prof, 1..0\\ rie now (1t187) hol<ls the otllC'f' lle:lIl. hu.\ ing- prohably eommitted suÏl:ide, 
of chaplain to the Preshyterian hospital in Phihl-I to\'", )[atthiu!'oò. theologian, h, in Cumberland 
delphia, Ill' was associated in the trnn
lation of COUllt
. Pa" 17 )Iareh, 1
:!::;, He is the son of 
tllf' volumes on "lsainh" (IS';'!)) and ,. XUlllhers" )Iatthia,.; ana Christina IJov, lIe received his c1a<:- 
(1HRO), of .. Lange's Commentaries" (Xew 10rk). 
ical edueation at Jlarri
hilrg academy. was gra<l- 
wrote" E'i.plannt ion of Ilehrl'ws" (18H4), and trans- l1ated at the Theological :-:eminary, Columhus, l )hio, 
lated Cremer's .. Beyond the Gnl\-e" (1
8;j), in 1849. and. entering the Lutheran ministry in 



LOY A U'f(.
 


LOZ
\XU 


47 


that year, b('callle pa
tor at Delaware, Ohio, In Paz of Ayaeueho, find wa
 gmlluatl'd as dodoI' 
l
li,") he re
iglll'tl to become professor in the Theo- in canonil'al and C'Í\ il law and literature, becom- 
lo
ical seminary mlll l'apitnl llnÍ\ersity, CoJum- ing teueher of philosophy, and sueee
siH'ly \'icp- 
bus, Uhio, and in It':-<l he was elected president of rector and rector of the College of La Paz, In 
Capital uniwrsity, In l
Sì :\luhlenberg cullege Lt'-J,") he was ,ice-ehancellor of the l'niH'r
iÌ\ of 
g-ave him the degree of H, 1>, Pl"Uf, Loy has been :-:an 
\ndres of La Pa7., and in the ye
ll's It'.t!l 
lIld 
editor of the" I__uthel'lLn :-:tandanl " 
inee 1t!li4, and l
li1 was its chancellor, Ill' was honorary minis- 
in 18Hl he began the puhlication of the" Columbus tel' of the 
upreme court of Lima in It-:
i, attol"Iley- 
Theolo
ieal :\lagazinl'," of which he is still (L:-<:-<i) 
('nt'l'al of the judil'ial court of l'o('hahamha in 
editor-in-chid, Ill' has published" The Vúl'trine I
:m, president of th(' superior court of La Paz in 
of Justification" (Columbus, IHli
); .. Lik of Lu- IS-l8, a JIleml)er of tlH' cmnmi:,sion that compiled 
ther," translated (18G!J); and" Essay on the )[inis- the JIlprcantile codp of Nanta Cruz, and general 
tl.rial Utlice" (18iO), Ill' ('tlited a translation of Iwditor of the arm\' of the confedf'rution in 1834-'5, 
.. Luther's House Postil" (3 vols" I H 74-'H4), Ill' was also secr
.tary to the Bolivian legatit1n 
I,Of..ll'1'E, ..lnll{, rltiliplÞ{' Hh'udollné tit> that siglll.tl the treaty of Fiquina in lR:n, and to 
(lo-yo-tay), French sol,lier, b, 1Il .:\Ietz in 17,")0: d, the Bolivi:m commi

ion that examined in 
ucre 
in La l.'!l'che in 11::!:m, Ill' {'nlistetl in the army the treaty wit h Fram'(', and neg'ot iated till' treaty 
"hen 
earcelv ele,-en years old, and servetl in Gel:- of intervention in Pt'ru\ian territon, under the 
mam' in 1 il;"l-'3, Ilè was e{lmmissioned lieuten- fllrm of a politieal eonwntion, hetweeli Boli\ ia and 
ant Ín 1 ili4, and captain in '1 iiB, "hf'n he came to Peru, At ditIprent times he hils been dqmty to 
this country with 30 eallllon and 10,000 mu
kets eongress awl !':('nator, diplomutic agent in Peru mHI 
from the French goyel'nment, He 
el'\-ed during Chili, andlllini
ter of publiC' instruction mHI l'ub- 
the whole of the war for independenee us inspec- lie work
, Ill' has pllbli
hed .. Oda en Yf'r
o lat ino 
tor-general of the artillery of the army awl forti- y Custellano á IlL Concepcion immaculada." \\ hich 
fications of '
irg-inia, aml \\as rewarded hy Louis wa
 awarllf'd a prize in th(' rniyersityof Home, 
XVI. with the ('ro
s of 
aillt IJOllÏs in 1'j
,t lit "Ellihro dell'uehlo," .. La imiolahilitlml de la yitla 
emigratt.d in I.!)O, anù sened in the army of ('on- hUllHlIIa,"" :\Iemorius hiogr;ífieas de Boli var," awl 
Il{', In an attempt to capture Stra
burg, I.") 
ov" .. La mujer en 
us relaeiones ù(lnJ(

ti('a
 y sociales," 
1 i!)l, he fel! It prisoner, but escaped to Englanù in whi('h hu
 been translated into French and Italian, 
1.U:?, anù in 17!lfi was appointeù l)y the British LOZ.\
O. }'l"Hllcisco Rniz (lo-thah -no), l'eru- 
government commander of the artillery in Santo vian astronom('r, b, in Lima in lliOi; d, t her(' in 
Domingo, and a few months later general inspeetor 1Gi7, lie studied mat}H'lIIati(.'s Ilnd astronomy with 
of the Briti
h army in the ishm(l. Ill' afforded the .Jesuits in Lima mltl :\Iexico, and retumIlIg' to 
valuable aid to the ìnvader
, and but for him it is Lima in Hi,")3 with the yi('C'rm, Count Alba de 
hardly probable that the English could ha\'e main- .Aliste, was appointed bv him eill'tain of Npanbh 
tained theil' hold in the colony, .After l'j!lt' he re- infantry, and ufterwartl ('(Immander of the ::-;outh 
mained in ::-\anto Domingo as a privute citizen, re- sea, ,/\.s the prineil'al co!':mogrupher of thut coast, 
turning to France in 1
(I:?, Ill' served during the I__ozano was the first director of the nuutieul s(.'hool 
Russian campaign in UH2-'13, and in 1
:?,") l)ecame that \\as fouwled in Lima, in Hi,")i, at the I1o
l'ital 
ùirector of the militar) school of La Pleche, lIe uf Espiritu ::-\anto, Soon after establi
hillg his 
published ",M{>moires pour sen ir it rIlÍstoire de school he gm e greater security t9 navigation in 
l"occupation Anglaise de lïle de Saint I>omingue" the Paeifie by puhlishing sailing directions, ]n 
(2 vols., Paris, 1
2.t), lGüO he obsf'rved the comet of that year, anù this 
LOfOL.\. 
Inrtin Gurt'iu Oü.>z d(' (lo-yo'-Jah), astronomieal \\ark \\as the first that was done in 
Spanish silitlier, b, in Bi
eay in 153
: d, in Chili, Suuth ,Ameriea, being published in the same year, 
2
 Kov., l,")!lH, In 131m he came to Pt'ru with the hefore it Was oh!'ened in Europe hy lIehe1. Lo- 
viceroy Franci
co de Toledo, By the capture in zallo served for several vear
 liS director of the 
the 
\.mles, in 1,")72. of the last inca of Peru, Turac Hospital of E
ph'itu Santõ, improving its building 
.Amaru, he obtainetl the halld of the Prineess Clara and th(' condition of its treasur\". 
lleatriz de Coya, the only daughter and heiress of J,OZ.\
O, l)('dl'o. Spanish" mi
sionRry, b, in 
the inca Sayri Tupac, In 1,").9 he \\-as appointed Spain toward the end of the 1Îth century; d., 
goycrnor of Potosi. and in l,")!11 governor-gen('ral of probably, in South America, lIe enten'd the Jesuit 
Chili, Rl'l'i,-ing at Yalparaiso with an army in ::-\ep- ortlcr at an early IIge, and as soon as his studies 
tember, 1.")92, Soon afterward he hegan operations \\ ere finished wa
 sent a
 a mi
sionary to South 
against the Araucanians, "hieh were contimll'd with America, Immediateh- after his arrival he was 
varying fortunes, In 1.")f)-! he founded near 
\ngol appointed professor hi the College of Cordova in 
the city of Coya, in honor of the prineess, hi
 wife, Tucuman, I1is ,,,orks are" Descripciún coro
rá- 
imd established there colleges, churche
, convents, fica de terreno, rios, arboles y animales de las 
amI other public building
, and t\\O forts for the tlilatadísima
 províncias ùel Gran Chaco Gualamba, 
protef'tion of the city and the mines of Rdaeoyan, y de los ritos y costumbres de las innumerahles 
In l,")!1,")-'ü he fought seycral hllttlp:, against the naci01ws b:írbaras é infieles que Ie habitan, con un 

\.ra ucanian toqui Caillamach u, In l.ì!Ii he fouIltkd mapa del Chaco," copies of "hich, accompanied by 
a colony in the province of ('uyo (now in the Ar- the map, which was engraYCd hy J, Petroschi in 
gentine Republic), with the name of San Luis de I 1 i
3, are very rare (CordonI, 17:.1ö); "Ilistoria dl' 
Loyola, ]n the same year he had several encoun- la compaíìía ùe Jesus en la provincia del Paraguay;' 
ters with Caillamachu. who. forced him to retire who:<e value is impaired by the diffu
eness of the 
from Angol to Imperial. Ill' was returning to the style and the :mthor's credulity, and which was 
seat of war near the Bio-BIO, accompanietl b,' fortv bitterly attacked on its appearanee on account of 
officers anù innllids and three clergymen: wlwñ its e
po
ures of the cruelties of the conquerors 
Caillamachu, who had followed hIs steps, surprised towar(l the natiH's (2 vols" Madrid, 1 '1,"):1); and 
him in the \-alley of f'uralaba anù attacked him "Diario de un viaje á la costa de la IlIaI' l\lagal- 
during the night, killing him, with all his party, hinicR en 174,"):' which is translated by Charleyoix 
I,OZ .\, ,J (I
é ]1
tIllI..l (lo' -thah), Bolivian lawver, in his" Histoire (lu Paraguav," is also found in the 
h, in Copacah:ma in l'jB!I: d, in La Paz in 1
(j2, "Histoire gpnérale elf'S voyag('s" of the Ahbé Pré- 
He stwlied in the universities of La Plata and La , vost, 1111(1 form,.; part of the first volume of UIP 



"Cokcci{,n de ohms y documento
" puhlished hy J.1.JAfES. .JCHuinin l.m'(,lIzo (1oo-ah'-thes), 
Pi' Ang-eJis (Buenos 
\.yre
, 1t{aü), The 
ame vol- Cuhan author, b. in lIavana. 21 July, 18:!ü; d, 
ume contains a lptter of Lozano to Fat her Juan de there, 17 N OV" 1 
ü7, After fini
hing his eù ucation 
AI70la on the mvsterious citv of the Ca'sars, 'Hit- in lIavana he devoteù his time e:xclllsively to 
ten in 174.6, whieh would" s(,l'm to ju
tify the literary pur
uits, and published a \-olume of 
charge of credulity that was made against the poems (Havana. 183i) which won for hIm a "ide 
author b
. Spani
h "riters, fJozano also wrote a recognition and placed him at once among the be<:t 
narrative that gives a wry vivid and interesting lyrical poets in the Spanish language, In IHli;) 
account of the death of the Jesuit Castaíìares, who his historical clmma, ., EI mendigo rojo." was per- 
was a
sassinated by the )Iataguayos Indians on formed in Havana "ith great sueeess, In the 
the banks of the Pilcoma\'o, It is dllt('(l 1 )[nv, following year he Jlublished his classieal tragedy 
17'47, and is published in the "TJettre
 é.lifiantes,;' "Aristod('mo," which was favorahlv received, 
I.OZI EH, fl('IIU>Il('(' SOI.hia. physician, h, in Among the other p1'Odlletions of Ln:il'es arc his 
Plainfield, K, J.. 11 nee,. 1t;1:!; d, in Xew York comedic:," Los dos mnigos," "Ell)('cerro de oro." 
citr, 
U April. 1

:), She was the young-est daugh- and" EI fantasmÓn de Caravaca:' anù his drama 
tel' of l>avid Harned. and in 182!J married Abraham .. 
\ rturo de Osherg." 
\\r, Lozier, of Kew York, hut 
()on afterward, her LV_UUÞ. Uirhttrd {
(,OI'C'(, A mb('I'
t. Briti"h 
hu
band's health failing. she opellt'd a sdeet 
dllJol 
oldier, h, in Eng-Iand in 1
:.?i" lie" as the eldest 
and taught for eleven years, During this time she son of Lieut.-Col. .John Luanl. R peninsular and 
wasa
so('iated \\ith "'aterIoo officer; allli "lIS educated at the Roval 
1\Ir
, )Iargaret Pry- military college, Sandhurst. from which h(' õh- 
or in vi
iting the tainf>d his commission in lR43, "it hout purchase, 
puor anll ahan- lie scr\'ell in ]llIlia, the C'rimeft. mal China, was 
done(l, under the statioJled at Halifax, X, S" It{7:J-';), as a
sistant 
all
picl'
 of the Mo- military s('crNary to Sir William 0, G, Ilaly, and 
nil reform ;>:oeietv. h('came major-general, 1 0('1., l
i7', II I' "as ap- 
After her hu
baI1l1\, rninte<1 to the command of the militia of Canada, 
death she <1eter- with the rank of nmjor-g-e}wml. on fi 
\ug-.. 1

O, 
mined to study His rigorous applipation of the Ilbcipline and r(>gu- 
medicine. attende
l lations of the rpgular arrnf rt'I1lh'reù him unpopu- 
her fir
t ll'eture:: at lar with somc of the offieers :nul nwn of that service, 
Hoche
tl'r ecleetic IX B not..: K. f'runci... Uicbal'd. govprnor of 
mellical ('ollege in Te\'as. b. in Bt'aufort. S, (',. Hi Od.. 181,), He 
l
-!!I, awl "as grad- was edueHÌl'd ehieflv in nl'aufort and f'harkston, 
uated al the ::-;\'1'a- S, ('" engagl'd in IÌlerl'antiIe pun:uits, in 1834 re- 
cusemediealcoIiege movell to Kew Orleans. and in 1
::ü to T!:'xas, Ill' 
in It:',j;J, VI', Lozier scttled in 1

J7 in Houston, Te\,.. building the 
at once IlI'gan prac- third house in that place, was clerk of the T(':xas 
tice as a homæopathist in Xf'\\ York, where she hou
e of I'epresl'ntati\es in 18:J8, tl1('n Ilppointed 
continued to reside, mHl in the surgl'ry required eomptrnlkr hy President I1ouston, aud while sen-- 
hy t he (li
t'll
es of 1lt,I' 0\\ n 
f'X llisphlyed peeulillr ing in this offif'e wa
 made adjutant of the force 

kill. performing nlllny' eal'ital opemtinn
 in the for the protl'l'tion of the frontier, Ill' returned to 
rl'I1IO\ al of tumors, In 1t!IiO 
he h(>g-an a eour::e of Houston in 1
:m, wa
 comptrolll'r Ilgain in 1
41, 
ll'eturcs on medical suhjt'l'Ìs In hl
r own l'arlor
, and clerk of Harris county in 1
-t3-'3G, Ill' was 
"hif'h in 1
(i:: resulted in the founding- of th!:' X ew cho
en lieutenant-governor in 1837'. and governor 
York medieal colll'ge mId ho
pital' for women. in 18lil, but declined a renomination in It;üj, and 
"here shl' "as clinil'al l'rllfe
sor of di
l'asl's of at thc expimtion of his term entered the Confetler- 
womcn amI children, and al
o dean of the fllculty, ate army as lieutenant-colOlwl. JIe wa
 appointed 
for more thlm twenty H'ar
, This in
titution was on the staff of Jefferson Davis in 18ü-t, with the 
the fir
t di
tinetÍ\d\r \wman's IlIedi('al colll'g'e to rallk of eolonel, wus with ':\11', Da\'is when he W<IS 
bl' estahlbhed in Xew York state, ])1', I:ozier ca}lturcl1. and was confined in Port Delaware till 
took an 
l(,ti\"e interest in all that pertains to the Def'f'mher, 18li,), He resumed bnsine!':s in Houston 
eleyation of hf'r sex, for thirteen years wa,;; presi- in 1
liti, and n'IlIow'tl in l
li7 to Gah e
ton, "here 
(lellt of the X ew York eit." woman slIfImg-e so- he serH'd three tl'rlll
 as citv trt'<I
urer, 1\11', Lub- 
('iety. awl for four n'ar
 of thc Xat ional woman LOl'k 'HIS ehosen state tr('a
ilrer of Te\,as in l
i8. 
sllffi'a
e s(wil't \", 
he also held of1iec in other and was re-l'kcteù in ltit:!
, ltit;4. and lSt;li, In this 
phila!;thropie IÎwl reform a

nC'iations, 111111 was an of1iee he has broken up the custom of ,,;peculating 
ol'ca
ional l'ontributor to mf'lli('al jOIll"lwk-Iler with comptroller's warrants, and has thus im- 
daug-hter-in-Iaw, Chul'lott(, 1t'('IIf'. ph
:-il'ian, h, proyeò thc financial standing of the state, 
in )IilhUl'II, X, .J., 1.1 1\1 a 1'('h. 1
-!-!; <1, in XI'W IXC.\S, HUllicl BNlill!l'eJ" lav.yer, b, in 
York eity, ð .Jan.. 18ìO, wa
 the tlaughter of ,Jat'ob C'harlesto\\n. "a, (now"',' Ya,), 16 :\lardl, 18:J6, 
S, I>elllllan. allli "a-- grlllhlllted in It'fii at the lli
 father. \nlliam, 'HIS a IlI('mher of congre
s 
K ew York medil'al college and ho
pital for WOlllt'n, from Yil'ginia in 1
3!)-'41 and It{-t:3-'.3, allli llÍs 
In l
lj
 shc \\a
 c-ulll'll to fill the ('hail' of ph

iol- ul1('le. Ed\\ard, in U::J3-''j, When the 811}l was un 
o:r
' allli h
-:ril'ne in that in
titlltion, \\hieh relation inflmt his negro nurse It,t him fall from her arms, 

hl' held until her dl'ath, Dr, Luzier took an a('- cau:-oing a permanl'nt 
pinHl injury, ] 1(' was gratlu- 
tiw part in the 
t!'up'g-I
 to !<('('\II'e for fl'nHlJe :"tu- ated at the eni\'c!'sity of Yirgillia in 1
'I;'), nnd in 
<!enb tll(' pri\-ill'ge of attl'wling the clini('
 of law at \\.a
hington eolll'gl', Ya,. in 1
;;8, and began 
Bl'lll'\'lIe ho:-'pital, JeHlling- thl'lII her::l'lf to th(' to praeti
(' in ('hHrlesto"n, Yu.. but in 1
f;O re- 
war(l
 and opel'Htin!.:"-room
. Sh" wa
 an ahle 1('('- I mow'll to Hiehmowl. lie sern'd on the staff of 
turl'!', an original inn'stig-atur in anatomy a 1111 nen, Henry A. '\ï
e in the Kana\\ ha yalley in the 
ph
-si(llogy, a sh il ful praetit ioner. 1lI1l1 an energet ic civil war, nnd in l
öi resllmf'd the pra('tiee of his 
workt.r in all mnH'ments for the plC'\ ation of ht'r 1 profl's
ion in C'harlestu\\ n, \\', Ya.. where he has 

P\" In IHlili 
he marril'd Dr, 
\bl'ahalll "", Lozier. 
ince re
ided, lie \\a
 a pn.sidential dl'l"Ìor on the 

Oll IIf l>t., C!elllence S, Lozier, I DenlOcratÍ<..' ticket in 1872, 1t:;7ü, and 1:;:::;4., cho:,en 


48 


LOZI En 


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. 


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.:,..
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LLCAS 



L{;C
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LrCF. 


40 


to tl1l' It'gisillture in It':-<-!-'ü, uud in 1:-<
7 was np- I (,('(' \S. Thomas Johu, sllillil'r, b, in Luwrencc- 
I 'llintl'd tu till' l". :-;, Sl'lmtl' hy the gO\'l'l"Ilor, The IHlI'g, Ind", !) Sept.. 1t'
(i. His 1atlll'r, Fretleriek, a 
c"blaturp sub
elplentl v elccted Chal"les .J. .Fuulh.- Ilati ,-c of Uennl':", Fralll
e, and a 
oldi('r of 
 apo- 
tl(
r, 111111 the senate gavë the 
eat to the laUel', )11', iI'on ':-: later campaigns, CHme to this eountry after 
Lueas reeei\l'd the degreo of LL, [), fl'om till' the battle of \raterloo nnd H,ttled in Baltimore, 
lTni\eI'sity of ""est 
hL, \\ here he learlll'll the tl'wle uf a watchmaker, 
\Ïrginia in U
;;;J, lie afterward remu,-ed :-:Ul'cessi, l'ly to .Marietta 
He has ohtailled a /Lnd ('illl'innati, Uhio, alii I La'\l"eileeburg, Ind" 
reputation a:-: a I'uh- where Ill'm:ll'l'ied and I'as....l,d the re
t of his life, 
lit, ,..peaker, Ill' ha:-: The son learned his father':-: trilll ' !, but elllistl'll for 
puhlishe,l h )[I'moir the )[e
ican war as a drumlllcr-III)} in the -tth In- 
of .John Yates Bell" diana ,oluntecrs, and ro::-e to be lieutcnant and all- 
()[ontrl'al, II:3U,;); jutant. .At the cluse of the \\ar he I"e
umed his 
.. The \\'reath uf Eg- former occupation, which he continuell till l
ü1. 
lantine a III I Other Ill' then rai:-:cù a l'ompllny, was ellOsen ib captain, 
Poems:' ineluding and joined the !Gth Indiana l"l':Ôment, of which he 
sl'H'I'al by his si"tl'r 'HIS cOlllmi:-:siol1l'1l lieutellant-colonel. A fter the 
(B.dtiIllOl'f', 11:3U!J); battle of Ball's muff he covered the retreat of the 
.. The )[aid of Xor- Xational fOI'l'es, ero:-:sillg- the PotomUl' in tlH' last 
thumherland .. (Xl'\\' boat, and WII:-: prumoted colonel. IIc opposed 
y ork, l
j!)): 111111 Kirhy ::-;mith's ad nmce at Hi('h1l10nd, Ky" and 
"Balhubllnd )[Ildri- then took part in all the operations nroumL Yieh.s- 
gal:-:" (18tH,), IIis burgo, \\here he 'H1::; woumh,a thrce time:-:, Aftcr- 
popm .. The Land where we were Dreaming:' writ- ward he was ordered to Xl'\\" Urlcans allll placed 
ten in l
(i.;, attraeted much attention at the 
outh, at the head of a cavalry hrig-alle, \\ith which Ill' did 
I.('('
\S. (;.'OI'
'.' W;I
hill
.tulI. musieian, It, in good sl'l'\ice in the Hed ri'er e).pedition, first in 
G 11lstunlJIIl",'-, l '01111.. I:.? 
 \ pri( 1:-;00; d, in Halllp- tht' ml \"<1II<'e, next in con'l"Ìug the retrcnt of BanJ.s's 

hire countv, .:\Ia:-:-.. ahout 1

n, He ::.tudied army to \ll'\.allliria, amI thcn in till' Ulln\llee again 
music for t\,'O years undt'r Thomas Hastings in to the .:\lississippi. Ill' was promoted brig'adier- 

\lhatlV, X, y" atHl lecturcd ntlll taught on this general of volunt<'l'rs, 10 
o", 1
(i-t, and 1'0111- 
sUhje('t throughout thl' lYnited Statl'S ;lIld Canada, maTllh'd a divi:-:ion of c.l\alry in the operations 
Ill' ddiwred more than 1.000 puhlic leetlll'l's, around )[oLiIe, inYl'sting Fort Blakely, defeating 
taught more than ,;û,oon peopll' to ::-ing, mHl ar- the l'onfedcrate
 at Claihorne, and leading raids 
ran!:l'd utilI conduetell thc music on more than into we::-tern Florida, southern Georgia, allli 
\la- 
1.UtlO public occa
iolls, He was pre,.;il1cnt of thc bama, He wao; brevettl'd major-gcneral of volun- 

ational mll,..i('nl conventir,n in Boston in l
-t:t teers on :'?fJ )Iarch, l
ü;:;, awl after his COlJlllHUHL 
Ill' publi:-:hed nllwh music, including an .. Ordina- wa" mu:-:tcreù out he \\'a:-: ordered to Xl'\\' Orlean
, 
tion .\nthern," hy re'lul'..:t of (Jcn, 
heridan, to await tlw is:-:ue of 
I,rl: \S, .Juhn lltlptish' (,harIes. juri:-:t, b, the threatened cumplications with the French in 
in Xormandy, France, in 1 jU
: d, in 
t, Louis, )Iexico, lIe left the ::'cI'vice on 1:) Jan., It:;Gü, and 
)[0,,17 .\ug" 18-t
" Ill' studied law in the Cni,-er- returned to his home, Ill' was emplu
elL in the 
sity of Caen, \\ here he was gmduateù as }), (', L, F, S, re"enue servi('e in U!j,;-"1:31, aIllI from the 
in 1 j

, and after practising his profl'ssion in his latter year till 31 Del'" 1

,;, was postma
ter of his 
natÏ\e land ('ame to the l'nited ::-;tates in 1'j
-t nnti,-e town, In 1

G he was an unsucce
sfull{e- 
and settlerl on ß farm near Pitbhurg, Pa, Ill' publjean candidate for cnng-res...., 
serw(l in the Pennsylvania legi
h1hll'e in 1 j!I
-'tì, Ll'tE, St('I)IH'n Hlcl'ck('r. naval oflieer, h, in 
wa:-: made a jIHlge of the court of common pleas in .Albany, X, y" 2,; )Iarch, 1:-<:!j, He entered the 
1 jU-t, and in 11:302 was ell'clerI to congn'ss as ß navy as midshipman in 1
-tj, nnù wa:-: commis- 
Democrat, He \\a
 rp-eleeted in 1t;04, but rc,;jgned sioned lieutenant in 1
,),;,lieutenant-commanrIer in 
before taking hi:-: seat, Hnd removed to St. Luuis, 1
fj;!, comnHlIlder in It;fÎü, captain in 1
,;!, com- 
as he hall heen appointl'd jUfI.
e of the U, S, court modore in It;:-<I, and rear-admiral in 11:3H,;, In 
for the northern di:-trict of Louisiana, He wa..: l
(i
 he served on the frigate "\\" aLa-;h," '" hich 
also a member of the commi:,sion for the adjust- wac:; attached to the hlockading squadron on the 
ment of land-titles in that territol"\' from 11:30,) till coa:-t of 
outh Carolina, participating in the hat- 
the dis
olution of the commission "in IH12, 
\.ftcr tll':-: of I1attera:-: Inlet and Port Hoval; and he com- 
hi;; retirement from the bench, Judge LIH'as re
id- manùed a howitzer launch during -u reeonnoissance 
ed on a farm near St, Louis till his lleath, in forcè and engagement with thl' Confpderates at 
- Ll"C.\S, Ruhert. stutesman, b, in Shepherds- Port Uoval fern.,::-;, C, Ire commanded thf' moni- 
town, Ya" 1 April, 1 jtjl ; d, in Iowa Cih', Iowa, tor" X
intucket," of the Korth _\tluntic :-quoo- 
7 Feb" ls,;:t IIio; father wa:-: a df'seen
ant of ron, in Octuher, 18fia, engagell Fort )[oultrie and 
"ïlliam Penn, and a captain in the Hl'volutionaQ Fort :'-;llIuter sewraL times, and from 1 Sept., 
army, The son removed to Ohio in II:3UO, and ro:-:e 1
(j-t, till 9 .J une, 18li,), comman(h..d the .. Pontiac," 
to the mnk of major-geneml of militia, ILl' was of the Korth 
\tlantic squadron, In .January, 
commis:-:ionell captain in the lUth U, S, infantry, 11'(j,;, he reported to Gen, William T, Shennan at 
14 )[arch, 1:-<1:!, and lieutenant-colonel. :!O Feb" SU\ annah, Ga" for duty in connection with the 
1 H la, but resigned on :
l .June, and :-:el'\'ed as hriga- army, "ïth difficulty he got the" Pontiac" up 
dier-general of Ohio militia in ddence of the Savannah ri'-er as far as Sister:-:' fl'rry, about forty 
frontier from 
,; July till I!' Sept, of that yeaI' miles from the city, and proteeted the pontoon 
He was a ml'mher of the Ohio legi:-:lature in 1814, hrilLgp fwm the Conf"dl'mtp gun-hoat..;; whde Gen, 
anù in 1$:
 presi(led oYer the !>l'mocratif' national I Hent'
- \V, Slocum's command passeù into South 
con ,-ention that nominated .Andrew J aekson for a Carolina, Ill' \\ a,.; on the 
teHln-:-:loop .. ,J uniata," of 
!'epond term, (Jen, LULas was gm-ernor of Ohio in I the European :-:qnndron, in 1
(i!I-'jO, wa:-: pre:-:ident 
1
:J:.?-'ü, atHL in U"::}S-'-t1 was first lerritorial gov- of the L S. na ,-al war coll<'ge in 11:3t;-!-'ü, and 
ernor of Iowa, Ill' was an aeti'"e Frppma
on and ,incp June, IHS(j, hn..;; hp('n in command of the 
ß lIlàn of strong impulses, but of !'trict integrity, ,
orth 4\.tlantie :"tation, In July, 1t:l:3i, he issued a 
'\""OL, 1\,-4 


- 

 


of) \/if

. 



50 


LrCIO 


LUDLOW" 


eireular to Amerienn fh"IlPrm('n in rf'g-arrl to the point('rl rector of th(' Alhany eatllC'llral and viear- 
re4ri('tion
 that \\ ere impof:('d upon for{'ign fbhing- 
en('ml of t lw dioe('f:p, and in :Ma\', H.:-..:n, he be- 
\'ef:sel
 hy ('awHlian la\\
, Admiml Luce \\ a
 a 
'aJlle pa
tor of ::;1. Pl'ter'f: church, 'Troy, He \\ as 
founder òf the e. 
, na\ al \Hlr coJle
e, and \\ a... partieularly intf'rested in education, amI huilt Inrge 
in4nllnental in the ef:tn!.IishnH'nt of the ü,:-;, f:chool
 in his parish. He \\as C'on
('c'l"Rted fi":.:t 
nnml training- system, He is now (1t-:
Î) at the hi
hop of Syraeu
e, 1 :\Iay, 1:-;
., in the city of 
hC'ad of the list of rear-arlmirals on the aC'tiH' list, S\TIl('u
e, wherf' Ill' held hif: firf:t dioce
an s\'nod OIl 
He has publisherl "Seamanship" (Xew York, 4"Oct. follO\\ing, Bi
h(lp Ludden wa
 pr
'spnt at 
1E
(j:
), anlll'lliterl "Xa\al 
I)ngs" (1RR::), the C1'cumenieal council nt Home in 1
lifI, nnd was 
IX('IO, Ual'aél (loo'-the-o), :\Iexican physician, theologian to the hi
hop of .AH'twy at the ]af:t 
h. in .Tnlnpa, 2 Sf'pt.. H31!): d, in the city of :Mexico, plenar
 eoun
il of Baltimore, lie is an eloquent 
30 .:\I:IY, l
Hß. lIe received his primary education pn'acher, very austen' in his hahits, hut popular 
in his nati\"e C'it\', nnd continued his f:turlies at 
an among his clergy, He ha<: puhlished a work on 
I.JUis Potosi, but before tlwy were eompletecl hi
 "('hurch Pl'Operty ,. (Alhuny, 1
t5
), 
fntlll'r dil'(l. awl his mother hecame the wife of Vr, r,('UEWIH, 1I.'I'lIulIIlI El'lI!'oÖt, author, b, in 
.l\IalHH'1 Salas, UJHIC'r whom IJucio h
 the stUlly Dresden, Saxony, 14 Üd,. 1
O!l: d, in ßroohlyn, 
of lIIe(lieine, Ill' J"l'mo 'cit
'W'l\le
ico in X, Y.. 12 Dec.. 1
3ß, lIe wa
 edueatl'd at the 
1:-;3!), was g-mduatel1 .:
 \.I -, of jhedi{'al scÏ- universities of Leipf:ic and Giittingl'n, :"tudied law, 
ence in 1
42. and if, 
X 
I)..

 i

l'd F..urope. and eng-ag-ed in its praetice, and during his lei:'11re 
In 1
4:: the go\'(' Eø-t pntO
ou : hun (hreC'Íor elevoted much time to hibliogmphiclll 
tudie
 nnd 
of the lIo...pital d : n ].Q;
), \\.. Ill' renminpd to books of travels, He rellloved to tlll' {Tnited 
eightcen year
, mt ,'1 r a 
& of .. c)
,\'. :111I1I'ub- States in 1f.:44, and, after spending nearly Ì\\ 0 years 
li,sh
'd, \\ith Dr,. " l,'.b('.ti\": . ( ': IJa 
:lcf:lI

 in tm\'el. heeame naturalizeù and :Sl'ttll'el in Xew 
CI:t
lS de los One;.., .:1 San Lazaro York eity in the pr:lCtie(' of hi
 profe

ion, Pre- 
pIexieo,lR,11), In ]," ...... 
 i e( he School of \'Ïous to hi
 removal to the rnited States he hall 
medidnl' as as
tiwt..profe

or, a I lR.!j he wa
 puhlishell two \'ahIHhle eatulog-lIe
 of European 
appointc(l profer-;
ol" of Hlellicalj'u Judence mHl libraries," Le Liuet df's Ana" (Dresden, It;3.) 
the prlwtiee of :surg{'ry, In 18.}1 he ohtained the and" Zur Bibliothekekonomie" (H340), and in 1
4ü 
ehair of practice of Ilw(lieine. whieh he filled till a he contrihutl'rl to the Leip
ie "Sl'rap('um " article
 
short tillleheforehi
dl'ath, I1ewa
alsoapp()inted on .An]('riean libraries and hibliography that \\ere 
direetor of tIll' school, but dec-lined, In H31i4 Dr, cnn:sidl'red as pioneer sketches on thf'
e topies, Tn 
Lucio re\'Ín'(1 the .Ac:J(lemia ele Hl('(lic'ina, HIllI in 1854 he eommunicated to the 
oei{.té de g('og-ral'hie 
l
Ii!I, 1 

O. and 1

1 he was its l're
ident, of Pari
 an urtide entitled "Dc l'histoire des aho- 
LrtKE
B.\{'H. Ahraham, mi
sionary, b, in rigl
ne
 du l\Iexique," whi('h WII
 printel1 in thl' nth 
IJehigh eounty, Pa" 5 
Iay, 17.7: 11, in Ikthklwm, \'olunwof its bulletins, I1if: otlwr worhs illl'lude 
Pa"l:3 :\Iarc'h, 1
34. He was edueated at Xazareth "Literature of .\n]('rican Local Ili
tor
'" (printel1 
Hall, Pa" taught thel"l' in 17D7, and in l
OO heeame primt('ly, :\"1'\\ York, 184ß): "SIl)lpll'ment relating 
a missionary of the l\Iora\ian chureh unlOng the to Local IIi
tory of Xcw York" (lR-!t:): unrl" Lit- 
])ela\\are Indians, laboring till 1
-t:
, when he rc- eratureof .\nll'rimn Aboriginul Lingui:.'tic
." edited 
tired to Bethlehem, He edited the 
ecollli {,llition hv Xicolaus Triilllwr, \\ ith mlditions h\' "
illiam 
of I>avÏll Zeisber
er's "Delawan' Ihmn-Booh" \,", Turn('r (London, lR:)
), whic.h is thè first vol- 
(1847), awl puu]j
hed in the [)elllw:u:e language unle of Triihnl'r'
 "BihliotheC'u-Glotticu." 
"SeleC't 
arratiYes from the Olù Te:stanwnt." Lr ULOW, Fitz Hn
dl, author. h, in Xew York 
],reKln', SUIIl1U'I. clergyman. b, in nen

c- city, 11 :-;l'pt" 1
:W; d. in O('lle\'a, ::;wit71'l'laml, 12 
lnprville, Alhany co., N, Y,,4 April, 1j!l1; rl, in Sept., It\j(), His father, Hl'v, Ill'llry G, Ludlow, 
Hochl.:-;ter, 
, y" 11 Oet.. 1 Fì(iD, Ill' l'JlÌered the wa
 a minif:ter of the Presbyterian church for 
mini
try (If the l\Iethodi
t Episcopal churc'h in 1811 fort\' - fh e Years, 
at Ütt
lwa, ('amuia, and was pastor of churc'hes in The" :son \\ as "grad- 
we
tl'rn 
ew York from l
l
 till 1

1. lie \\as uatl'd lit 1Jnion in 
priuc'ipal of the lìl'ne
ee W csleYlln seminary in 1
,11i, His literary 
18

-'li, amI f(lr tIll' nl'xt ten yeurs ofikiated suc- life hegan the same 
C'essively in ehurches in 
e\V -llR\'en, Conn" and yc:tr, \\ hen he pub- 
Brooklyn and Albany, 
, y" and as prl'siding ehIl'r lbhed the" .\poca- 
of the Xew Ha\'en cli:strict, Ill' beeamc editor of lyph of IIIIf:hel'
h" 
the h (,hri
t ian ...\th'ocate and Journal" in l
:3ü, in " Putnllm's 
\\as al:<o :':I'nior editor of the ::\lethodi:-t puhlishing ::\10nthl\'." This 
sodet\', <LillI. retuJ"IIing- to the mini"trv afÍl'l' four wus soòn folJowed 
years," was from 1:-<-!
 till his (leath a prë
iding elder hV' the h Ila
hee
h 
in the Hodll'
ter,
, y" eircuit. anù for nÏlw year:,> J<:atpr"(Xe\\ York, 
('haplain of the l\1onroe county penitentiary, 11:337), From that 
Union g:l\e him the ùegrees of ::\1. .\, and n, l), in time untÏi 18G1 his 
IH
1. amI in 1
-t-. he was appointed a regent (If the publications were 
lYnÍ\er
ity of Xew York. II, publi
hed a h Trea- ehieflv stories con- 
tisl' on tIll' Saerament" (Xew lork, It'.ì!I), trihutcd to maga- 
L(TnnE
, l)atri.'k Anthon
, R. (', bi
hor, b, zine
, \Vhile in 
near Ca
tlebar, County ::\Iavo. lrelaml. in 1t;38. colll'''e he \\ rote 
.Uter studying for sonic tinie in 
t. .TurJath'
 ("01- :some"' of the he
t 
leg!:', Tunm, he came to the l'nit('d States lit th6 American stntlent 
nge of eighteen, a ftl'rwllnl ('ntl'1'ed t liP Grand Sémi- 
ongs, lie was an e(litor of "Ynnit \" Fair T' in 
nairI', l\Iontrl'al. Canada, allll was onlaiu!:'(ll'rif':"t hy l
,}
-'(iO, at the :-ame time studie(llaw lmder \Vill- 
Bi:shop Bom"g-l't in 18ü4, 1Iis fi.r
t mission was as imn Curtis Xo
"es, and supported himself by writ- 
a:.:",istunt at the hnmlh'ulate Conception cat hedraI, ing, He \\'a:.: a(hnit tell to the har in l:-<,jU, but 
Alhany, amI he wa
 then Bishop .:\lcClo:shey\., seC'- aballlloned it for a IlUrely literal'y carel'r, wa
 con- 
retary and ehnncellol", and afterward pastor of neeted in H3IiO-'ß1 with the h Xew York "'orld" 
)Ialone, Franklin eo.. X, y, In It5" he wa:s ap- I allll the ., Commercial Adyerti:ser," and for the lat- 



 



- 
.. 
 
,- 


.:it. 



 



 


/ ... 



 


,/ 



 


c7'
J'7 .(
 



LCDLO\\" 


LenL()\V 


fi1 


tel' wrote a sC'ril's of h,ttl'rs from Florilla, entith'd ' lots at ("nrleton, IT(> wa
 a IIl(>mh(>r of th(> firl't 
" Due 
outh." thnt greatl
 utldell to hi.... Tl'lHltution, ('ouncil of :-\t, .John. it
 first IIH1
'or, HlHI on thc O)'- 
lIt' \\as for n tillll' IlrallIntic, art,nn(1 musil'aleritic ganization of the ('ourt of \ iéP-ndmiralty in l,Fì.. 
of HI(> .. E\'I'ning Post," /lnd Jong a C'ontrihlltnr to nit hough not n membf'r of tlH' hnr, was ilppointed 
it. oC'l'upiell a similar plnce on the" 1I0nll' .Tour- I jwlgl', In 1
II:t on till' emhat'kHtion of nOY, 
nal" in l
(i:? and in l
fi:J m;ull' u. jOUl"lH'Y l1('ross Thomas ('adeton for England, Lwllow, heing s(>n- 
the plèlins to (':l1ifomia Ilnd Oregon, the re"lllt:o: of ior ('oull('illor. h('earne rll'l'sillf'nt un<1 ('nIlUtlalll]er- 
whieh appearl'll in a SUécl'sl'ion of artidC's. OtiC in-r-hief, His rpsidl'nc(' in ('arlC'ton iSl'til1 :,otnnding, 
of whil'h. "Throtlgh l'ickl'ts to San Fmnl'isC'o, .\ I nnd is known as tIll' ., old gon'rnllwnt house:'-I1 is 
Prophel'Y:' projc(,tl'd n eours(> for th(> Pal'ifi(.' ruil- gr(>nt-neplH'w, ,Jnhll. clergyman. h. in _\(>Cjuaeka- 
road that \\n.... i<<lentiC'al in its principnl pnrticulars , nonl'k. X. ,J.. 1a Dee" l,n:J: d, in PhilallC'lphia, Pa" 
with that \\hich wa:o: finally aùoptl'll. epon the 
 Sept.. 1
,,7, was the grandl'on of Hie}uml. who 
f'stahlishnll'nt of the" Xorthern Lights" mngazine I ndherl'll to th(> patriot caul'(> duritlg tl . I(> He\'olution, 
in Boston, 11(' h(>cam(> a contributor, awl \\1'ote for ,T ohn \\ nl' graduated at e nion t'ollpgl' in 1814, at 
it his t\\O most popular storil's, "Littk Bri,!.:'gs 
ew Bruns\\iek theologicnl l'C'minary in 1
17, and 
and [ " awl ,. Fkeing fa Tarshish:' lIl'dramatizl'd on his ordination LeeHm(> pn:,tor of the Hl'form(>ll 
,. CiIHIN'l'l1a:' and tmined the amateur t'oml'I1Il.\' of Dutch church the1'(', Hl' \\;1:' profl',....:'or of hihlical 
ehiIllrl'n thnt act(>d it, for th(> belll'fit of the Xt'W literahll'e und f'Cdl'..-iastical hi:-tory in Xe\\ Brllns- 
York sanitary fair in ISô4, His I'uh
(>quent writ- wick seminar} in 1
1!J-':.?:
, and at. the latter (late 
ings inchulC'a a \\ idt' range of suhjl'cts. awl in HWi aect'ptl'd th(> (hargl' of the 1st [h'formeò. Duteh 
he I'uhli....hell a mag-azine nrticle call1'd " What shall ('hur('h of .AlhAny, x: y, rrè \
'ns 1)1'ovol't of the 
they do to he :-,an-d f" which was a I'cil'ntific state- lTnivcrsitv of Pellnl'vlnmia in H::
4, d(>lhl'red !<ev- 
ml'nt of tIll' naturt' of tl1(> opium-hahit, a \\arning eml ('our
(>s of )ectÙi'es' before the 
mithsollian 
of its dang-PI's. aBll su
gestions for its treatnll'lIt, inl'titlltion an(l oth,el"l'('i
nNfie anellitl'l'ary hoelies, 
\\ hich he enlarg-I'd mlll puhlished in Look-form. and ill 1
,)4 I'l'tul"llel to' Xl'W R1'lll1s\\ ick theologi- 
.. The Opium-Habit" (
cw lork, l
Ii
), lie Wl'lIt cal sl'minar
, .w
, proft':,sor of eec1l':,ia:,t ieal history 
to Europe in ,Tune, 18iO, for relief from pulmonary and church 'g'oH'rnllwnt. Cnion col1l'ge ga\-c him 
<1i....('a
(', hut died in a few months, His num(>rous the df'g"rf"e of D. }), in 1
2.. ana suhsl'lluently 
poems have not heen col1ectel1. His "Hymn of that ot LL, n.-.John's son, Jumcs Il('il
', jurist, 
Forhearance" \\US \\illelv copierl. His" nessie's b, in _\lhany, 
, í" H :\[ay, l:-::?,; d, in Philadcl- 
:":('hool" is induded in ,. \nlittier\: PUl'ms of Child phia, Pu" 20 St'pt., l
:-:ô. \\as graduated in 1t-3-t:
 at 
IJife," and that on Thomas Starr King- in the me- the rniVf'r
ity of Pl'nns
lnmia, whi('h in 1I:3iO 
morial volume to that clergyman, lIis other conferred on him the ell'gree of LL. D, III 184G 
works Ï1lf'hlllc .. Litt Ie Brut her, :nul Ut her Genre he .wa.... admitteel to the Philadelphia hal', and in 
Pi(,tul"l's" (BosÌfm, 18ß.). and" The Hl'art of the 1
;). he was chos('n illdge of the court of ('ommon 
Uontinl'nt" (Xew York and London. 1870), pleu:, in that city, lie fil1ea this office until 11'1.;), 
LlïH.OW. hcol"!r(' lhmcan. juri:,t, b, on Long when, under the new constitutiun of thc 
tate, he 
Tslaw1. X, Y.. in 1 i:'4; d, in Fredericton, X, B.. 1iJ was tran:o:fl'rred to the president judg('ship of the 
XO\'.. 1808, lie was an apothecary in early life, court of common plea...., which place he helù ut the 
but studil'ù law. and. notwithstanlling a serious im- I time of his death, Although he was a Democrat 
pedinll'nt of I'lwech. became emilwnt as an advo- of "ell-known partisun convietion, on two ocea- 
cate, Previous to the Heyolution he e
ercised I :-:ions he was ejected to the otliec by the \"Otes (If 
much influC'n('e in the colony, anù \\al' councillor all parties, He \\as a ml'mher of the Ampricun 
and a jwlg"1' of the supreme court in l';Ii!l: and to philosophicuJ 
uciety and of the Historical society 
compensate him for the I()s
 of the office of (OhiC'f of Pennsylvania. anel fOl' a long period of time one 
justice. to which he was pntitled by the law of of the trustee:, of Jeffl'r
on medical colleg-e, With 
l'ul:cE'ssion. puhlic opinion induced Lieut,-Go\', An- John:\1. Collins he edited nn Âmeriean edition of 
ùrew Elliott in 1 ;ì8 to appoint him master of the ".\11allls on Equit
 " (philadelphia, 11';32), 
rolls and I'u)l('rintpwlent of police on Long Islaml, Ll' ULO W, 
oah Jliller. adoI'. b, in XI'W York 
"with powers anll principles of equity to henr and cit
, 4 ,J uly, 1 .!I.,; el, in St. Louis, :\10.. 9 Jan" 1t;t;ü, 
to determine contro\'ersies until civil govl:'rnment lie began his theatri('al earl:'er in the melodl'llma 
can be declar(>d:' Luellow wns a strong loyalist, of" The Two Thieves," shortly afterward joining, 
and the pn'\ ions year hi:, hOllse at Hempstead had at Albany, X, Y.. under Alexander Drake, the fir:,t 
heen plundered, and it is said that he escaped im- company that unelertook a tour of the Wl'::,tern 
pri
omnent Ly elimLing on tlw roof through the states, Their fir
t performance was at Ulean, 
'!;'cuttle and hiding hehind the chimney, The X Y.. "here they acted by candle-light in a barn, 
\Vhigs had organized a government as early as and aftf'rwan1. dp:,cewling the Alleghany in a ftat- 
1 i77. but Ludlow was su:,tained in office by the boat, they pla
 ed in the small settJemellts on the 
loyalist::; until the peace, when he was <'OmpE'lled bank of :\Iissis:>ippi ri\'er as far as 
ew Orleans, 
to leave the country, and his seat at Ihele Park where the\' arrh ed in 1
1 7, He took the fir:,t 
a

 his other propprty were c::onfi:cated: .After a I regular dr
unatic .company to ::;
, Lou.is in l
W, 
\ï
lt to England he I'ettled m 
ew Brunswick, anll. merg-mg a rIyal company mto hIs own the 
where he was a member of the first eolonial coun- next year, presented a series of standard drama
, 
cil, administ{>fE'll the government a:, :-t'nior coun- He a..sociated himself \\Ïth 
ol Smith and the 
cillor, and in 1784 hecamp the fir::,t chief ju
tice Field brothers in 1
:J4. and after a partnership of 
of the supreme ('ourt.-His hrothf'r. Hahri{'l G" twenty yenrs retired, appearing sub
equently only 
b, in X ew York city, Hi April, 1 7aü; el, in carle- , in benefit performances, Ill' publisheel his me- 
ton, X, B., 1
 Feb" 1t;08, entered the military ::'l'r- moil':' under the title of ., Dramatic Life as I founù 
vice of the crO\\ n at the Leginning of the He\ 0- It " (St. Louis, 1 
SO), 
lution, ,a
d \\as c?lor:el 
n,d commandunt of De I I.l-fH.OW, RogPI'. stat,el'm
.n' 
,.in norchl:'st

, 
Lancey s ,'Jd battalIon III lis:?, At the close of the England, nbout 1,")90; d, 111 '\ Irglllla ahout 1Gh,), 
war his estate of 140 acres in lIy,le Park was con- I He -was a lawyer of good fnmily, and, on his ap- 
fiseated, and he was banished, After a short resi- pointment as assistant by the gpneraJ court of 
dence in Englanel, he rf'mo\ eel to X ew Brunswick )la:,sachusetts in tü:W, removed to Boston, and oc- 
with his Lrother, J udge I
uellow, anel elrew three 
 cupied that office for four year:" He became 



52 


LCDWICK 


LCGO 


deputy governor in 1ti;
4. hut. having heen def(,:1t- "X ot f:O: I mUf:t not he enri('hf'd hv the 'War, I 
('II hy .John lIayn('
 in hi
 ('onte
t for the g-overnor- f:haU return one hunlhed Hllll thirty-fi\ e poundf: of 

hip, he removed with a )la

achu
etts ('olon
' to hrl'atl for e\'ery one hUlHlrelÌ pound
 of flour:' lie 
\\
illll:,or, ('onn,. where for m:lIl \' vear
 he held was often invitl'll to dim' nt 'V a
hing-ton'
 larg-e 
public offices, and was prohahly' tlÎe first lawYl'r IlinnPl'-parties. allli frequently consultell with him 
that pradi
ed in the state, In .January, 1(j;]f), he in r('lation to tlw hread-f:upplies of the army, The 
was a lI1l'mher of the ('onnectieut conf:titutiunlll comnHlIlder-in-ehief u
uallv addrl'

ell him in com- 
convention, aIlll is ùl'iie\'elÌ to have draftetl that pany a
 .. .:\Iy hone
t friemi:' and in 1 i
:; gave him 
document. In 
\ugust of thi
 Yl'ar he "a
 sent a e('rtifi('ate of good eonduet in his O\\n hllmhnit- 
hy the gl'l
eral court a
 an ad\'Ï
er of the ('olllle(,ti- ing, lip delighted to tliscover objects of charity 
cut force
 in the second expellition of the Pequot and relieve their wants. During the yellow-fever 
war, accompanying John ;\[a
on's command, 
ine(' I'pid('mic in Phil:Hldphia in 1 j!la. h(' worketl at 
April of this year he had ùeen deputy governor of bread-baking gl'Htuitou
ly to fiitl in rdie\'Ïng the 
Conneetil'ut, hut on the election a
 gowrnol' of wallt
 of the de
titute, \t his death he di\'illed 
his oItl alh'er
ar\'. ,Tohn Ira\-nes, whom III' dl'scrihetl his fortune among ('harities, antl left a spe('ial fund 
as his" e\-il g-I'IÌius:' he left \\ïnùsor allli foundl'd for tlw ('l1ueation of poor children, 
the town of Fairfidd, Here he oceupied ('Ileh im- TXERS, .John lI('n..
'. H. C, hishop, b, J1I'ar 
portallt public offiee. "as sf'\"eral time,; a commi
- :\[iinf:tl'r, Westphalia, :!U 
l'pt" lSW; d, in Clen'- 
bionl'r to the Xc\\' England congress, amI in IG4G lanll. Ohio, 2H .June.l
;1. I1is childhood \Hl" 
r(>nt 
was uppointetl by the gpneral court to }lr(>pan' a in great po\ert
., to es('ape whieh he calliI' with hi
 
reyi
ion of the law of Connccticut. whi('h wa
 af- pareuts to the l?nit('d States in 1
;}:J. Iri
 family 
tl'rw:1I'<1 puhlished (C'amhrillg-I'. Wit), Th(' 
itua- 
('ttletl on a farm at Piqua, Ohio, Ilml .Tohn he('ame 
tiou of Fairfil'l
l particularly intere
tetllJ\Hllow in clerk in a 
tore, lie showed a tewlem'\' to ll'ad a 
thl' protl'l'tion of the frontier ag-ain!'t Ow I>uteh wild lifl', and hecanlP lll'g-Il'ctful of re1Ìg-ion for a 
awl IIH1i:III
, lUul with other X ew Eng-hmd eOln- tillie, hut in H,,;j,) he I'xperiencell It comph.te chunge, 
mis
ioner
, in con
quencp of an aUegl'll plot of .\u Il('cidental n}(,l'ting \\ ith .Archhishop pUI'{'ell 
the Duteh, hp yotl.d in lfi:i3 to make" ar again
t (h'eitle(l hilll to hecom(' a priest. and, aftl'r 
tlllh'- 
thell). Lut .:\lnsS1lf'husetts r('fu
l'tl to eoncur, The ing hy him
elf and in the SPlllinary of st. Franèi
 

[anlmdoes also thn'atl'm.tl Filirfiphl, Hlul the citi- Xa\ il'r, Ohio, he wa
 ordainell on 11 Sm-.. IH-Hi. anù 
7.ens then 1!I'dared war. appointing Ludlow eOIll- appointl',1 ra
tor of f't. Joseph's chureh, l'illeinnati. 
mmllier-iu-ehief: hut the g-eneral eourt of Xe\\ HI' cOlllpletl'd the ehurch, freed the parish from 
Hayen di
eountelHulct'tl the projcet, and punish('d deht, and built s('\eral schools, In l
,'}j' the lIio- 
his orncer
 for attelllpting an in
urre('tion and for ee
e of Fort \\
a} ne was createtl, comprising the 
mi:-illg vollllltt'ers, IJU(llow, in con
e'luen('e of northl'rn part of T ndiana. amI Father Lu('I'
 was 
this reflect ion on his patriotism, heeallle ineen
etl sell'ded:1'" ib first bi
hop, awl con
('cmt('d hy .\l"I'h- 
against the gowrnllleut, dl.tlare(l t hat hI' \\ lIulll no bi
hop Purcl'll, 10 ,Tan.. l
:ï
, The 11('\\ tliote
e 
IOllgpr Ih e under it
 juI'Ï:,;dictiou, awl in .\pril, cOlllpri
l.tl aLout 20.000 Itoman Catholie
 anll four- 
Hi,,}4, em harkell with his family for Virginia. eany- tl'l'n prie
t
, There" erl' t" ('nty ehurehes \\ hieh 
ing uU thc towu-reconls with him, TIll' )"{'mainder WeI'C not ahle to aecolllllloliute half their eOllgre- 
of hi
 lifl' wa
 IlIls";!:'11 in ohseurity, awl till' place gation
." hil(' many plael's hall neit hl'r elmrches 
allli time of his death an' uul
nown, Ill' was the nor pril'stf:.' ni
hop Luers, undl'r thl'
l' circllJu- 
hrotlll'l"-iu-law of John I'
wli('ott, Ludlow, al- stanee
. Plukln'orell to make up l,y hi
 0\\ n minis- 
though ambitious allli of It morbill ntul suspi- try for thc want of priest
, In t"o year
 he had 
chills tl'mper, was onl' of thc mo
t leal'l1('d allli ordailwd eig-ht find had also eig-ht eC'ele
ia
til'al 
gifh.d of the early coloni
ts. and rendered to Con- 
tl\llents in variou
 sl'minaril's, uuilt till' pre
l'nt 
neeticut important puhlic sen-il'l', cntlll'dral ut Fort \YI1\ ne nllllllllll1\ churches, and 
).l'nWIt'K. t'hri
tol)be".l'hilunthropist. h, in In 1
(j:
 he hl'ld It 
VllI)d at HII' l'lIi\'l'r:-:ih' of Xotre 
Germany in 1 ì
O; d, in Philadl'lphia. Pa.. in l
Ol. Dame, nt wItieh :-:ÌlltUtt.
 were elUlI"tl'd t hilt re
ultl'd 
Ill' was It baker hy trllllt" but in eaI"lv life enli4elÌ in thl' abolitiun of the sv
tem of lav trH
tl'('
, He 
in the .\u
trinn ariuv aud 
l'r\,(,11 in tlÎe \\ar a
ain
t vi"itl'll Home in l
(i-t, ,,'hem he ohtained power to 
the Turks, lie pndlll"l.d the hardships of the 
even- geparat(' the :-;i
tl'rs of th(' Holy eros:-: in thl' Lnited 
tl'eu wceks' sie.
e in Prngue, anll. on its capture hy States from thl' nlOthl'r-hou
e in 1<'I"III\('e, amI to 
the Frl'llI'h allll Ba\'arians in 1 i-11, he I'ntered the dmw up a III'\\" c()n
titntion and ortler fvr the 
Pru

ian army, \\'hen pem'e wa
 dl'dared hI' be- .\meriean hmnch, ()n hi
 rl'turn he foundl'd th(' 
caml' a 
ailor, allli hl'twl'l'n 1 j -1:> allli 1 i,'j
 he made 
 \('ml('my of 
t. Ignat iu
 nt Fort LafaYl't t e. mHI 
many voyag-I'
, In li,);
 he 
llÍlell for Philadelphia, introllu('Pll thl' nhm-e-wlml'd si
terhvotl. who hll\e 
taking- "ith him t
,) worth of elothillg, 
Iakillg ehnrge of :-:;t. )Iar
 '
 home in .Jay county, In HW., 
.too hv this H'nture, he returned to LOlli Ion. but ill lw pu)"('ha
l'd land in the suhurhs of Fort \\'a
 nl", 
the fo'llowing Yl'ur beeanH' It gingt.:rhrellll-bakl'r and allli afterwani at Hl'nssdaer, mill in l
(i
 erel'tl'll 
conft'dionl'r in Phihllielphia, In this oCl"upation Iher(' an a
ylum for soldil'r
' orphans, III' abo es- 
he ama

l'lÌ a fortune, allli at the beg-inning of till' tablishe(l tll!:' Catholic l'1erieal henc\'oll'nt a

oeia- 
Ih.volution he g-ave his money frech' to aid thl' tion for I'l'nsionil1g' aged prie
ts, Bishop LUI'I'" 
patriot ('aUSl', ()n onl' opcasinil. \\ hl'll it had upl'n attl'nl!l'd the prO\-ill1'ial ('ouneils of ('ineinnat1. allli 
proposed hy ('I'n, rL'hoIlUl
 )lilTIin to "u)"('ha
e fire- wa
 present Ht the plenary 1'00mcii of BaltimOl"P in 
arm
 hv private 
ubSl'ription, whieh eau:3ed dis:-o('ut, l
Ii(i, .\t his tll'ath thl'l'e wpre f:h.tY-l1inl' priest
. 
lJUll wièk 
iIl'lI('ed opposition hy sa
 ing, .. Let the nindy-one chllrehl's. allli si x rdig-iou
 institut ions 
poor gingl'rbread-hakpr he pnt down for !::.?OO!" in hi
 diocl'
e, bl'
illes a hospital, a ('oUI'gt'. allli an 
In the summer of ] j'j(i he enlistl'Il a
 It volUlltl'er. orphan asylum. "hill' the Homan l'atholic popllla- 
awl wa
 of 110 little 
eni('(' in pl'rsUlHling his IIl's- tion eXI'l'eded :)0.000, 
sian fellow-countrymen to Ile
ert from the Briti
h I.{"(;O, Ut'I'IH,..t10 .h' Ooo-go), Spallish llIis
ion- 
mnk:-: ami 1)('1'01111' rl'sidents of Philwlelphin, III nry, b, in lJUgo, Spnin. Jah. in the Hith el'lItury; 
1 ii7 IH' wn
 appointl'(l hy congrl's, bakl'r-genl'ral d, in Santa Fl',:K I'W .:\Il'
ieo, lie hl'eame a no- 
to the 
\n\('riean army, It "a
 
tipulatl'll that he I minicanlllonk' wa:-: spnt by hif: supl'rior
 to 
pan- 
shoultll"1,tul'll on(' poul1d of hread for ('\-ery ponnd i
h .\merí(,II, 111\11 (knlt('d his life to mi

ionnry 
of fluur deli vered to him, but he at onte n'plil'd, work among the llldiall
, He learnelÌ the lan- 



LCGO 


IJL)IPKIX 


53 



uage of the nati\'l's of Xl'W GrewHla. and pub- came commandant of mid:,:hipnwn allll (,
l'cuti\'e 
li
lll'd n 
1'Hmmar of it undcr the title ., (;m- llnicer of that in
titution, In ,Jul\'. l
fj2, he had 
Imitil'1L Ill" la len
un g-eneml Ilel nue\'o reyno de h('en promoted lil'utl'nant-commalllier, Rnd in He- 
(;'mnada, Hammla :\Io
e<l" (:\1:1l1rid, Hi:?!)), Thi
 cemher, l
li:J, hI' \\<l:': onleTell to active 
el'\'icl', par- 
wOl'k is WI'\' rHl'l', '1'0\\111'11 the clo
l' of his lifl' he ticipating- in till' l'attlp of :\lohile Bay and 
uhsl'- 
witIHln'\\ iilto ß eon\ent in Santa Fl>. Xl'\\" )Il'
ico, qucnt en
a
l'ments, Ill' wa:,: 
uccl'
:-iHly in com- 
Pinelo in his" Bihliotlwcß" nttrihute
 to him a mm1l1 of tht' ('apturf'11 Confei!.erate .. Tenrws
pe," 
work IIn .. ('onf(':-sion " in the )Ios('a dialect, at the homhardnll'nt of Fort )Iorgan in .\ugw4, 
Lr(
O, J'nllwi"ro 41(', Spani
h mi

if)nary, 11, in l
fi,t the all <1id
ion of thp )Ii:-
i:,
ippi 
'Iumlr(ln, 
:\1:Hh'ill in l,")
II: <1, in Ynl1:ulnlill. 1'j f)l'e" 1ü,")2, the" Seminole" in thl' hlockade of Gal\'('
ton, and 
lit' \\ItS g-ra1luatell in law at Salamanca in Hi()(), he- the iron-dad" Lafa\'l'ttl'," .Aftl'r the Wat' he was 
('mne n ,Jl'
uit. two y('ars later, and wn" profl'

or of again at the nanll 'al'atlemy in 18Iij-'!), had com- 
the()lo.!
T in :\Ie'dcf) from lüW till Iii:::?, and nftl'r- IIwncl of the Xil':Jmgua 
nrwy e"pl'dition in 
wnnl hi Santa Fl" lIe Bogota, Xe\\" (;'ran:Hla, To IH-;:?-'3, wa
 a ml'mher of thl' intel"o('l'anic 
hip- 
a \"oIlI eccll'
ia
t il'al honors that \\ ere telHlcl'ed him l'anal eom mi

ion in 1 Ri3-'4, ulIII tlH' foHm\ ing 
IH' ll'ft fill' Enrol''' in 1fi:I
, hut \\ as l'aptnl"l'd by .\ ear hall eharg-I' of a 
pel'ial snr\\'y of the Panama 
the Dnt<'h fleet off II:nana, and lost mo"t of his l'anal rllute, .From Hfj,") till 1
t:'() Ill' was hnlro- 
manuscripts, .\fter a long- capti\'ih' he wa
 set at 
l'Rphic inspl'etor of l'oa,t surH'Y, awl in 1

1 hI' 
-libf'rty, and arri\"ed in :-;pain in lli-l,"). and in thc \Va" IIUllh' eaptuin, ha\"ing' rl'll('}ll'd the g'l'flIle of 
IH'Ü Yl'ar wa
 sent by the Jesuit pro\'ince of ('as- commmlllpr in l
jO, Cupt, Lull \HIS a lHelllht'r of 
tile tú Home as reprl'
f'ntati\'e in the eig-hth g-en- sewrallearned 
fI('icties, Ill' I'l'ccived the deg-I'l'e 
t'rHI eong-reg-ution of the 01"111'1', lIt' \\as there up- of _\, :\1. from PI'inc('ton in ]
liH, 
pointed eensor of theological works, and tlwolog'ian IX '\II- Kl
, \\ïbon, 
tat(':-man, b, in Pitts\'l- 
of the g-l'neral of tht' ,J e
uits, awl \\ Ill'n appointl'd vania county, \'11" 14 ,) an" 1 i:-;:
 : II. in 
 \ t hens, Ga" 
hy the pOpl' to a higher 11ignity II"c1ined, and 1'('- 28 f)('e.. ]
;O, III' rClIIo\"l'(1 to Og-lethorpe county, 
tiret! to the Colleg'e of Yall:ulolid, of which he Ga" \\ith his father, in li
-l, uwl. the lattl'r hll\'ing 
\\ as I'l'ctor fit his death, Ill' puhli
hed "Discur:,:u:,: heen appointe,l in 1 iHi clerk flf till' :,.upel'ior l'flurt 
præ\ iu,.: all theolog-icam moral('m .. (2 vob.. :\Ie,ico, tlll're, the SOli heemne I1n as:-i
tant in his of1iee, 
lfi:H; 1 vol.. :\Iadrill, lfi-l,")): "llue4iOlll's mflrales stwlil'd law, was I1llmittl'll to the hal', and praetised 
tIp :-\acrlUnenti
" (2 vol
" (
rallada, lfi-l4: re\'i
l'd at Atlll'n
, Ga, · \'"hen nbout t\\l'nh-one years of 
I'll., :\Iadrid allli )Il'
ico, a vok, lfi-tD): .. Ili
toriß .1g'P he was elt,(,t('d to the legi
lature: ami \
'as 
uh- 
de la Conquista de S uenl E
paìía .. (,") vols" Y alla- <';1'1[llently re-ell'eted sewral tillle
, In 1823 he was 
dolid, 1 (;.")()) ; awl several othl'r theolog-ieal \\orks, appointl'd hy Pre"ident :\lonroe to mark out the 
III' left ul:,:o in nHlIluscript a" Hl'1atio Ill' ('hri:-tiani- houndary-line het\\el'n (;'l'orgia allli Florida, and 
tat(' in .\meriea, et dl' rehu
 g-l'stis pat rum 
ocie- he was aftl'I'\\1I1'11 one of the fir
t conllnissioners 
tatis ,J esu in prm ineia Sovæ H i
paniR'." which was under the ('lwJ'Okee tl'l'aty of l
a:), Il(' 
('r\'('d in 
after\\ ani published in the" Bibliotheca Scrivto- ('on,
re
" from 1
1:; till'lS1;, and from 1
2i till 
rum So('jetatis ,T('su." !s:.H: amI in the t", S, senate, to \\ hieh he \\as 
IX 1\ E
S, lIen1")' CIa)', jou1'llali
t, h, in eleded in place of .John p, King, r(':-igned, from 
Philadelphia, Pa" 1
 .-\ug-.. 1:-138, lIe was edueatell 1:1 nec" 1
:
;, till :J )Ian'h, 1
41. Ill' was elected 
at the public sehool:,: of his nath I' city, allli at< early g'0\ emor of Georgia in 1
:jl IIml 1
:j3, and wa:; one 
us lS33 contributed to d
dlv and \\eekl\' ne\\:,- of the orig-inal memhers of the hoard of puhlic 
pap('rs, In 1
:;:; he was part" own('r and èditor of works that \\as cr('atl,d hy the legislature,-lIis 
an illustmted monthly called" The f\ehool.Tüur- brother, .JOSf\p" HeJII')", jurist, 11, in Og-Iethorpe 
nal." During- the ci\'ÌI war he 
aw active ser\'iee, count
, (Ta" 23 Vl'('.. Ii!)!I: d, in Atlll'ns, (fa,,4 
From 1
7; till lR84 he was an a
:,ociate editor of June, l:-1üi, was educated at the L ni versity of 
the .. Xew York Daily Kews," tind he is now (1
88) Georg-ia, awl at 
managing editor and Olle of the publishers of" The Prinl'eton, where 
Journalist," X ew York, He has \\ ritten under the he was gratluatpd 
pen-name of .. Erratic Enrique," whi('h he fir:5t in I
W, In u.;
n 
signed to letters from (Jrug-ua) in 1Ri4-';J, lIe ha-- - he was admitted 
published ., The Marine Circus at C'hf'rbou"g-. and to the bar, and 
Other Poems" (X ew York, 18ü;;); .. Lean 
 ora," heg-an I'ractil'e at 
a trave,.:ty of Riirger's "Lenore" (Philadelphia, Lexington, where 
1:-;iO): .. Story of the Typl's" (Xew Hawn, l
Sl); he soon g-ained 
aml"Jet:,: and Fla,.:hes" (Xew York, 1

:;), lie i:- eminenee in hi
 
now (lR
:;) compiling" Hecords of the Xew Y ork rrofes
ion, In 
Pre
s ('Inb:' 1
44 he retircd 
LrI,I., F.dwnrcl l)ht>lps, na\"al officer, b, in from the bar in 
"lml
or, Yt.. 20 Feh" l
:W; d, ÌJl Pensacola, Fla" con
eqncnce of ill 
:, )larch, 188i, His mother was left a \\ idow in health, and shol"t- 
straitened cirl'umstances \\ ith a large family of Iv afterward vis- /) ./ 
C t hildr h en, and renlOvcd. t t O d \Yis
onsin: l fr h o!u whi
h i 1 te?_ E\ l lrO(1e, h I.n fl_/{,
 
 I /
, 
sate er son wa:,: appom f' Rctmg mll 
 Ipman m 
-t,). < urmg IS 
 
 
the navy, 'j O
t.. 1t<,")1. He \\as promoted mi<bhip- ah"ence, the su- 
man in 1
.).'), pa
:':ed mid,.:hipman allli master in preme court of Georgia was reorg-unized, and he 
1
5
, and lieutenant in l
üO, On his return from \Va" elected justiee, and afterward neeame chief jus- 
his :-econd cruise in the latter, ear he bel'ame as- til'e, which office he held until his death, Judge 
si4allt profe

or of ethics at the Xa\'al academy, Lumpkin was elected profes"or of rhetoric and 
and teacher of fencing, In )lav, 181i1. he was oratory in the rni\"ersity of Georgia in lR4fi, hut 
ordered to the" Roanoke:' and ttius took part in declined; Rnd subsequently was elected rrofe:-
or 
the engagement between that frigate and the ('on- of law in the institution attaehed to the unin"r- 
federate forts at Hatteras inlet in the follO\\Ïng sity, which \\ as named Lumpkin law-school in his 
July, In Septemher he was sent back to thp I honor, He discharg-ed the duties of his rrofe
sor- 
academy, where he remained until, in 18fj3, he be- shiV :;ucces:5fnlly until the eÏ\'il war dbbanded 



... 




 
'... 



1' 

 , 
-
 
t
 
" 


"\ 
-\ " 


t; 



54 


LUXA Y .ARELI...ANO 


the institution. and, afterward resuming his chair, 
rl'taincli it till his <leat h, I n 1
;;;) Pre:-:ident Pierce 
tendered him a 
eat on the Leneh of the court 
of ('laims, which he dpcJined, as he did also the 
cJlitncellor
hip of the e niversity of Georgia. to 
whieh he \Vas l.lected in 1 tWO, lIe wa:-: an wlvo- 
cate of the ('au
e of temperance, and for many 
\'l'ar
 a tru.4ee of the 
tate uni\-ersity, lIe held 
;L high place as It judge and as an advocate at 
the har in criminal ca:-:es, and his appeals to the 
sympathy of juror..: have Lecn rarely ellualled, lIe 
was onp of the compilers of the penal cod I' of 
Geor,riëL in I$J:J,-\Vilson's son, .Juhn Henry, 
jurist, b. in Oglethorpe county, fia" 1:
 June, IH 1
 : 
II. in Home, ({a" (i J une, l
(iO, was educated at 
Pranklin a11l1 Yale colleges, studied law. \Vas ad- 
mitted to the har in :\Iarch, ISa.t amI hl'gan prae- 
tice at H.onH" Ua, IIc was a memher of the :-:tate 
house of representatin

 in l
j;:;, amI was solicitor- 
geneml of the ('IH'rokee circuit in l
::
, lIe wa
 
electcd to con,grp
s, servin
 Ly :-:uccessh-e elections 
from -! Dec" 18-1:
. till a .:\[areh. 18,tf). and from 3 
Dec" 18,')3, till 3 .:\lctrch, l1i3,. allli was for several 
years a judge of thl' state 
Ul'reme court, 
L('N
\ \' .\REIJLAXO, T.'istan .Ie (loo'-nah), 
Spani:-:h explorer, b, in BoroLia. Aragon. in 1,')111: 
d, in ï ucatan in 1 ;;,1. Ill' came about 1;;::;0 to 
.:\[exico. and in 133U was appointed hy the viceroy, 
Luis de V clasco, commander of a fleet of thirteen 
ships. which he sent to conl[lwr !till I colonize 
Florida, I lis lallliing force eonsistcil of uhout 
1,:)00 infantry a III I nearly 200 cavalry. and with 
some Dominican friars, among thcm Domingo dl' 
la .Anunciaeion, PI'dro de Feria., and Domingo Ill.' 
Salazar, he sailed from Vl'nt Cruz in ,July, 1 ,');)! I, 
The fleet arrived on I.') .\.ug, in a hay whil'h, by n 
former explorer, Guido de Labezares (q, 1',), had 
been ('aU cd I"ilipina, but was named, by [...una, Santa 
:\laria 1 on account of his arrh-al on the feast of the 
Virgin, On 21 Aug', a violent hurrieane destl'Oyed 
all the ves
l'ls at. anchor except one. whil'h \\as 
driwn a
hore by the waves, Xotwith
bt1lning this 
mi,...lmp. Luna began the exploration of the interior 
and rCltl'hed Ninieapua, a larg-e ahalllionell Indian 
town, whieh he lIamed Santa Cruz, In l,')fiU he 
di:-:cO\'ercd the rivel' Olibahali. a III 1 a province 
called ('om bv the nath-es: hut the diffieulties of 
the territory, the hostility of the Inllinn:-:, alllI the 
want of (ll'Ovi:-:ions impelled many of the alh-en- 
turer
 to )'durn to the eoa
t. wlwnee thev went to 
Cuha to a
k for help, Other
, ullller tlie le
tlll'r- 
ship of ,J uan Ceroll, rose in It mutin
.. which Luna 
hacl mueh trouhle to quell, In l;)ül re-enforce- 
Ilwnts from Cuha arri \'ell. allli ex"lomt ions \\'1')'1' 
continued as f1tl' as the point of Santa Elena: hut, 
seeing that su('ce
s was douLtful, some of the 
captain:-: called a coulH'il of war ancI returned to 
Cuba, Luna, with some faithful followers, I'on- 
tilllll'd his explomtions till in December, t.,)(i
. he 
was reeallell Lv the viecrov to :\[exico, [n t.')fi;J he 
was appointetÌ gf)\-emor òf the prodnee of Yue:!- 
tan. whil'h place he hf'ld till his death, 
JJl.
 U\, U('njnmin, philanthropi
t, h, in Hard- 
wick, \Varren co.. N, .1., -! Jan,. 17
!1: d, in LO\\'l.ll, 
La :-;alle co" Ill., 22 Aug.. 1
;m, His parent
 were 
"ll'mher
 of the Sol'Íetv of FriclllI:-:, \\'hen he was 
ahout nineteen veal'S of age he remowll to \\llCel- 
ing, Ya" when" he remained for four years, work- 
in,g the first eighteen month:,: a
 an apprentice to a 
sadlller, \Vhile there his attention was fir
t ai- 
rectl'd to the evils of slan"rv, allli Ileterminell his 
future cour
ie as an .\bolitionì
t. On leaving Wlwel- 
in"" he went to 
It, Plea
ant, Ohio, 1'1,1111 then 10 
St
(,lairsvme in that state. where, in 1
t.). he origi- 
nated an anti - slavery assol'iation, called the 


LL"XDY 


"Union humane society:' and wrotc an appeal on 
the suLject of :-:lavery, 
oon after\\unl he Lecame 
a contributor of anti-
la\'erv arti('Ie
 to the" Phi- 
lanthropist" new
l'aper, plÌhlished at ,:\[t, Pleas- 
ant. In the autumn of IHl!I he rl'mo\-cd to 
t, 
Loui:-:, :\10" at the 
time that the l\lis- 
:-:ouri que
tion wus 
nttral'ting univer
al 
attention, amI Ile- 
Hit cd himself to un 
expo
ition of the C\-ils 
of sla wr\' in the 
newspape):s of that 
!-tatc and Illinois, 
Heturning to 
I t, 
Plea
llnt, he hegan in 
Januarv, HH2, the 
pllhlicc
tion of the 
"(ienius of Uniwr- 

al Emancipation," a 
monthlv, the o1Jìce of 
which "\HtS 
oon re- 
nw\"ed tl) ,Jonesoor- 
oug-h, Tenn.. and 
t hem'e to Baltimore in 1:-:24, when it bec:tnw a \\ eek- 
ly, In the latter part of It;2,') ':\11', Lundy \ bited 
llayti to make arrangements \\ith the glnermnent 
of thal i:-:lalHl for the 
ettlement of such freed :-:Iaw
 
ns might be spnt thither, In 1
28 he ,bited the 
eastern states, \\ here he leetllred awl formed the 
acquaintance of \\ïllimn Lloyd Garri:,;on. with 
whom he uftel'\\ard became a:-:sociatcd in editing 
his jOl1l'llal. In the winh'r of 1
:!8-'!) he Wa... as- 

auhcd for ,an aUeged lihel and nearl
 kiUed in 
Baltimore bv a slan.-dealer namell 
\u
tin \\'001- 
folk. LUlHlv was ÏIulirectl v c{'nsured bv the court 
and compellèd to remo\'C his paper to \Va
hington. 
and finally to I'hilailelphia, where he gave it the 
name of .. Th" Xational Inquirer," and finally it 
merged into" The P{,lmsylvania Freeman," In 
1
2!) he went a second time to lIavti, awl took 
with him st'wrall;Iuws that had heen"emancipated 
for tha1 purpose, In the winter of IS:W he vi
ited 
the \\ïlberforce cololl\' of fug-itiYe slavps in Canada. 
nnd then w{'nt
o Tex/is to provide It similar a
ylum 
UlHll'l' the l\le
ic:m flag, renewing his \'i
it in l
a:t 
!Jut was baffieil bv the events that led to the an- 
nexation of Tex
is, In 1

8 his property wus 
burned by t he pro-slavery mub t hat fired Pellllsyl- 
vania IInll. Philllllelphia, In thl' winter of H
::8-'!) 
he remo\ ell to 1.0\\'('11, [...a Salle co,. Ill.. \\ ith the 
intention of publishing the .. Geniu:-:" thl're, but 
his Ilesign was frnstratt',1 uy his lleath, Ill' was 
t he fir
t to e
tahlish anti-
laverr periodicals al\(l 
to deli WI' :mti-!-'Iawry lccture
, nnd pl'olmhJy the 
fir
t to induce the formation of socil'ti{'
 for the 
encouragement of the produee of free lahor. See 
.. The Life, Travels, and Opinions of Benjamin 
T",uIJ(I
.," by Thomas Earl (Philadelphia. 1
-!Î), 
IJ('
nY. .Jolll1 P;,th'.'!\OIl, clergyman. b, in 
Dan\'ille, Pit,.:3 FeL" 1

a, lIe was grnduateil at 
Prineeton in l
-tü, allli after pursuiilg' the theo- 
logieal cour
e in the seminary was ordained as a 
Pl'e
hyterian lIIini
ter on l:l Feh" 1
,H), Two 
\'l'ar
 latf'l', after holding a pastorate at Sing Sing. 
N, Y.. Ill' entl'recI the Protestant Episcopal ('hurch. 
wa
 ol'lIainelI deacon, in St. Paul's ehureh, 
ing 
Sing. X, Y.. 
.) Oet,. 1
,,)4, by Bishop rpfold, and 
prip
t, in .\ll Saints' ehureh. PhihHlelphia. 
t' Oct" 
183;'. hy Bi
hop Alonzo Potter, During his diaco- 
nnte he was in cllllrge of Briar Cliff chapel. and 
was also chaplain of the 
tate-prison in Sing Sin,g', 
In IH,'),') he hecnme reetor of 
\ll Saints' ehllr('h. 
Philadelphia. and two years latl'r of Emmanuel 



'-.. 
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church. ITolmeshurg-. Pn, In 1::;ôfl he became rec- I counsel he fore cong-res:,:ional committees in refcr- 
tor of the Church of the I loly 
\ postles, 
ew York ence to Freneh claim:,:. preparing a hill and cfli<:ient- 
city. but in 1
-;3 Ill' was compellell to resign on ae- ly pressing it for the action of congress, :\1 r, LunCs 
cuunt of failun' of health, HI', Lundy's ehi('f pub- later 
ears \,ere marked by lahors in bellalf of har- 
lil'ation is entitled ., :\[onumentall'hristianity, or bors of refug\." notably ut :::)cituate, on the south 
the Art and Symholism of the Primitive Christian shore of Boston hay, B) per
en'ring ('{'fort he suc- 
Church" (Xew \.?ork, 1t
;G), I Ie also pl'inted a eceded in seeuring \'ery cono,,;idC'l'1IhJC' appropriations 
\olnme on ,. Forestry" (1t!t:!O), and i
 now (It't':-;) from congress to this eHlI, ami the harbor at Scitu- 
prl'paring- a work on .. Prphistoric \\-orship," ate \\ ill, when completed, be a fitting monument to 
Ll-
(an:s. :-iaml...1 :-imith, physi('ian, b, in his intl'lligence, energy, and zeal. In earlier life 
Philadelphia, Pa" 

. 
\ug,. 1:-;
;: I1
 "as graùu- )11', 
JUI..t ".as an active m
m
>ero! till' Whig party, 
ate(} at J etferson medl('al colll'ge m lI
,)O. und at the and III Its IIltel'ests "as dlstmg'msherl as it public 
1I0mæopathic medieal college of Pennsylvania, speaker, On the dissolntion of that party h(' he- 
Philadelphia, in 1
,j
, 
uhsellUl'ntly he settled in eame a Democrat, Ill' "a-- a man of firm convic- 
Toledo. Ohio, "here he has pmdisl'd medieine and tiuns in both politieal and religious matters, anù 
surgery, making a 
;peeialty of the disea--es of f
arless and manly in their e'pn's
ion, 1\S a writer 
womell, Ilis greatest SUl'eess ha'i been "ith the hIS style was marked by strength. dignity. and 
(';p,.;arean sectiun, "hich he has l'el'formed with grace, Besides ol'1ltions and aùdresses. he puhlisht'd 
favorahleissup on threeocl'asions, and uuttwelve "Poems" (Xpw York, 183!1): "The .\geof Gold" 
operations of that nature have e\l'r been performed (Boston. 184:J): "The DO\-e find the Eagl(''' (lH;)1): 
in Ohio, IIis most celehratell case i
 one in which .. L
Tic Poems" (1:-;;'4): "J ulia " (H
,j,')); .. Ea
tford, 
t he section \\ as perfornwd originally in 1
;.,), Ilnd or LIouseholll Sket('hes " (1
.,)3); "ThrC'e Eras of 
n
ain on the S!lme lJerson in IHHO, The woman Xe\\ England" (18,;;); .. Radil'!llism in lh'ligion, 
and her two children arc now (1t\t'j) li\"ing ami in Philo:5ophy, and Social Life"' (18,')H); .. The l'nion. 
g-ooll health, DI', Lungren has contributeù numer- a Poem" (18üO): ., Origin of the Lat(' \\-ar" (
ew 
ous artieles to the me.lical pres--, !lnd is the author ï ork. H!lit:); "Old Kew Englund Trait:)" (1I;i3); 
of 
 memoir on the" C(l'sal'ean S(,l'tion" (Toledo. and" :\lbC'ellani('s. Poems, etc:' (lH
4), 
l

I),-Uis son, fhnl'lt.s .3lal'shnll. imentor, b, LrST, Willinm I)ar
ons, el('rg\ man, b, in 
in Hagerstown. )[d" VJ Dec" 1
.j:3, \\a.;; grnduated XC" hur
 port, .l\luss.. 21 '\l'riJ, 1
O;): tÌ, in 
\ku"Hh, 
at the Cniversity of )Iichigan in 1:-;-;4 as it l'ivil 
\mhia Pl.tra'lI. 20 )[arch, 18,');, Ill' \\as gmdu- 
eng-ineer, Ill' first turned his attention to journal- utl'd at 11!lI'nLnl in 1t-'2:J, taught f(lr a 
 ('a l' at 1'lym- 
istic work, and for some time was a nwmLer of outh, and 
tudi(,lllaw for a slwl't time at Boston, 
the staff of the" Popular 
cience Monthly:' )[1', Ill' entered CamLridge di\init)-sl'hool in 1H23. and 
Lungmn has studied the pr(lblem
 connected with wao,,; pastor of the2d t-nitarian dmrch of Xl''' York 
artiñl'ial illumination, allll has inventl.d several city in 1828-':-J:J, On 3 June, 1
:J,'), he "eeame as- 
applianl'es that have come into extended use, nota- "'ocintl' pa
tur of the "Cnitarian (,hur.ch in Quincy, 
bly a regem'rative gas-lamp, Hc is a memhl'r of )[ass" in which connection he continued till his 
scientific societies, and, Leshles writing- magazine ùeath, I lis \\ ritings display a singularly pur(' ta
te 
art ides. has edited the AmerÏcILIl {'ùition of 
\l- and classic rl'finement, and have been much ml- 
glave and Boularù's .. Electric Li
ht" (Xew lork, mired, lie \\as thf' author of" I>iscollI'se at the In- 
18þ:3),-.\nother 
ùn, F('I'tli nnntl H a 1'\ ('
, artist, tennent of John Quincy _-\dallls" (Bl/ston, 184ü): 
b, in Toledo, Ohio. 13 Xo\',. 1Ij,')j', 
t\l(lie(l at the "Cninn of the Human Hace" (1H30); .. Sermon on 
Gniversityof )Iichigan. hut came to Xew ï ork ue- Daniel Wehster" (1t:!.,)2); and" Gleanings," edited 
fore his graduation, in order to follow art. lie has hy his daughter aIllI puhlished by his son (11;-;4), 
maùe many illu:5tration
. principally for the" Cen- lie also cOlIlpiled h The Chrbtian Psaltt'r," 
tllry" and" Wide Awake." and his paintings in- I.l'PT(Þ
, 
a1hnllid fhHmas. cl)('mi
t, b, in 
elude "Shado"s on the :Snow." Frederick county. Ya" lü Vel'" 1H:lO, He was 
LC
'I', (;t'tH'g(', author, b, in Xewburyport, IZraduated at Diekin
on college in 184V. spent two 
)[ass" 31 Dec" IHU;
: d, in Boston, 1 j' :\Iay, 1
8.'), winters in Heidelberg. studying chemistry under 
He was graduated at Harvard in 1
24 with special Bunsen, and was l'rofes:5or of chemistry and geolo- 
distinction in Greek, studied law, and began prac- try in Randolph )lacon college in IH,j;-'8 and in 
tice in Xewburyport in 1:-;2ì, Ill' was elected suc- the :Southern university, Greensborough, .Ala" in 
('cssively representative for Xewburyport amI sena- 1t:!,j
-'-;J, In 18-;1 he was called to the l'resillency 
tor from Essexcoun- of the rnÌ\'el':-itv of 
\lallama. with the chair of 
ty in the legislature, chemistry, and tl{ree years later ",as made professor 
was an acti\.e mem- of chemistry in Yanderbilt unhersity, lJl'coming 
bel' of the com-en- also dean of the faculty of pharmacy, 1"01' eleven 
tion that nominated I years he continued in th{'se oflke:". de\-oting con- 
Gen, Zachary Taylor siderable time to the imprO\-ement of the sanitary 
for the presidency, I and other economic conditions of life ill XashviHe 
and was appointed and in Tennessee, In 18
.,) he was al'poinÍl'd state 
U, S, distril't attor- chpmist of .Alahama. and professor of chembtry in 
ney unù('r Ta
 lor's the AgTicultural college of 
\Jabama, in .\uburn, 
administration, Ill' 1 I Ie received the honorary degree (If )L D, from 
eventuallv resumell I Yanderhilt universih and that of LL, J), from the 
the private praetice l
niwrsity of .\laualna in 1
-;3, Prof. Lupton is a 
of his profession, dl'- member of scientific sol'Ìeties, was vice-president of 
voting his leisurp the .American chemical society in 18t111. chairman of 
to literary pursuit:", the section on chembtry of the AmerÌl'an associa- 
Prior to and durin'" tion for the mh-ancement of science in 1
j7, and 
the civil war he w;; .ice-president of that association in 1
:-;O, In 1t;j4 
editor of the Boston he attended the congress of Orientalists in London, 
" Courier" in conjunction with George :S, Hillard, Be:;:ides his minor c(lntribution-- to technical liter- 
Again returning to the practÌl'p of his profpssion, ature he has puhli:-hed "The Elementary Princi- 
he appeared frequently in the state courts, and was pIes of :Scientific .Agriculture" (Xew York, 181:;0), 


LCSG IU:X 


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T.l'Qr'E, Ff'l'lHlIulo fIe (loo'-kay), Spani
h cler- I wounded then'; was at the battle of Saratog-a, the 

yman, 
, in_ Oh era, .Allllal,u
ia, in l-1t!f; ß, in s.urrender of Burg-oym'. and al
o that ,of CO
'Il\Htl- 
Panama 111 1.):31, lIe left 
an Lucar, 
pam, 14 lIs, amI subsl'lluently served under \\ ayne In the 
.fuly, 1314, and arl'Í\ed on 20 ,Tune in the co]onyof mmpaign againl't the Indians, 
Tiprra Firnll', with the hil'hop of Santa :\Iaria de ],rSK, William Tholll"
UII, physkian, b, in 
la .\ntig-ua allll the go\'ernor, Pedro Aria
 Davila, 
orwich, Conn., :!:
 :\Iay, 1

t!, Ill' \\as for a time 
After the discoyen' of the Pacific and thl' removal at Yale, in l
,j8-'(j1 studil'd medicine in lIeidel- 
of the capital to P
tnama, he was appointed canon berg- and Berlin, and on his return to the Cnited 
profe
sor of di\"inity of the cathedral in that city, States he served in the l
, S, volunteer army in 
\Yhen PizalTO and 
\lmHgro undertook the dis- It!ül-'3, and rose .from the ranks to be assi
tant 
cO\eryof the larg-e find fertile territories ill South adjutant-general. He was g-l'adnated at Belle\'ue 
America, they associated them
eh'es with Luque, hoslJitalllledical college in 1
ü-1, afterward 
pellt a 
who, as a person of gmat influellce and ample year and a half in 
tndy in Edinburg-h, Paris, 
means, was the best partner for the accomplish- Yienna, amI Prague, and in 1
1i.) beg-an praetiee 
ment of their enterprise, To win the g-ood-will in.x ew ï ork. Ill' was professor of physiology in 
of the g-ovcrnor, Pe(lro Arias, Luque and his two Long- Island college hospital from 1t!ü
 till 1t!ì1, 
companions lent him money for the expedition to in 1t'70-'1 lectun'r on physiolog-y in llarnml medi- 
conquCl' Xícaragua, and thus obtained permission cal school, and became professor of oh:"tl'Ìric
 in 
for Pizarro to leave Panama for the e
ploration of BeIll'vue ho:-pitnl medical eo]]egl' in IHi1. and in 
Peru, On HI )[arch, 1.j2ü, Luque, Pizarro, amI the latter Yl'al' editor of the" Xl'w York Medical 
Almagro formed a contraf't of parhwr:,hip, Luqut' Journal." Ill' is a lllember of yarious British and 
all mnc-ed *
W.OOO in g-old bar
, and they ag-rl'e(l American nll'dical 
ocieties. has l'ontributed to cur- 
to take eaeh one third of ewrything they could rent professional litPl'tlturc, amI is the author of 
aCI}uirc, and also to enjoy equally aU the honors "The Seicnce and 
\rt of )Iidwifcry" (Kew York, 
that the 
overeign might bestow upon them, LlHI11e 1
H1; enlarged cd" 188,)), which has been trans- 
was the agf'nt of t}l(' two ad\'enturers mul their lated into 
t'\"Cral European languages, 
.advi
cr in the difficulties that arose from their ],rss.\
, HnH'Jl{'3U de, Freneh buccaneel': h, 
undcltaking, Ill' counselled Pizarro to sttly on the in Paris in lfifi:j; d, in Pmnc'e, lIe helonged to a 
islalHlof Gallo, when the latter was ordered to re- noble but impoveri
he<l fam ilr, an<l em braced a 
turn to Panama, In the spring of 1.)
8 he ga\'c military career at the age of fourtecn, In lüì9 he 
to Pizarro :t'1,;;00 in g-old for a \ is it to Spain to embarked for Santo I>omingo in search of fortune, 
obtain It royal charter, In 1,)2fJ Luque was ap- Lut was unsucl'essfnl, and joined the Imccanl'ers 
pointed provisor and ecclesiastical governor of under ('ol'llelius Laurent (q, t',), sailing from Petit- 
Daripn, aUlI after the interview bet\\een Pizarro (;oa\"e,:!2 Xov" tfiH-1, lIe soon ll.ft Laurent at the 
and t he queen he was nominate<l hi
h()p of Tum- hea<l of a hand of his own, find in Hit<3 pillag-ed 
bez, allll a.ppointl'd univcr
al protector of the 1'e- the town of Hl'alcj" in Guatemala, In 1fj
fi his 
1'U vian Indians, On fi 
\ug" 1;;;31, Luque declared hand took part in the capture of (}rl'nada, and, not 
that the money he had advanced for the conquest nn(ling the booty they expeeted,:":èÌ fire to the city, 
of Peru belonged to Gaspar E:,pinosa (q, t',), and 
\fter this Lu

an separated from the English pi- 
that the latter might claim his third, lle died rate
, hut he joined them again for the Illlrpose of 
befOl'c his confirmation /trrived from Home, /tttacking nuaynrp1Ïl. \\hich they took with much 
IÆSI(
X.\
o .h'un Bnptist.' .\l I )honseo Cana- booty. IJUs&tn and a part of his followers then 
(lian law
 er, b, in St, Denis, S1. Iyucinthe co" 
ailed for Tehuuntepec. \\ hich they captured, and 
(luebec, 
7 Sept., 1H-1:t He WIIS educated at 81. went as fill' 1I0l'th as Acapulco, They returned to 
Hyacinthe college and ut Luval university, Quebec, 'Iapala, a port north of Henlejo, and delibl'mtc(I 
stlldicd didnity for threl' year
, und sU"
l'(IUently on the route they should takl' to reach the An- 
law, and was admitted to the bar of IJower ('analla in tilles, It was agreed to march to X lie \ n Seg-ovia, 
Decpmber, It!üt!, lIe became as
i
tant editor of the a town sihtatpd on the Yarn or Cape river, \\ hieh 
., Trihune" and of the" Journal de St. Hyacinthe" empties into the Atlantic, Of this expedition Yol- 
in 1Hli:3, in IH(i3 a
sistant e(litor of h JJ'l"lIion na- taire said: .. The retreat of the ten thou
aJul will 
tionalc," an(l the sume Year editor-in-chief of .. Le ulwavs be mon' celebrated, hut is not to be com- 
Pay
;' the chid Fn'ncfl new
paper of the Liberals pared to it." Lussan formed four companies, of 
of Montreal. In 18ì-1 he became pri\-ate secretary !-'e\'enty men eaeh, and made them swear to oh
erve 
to Sir Antoine .\itne Dorion, amI aftl'rwanl acted theseVère
t dis('ipline, On 2 Jan" HiHl-;, after pmy- 
in a similar capacity for the minister of inland ing togl,ther, and sinking tlH'ir boats for fl'ar they 
reVenue, lIe was ('rown pro::,el'utor ut .\ylmer. might full into the pOWl'l' of the SpanianIs, they 
Quehec, in 18i
, president of L'In
titut Canadian began their mareh, allll in ten days. during- whiéh 
Pranr;ai
 of Ottawa in l
HI, and fOUllllc(l, in the thpy were almost constantly eng-ag-ed in fighting- 
spring" of 1

;;, the St. rJawrl'nee fi
hing company, I'uperior numbers. tllf'
 reaehed Xue\'a Sl;crovia, 
Ill' \\ 7t:5 elect I'd a mf'mber of the Hoyal 
ociety of One evening-. in a defile surroulHlpd by ro[ks of 
Canada in 
Jay, 1883, /tllll \\ as appointed secretm'y 
rea,t height on whieh the Spanianls had intrenclH'd 
of the French section, Ile has published "IJa Themsf'lves. the hu('('aneers sought hopell'ssl
 for a 
confédération, couronnenwnt (Ie dix ann{.('
 de way of escape, Ll1s
an proposed that, leaving 
mauntÏse a<lmini
tration" (l\lontrl'al. 18(jì); a eighty melI to g-uanl the sir'k, they should get in 
continuation to ,J udg-e Ralll
a
's ,. Digest of Rc- the rear of the mountains and then surpri
e the 
ported ('ase
 ,. in Lowe)' Canada (1t!72); and "Coups enemy, IIis adviee \\as at fir
t rejected, but was 
d'æill't coup::: de plume" (Otta\\oR, 1
8-1), adopted when their case hecame (ksperate, They 
Ll'SK, John, 
ol<lier. h, on Staten island, :N, y" fouml a path which led behind the mountains, :nul, 
5 N ov" 1 j:H; <1, near )[c:\linn dlle. Tenn" I; J HIll', favored hy a thick fog, tllf'Y forcer] the intn'llf'h- 
18:

, Ill' hl'g-an his military career, whf'n he wa
 ments of the Spl'mianls and put them to flig-ht, 
about tWl'nty years old, at the COlly'lIl'
t of Acwlia, 
\fter thi
 "\ idory thf'Y dumtf'rl R Te Deum, They 
Ill' \HtS present at t lit' siegp of QueLec, saw (;.ell, then (lescemle<l the Yam on the wrptcJwd boats of 
'Volfe fall on the plains of Ahraham, :UJ(1 
er\"{'<l the country, and c:une in sight of Cape GI'II('ia
-a- 
in Arnold's l"p('(lition to Canada, lie was en- Dios on \) Feb, Lus
an emharked on 1m En,gli
h 
gaged in the erection of Fort Edward, and was I lug-ger on 14 Feb" amI reached Santo Domingo on 



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57 


(i 
\priI. Ill' hat1 n1ltrche<1 Ill'arly 1.00n mil('!':, con- I J.rZrRL\l
 \, 'I'oribio (lu-thu-re-ah'-gah), _\1'- 
stantly harassed by the Spllniar<}s, aIt hough the g"pntilll' 
uldier, h, in J uaraz, Peru, in 1,70; d, in 
distance from the point \\ here he started to that Bueno:" 
\
 I'es in l
:rì, He took part in all the 
which he \\ isheù to reach \Hl
 hut :!-to miles in hattles again
t the Eng"lish armv in l
Ofi-'i in 
u :straight line, Lu

an published ",Journul du Buenos 
\
 res and :\lonte\ ideo, 'lIIude tlu' cllm- 
\'oynge fait àln mer du Sud uvec les flihu
tier
 de 1 paign of upper Peru during uno, under (jen, 
L\ml-rique" (Pari,,:, 1fj

. HmO, 170,,)), It ,"as d('(li- 1 Balcarce, allli \\as present ut the fumou
 retreat of 
cated to the minister of the na\ y. who, in comlllon 1 t he patriot army, under ('a
telli, in Dp
aguadero, 
\\ith most .Frenchmcn of the time, Up [J('areù to con- In H:Hti he joined the army of the .\nde
. \\here he 
siller the exploits öf Lussan worthy of npprO\al. rendered important f'enice to thl' cause of Span- 

\lthough the work i
 confused, it contains curious I ish-
\nH'riean indl'pelllience, He \\as elected gov- 
and interesting dl,tails on the produetions and ('I'nor of the province of ('uyo in lfHti, mId \\ellt to 
nJalllwr,.; of thl' nath-es of the countril's he \ isite<1. I Chili in 11":!O. alld afterward joined the 1\'1"\1\ ian 
I. rTZ. 
 ichnlus, sol<.lier, b, ill the Palatinate. army, servÏllg in the:-e 1\\ 0 eount I'ies as a gelleraI. 
German
. :?O Feb" 17 -to; (1. in Reading. Pa" :?s and heing elected marshal of ('hili. Ill' \\ as com- 
XO\',. l
()ì, Ill' was captain of a battery at the mi,,:,.;ioned hy Sun 
[artin to OJ(" congress that was 
battle of Long h;Jand. wherl' he was taken pri
on- about to he e,,:tahlished in the l-nited Provin('es of 
er, hut was exdutllged in 177ü, lie was a dd('gate the Ri\-er Pilltp, and aftel'\Hlnl continued to sene 
to tllf> Pennsyhania convention to ratify the Feù- his country till his death, 
eral constitution in 1 7
i, a nl('mher of the Penn- I. L\ 1.1.. .hlllH'
. irn entor, b, in Perthshire, 
syh-ania house of repre
entati\"Cs in 17t'\:3-'fJ4. and 
cotlaJl(l. 1:
 
('pt., 1
:W, lIe came to the enited 
\\ as appointed as:;i
tant justice of Berks county 
tates \\ hen he wa
 t hr('e 
 ear
 01<1. and, after a 
courb on Ii F('b., 1 ,g,'), 
ehool edueation. worked in hi
 fatlH'r's shop, nmk- 
IXZ.CAB.\LIÆIUÞ. JUSt> tie In (loot h). Cuban ing and mounting ,Tacq ua 1'1 1 machines for \\eaving, 
educator, L. in lIa\"ana, Cuba. 11 July, 1t;OO; d, 
\ t thl' beginning of till' civil \\ ar he 
en ed \\ ith 
tlll're, 
:? June, l
fi:!, He studied in hi,.; natin' tht' l:?th Xe\\ York infantry in the defences of 
{'ity. began in 11'\2ì a tour through the Fnit('d Wllshillgton, In l
tj:
 h(' inventl'd a simple mix- 
Stat<'
 and Europe, and in hi
 tra\els came in <:on- ture for (,lUlm('lling ('loth, \\hieh WII" npproved by 
taet \\ ith the chief seientific and litemry cel('britil's the L, S, gO\'ernment. allllled to his recei\ ing large 
of the time, including the Lierman philo
opher contracts for the nUlIlUfacture of knap
aeks and 
Kmu
e. \\ho paill a puhlic tribute to Luz's 
cien- ha\er
acks, 11(' and his brother \\ïllimn emplo
ed 
tific allll philosophical views, With Ilumbol<lt h(' up\\ard (If 4,0110 men in filling the orders that they 
arranged to e:-tahlish in Cuba a magnetic obsena- reccÏ\ed, III 1
tjH he inH'nted the L
all po
iti\"e- 
tory in corre
pondl'nce \\ ith like institutions in motion loom. \\ hich hll" since been adoptell hy the 
Germany, In 1
31 he returned to ('uba. allli dl'- largest mills in tlw enited 
tates, and also in Eu- 
Yoted all hi
 time and (,Ill'rgies to the cau
e of ('du- 1'011('. China, a1ll1 Japan, 1t
 advantllges an' the 
cation. assuming the direction of a college from aholitioll of tltl' picking sticks; a po!-ithe motion 
1t;:a till H;:m, In UW
 he founded the College el to the shuttle fl'om any point in its cour
e: the 
Salva(lor, \\here many that have attained J'('puta- 
reat \\idth of the fahri(' that may be woven: the 
tion in Cuba in literature, science, or polities ha\'e \arietyof fabrie"" that may h(> produl'e<<1, from the 
been educated, La Luz i
 by general COIlSf'nt the finest silk to the hea\ iest eal'pl't; the almost total 
man who has done mo
t for puLlic cdueation in abSence of wear. and thp very small amount of 
Cuba., There is a movement to erect It monument power required to OP(>l'IItc thl' looms, Ther(' has 
to his memory in Havana, Among his \\orks are been no corre
ponding ad\"ance in \\('aying since 
a translation of Volne
's "Travels in Eg-ypt and the applieation of 1'00\er to th(' loom. and it is 
Syria;' \\ ith notes and additions (Pari
. 1t<:?!I): Sieg- claimed that no invention in any fil'ld has excee<<1ed 
ling's .. Public Pri
ons and their Heform<' from this in- importance and ,alue to humanity, )[1', 
the German (1"37); and numerous memoirs and Lyall recei\-eù the gold medal of honor in 1H(jg 
pamphlets on eùucational, scientific. a1ll1 philo- from the Amcl'ican institute of !\ PW York, which 
sophieal subjects, There are several biogmphies \\as the first a\\ard of thi
 prize, Ill' founded with 
of La Luz, the best being that in Spanish by José his brother William in 1t;til the firm of J, and W, 
Ignacio Rodri[!'uez (Xew York, 1Hi4), Lyall. which still cal'l'ies on the manufacture of 
LCZEXBr.U(-:. ('Ira des ,UO
Sill
, physician, looms and maehines, Later he established the 
b, in Yerona. Italy, 31 July, 1
0.3: d, in Cincin- Bri
hton mills to weave figured cotton good
, and 
nati, Ohio, 1.3 July. 1t:!-!8, Ill' was educated at the Chpl..;ea mills for jute g-oods, Thes(> enterprises 
Landau, and at W ei
senburg college, Alsace, and are in Kpw York city. and are now (1t;t;7) under 
in l
HI accompanied his father, who had been hi
 dirpct manag-ement. 
commis,.;ary in the Austrian arm
', to Philadel- I, \ ßR..\Xn. .JCÞ
('plr, clergyman, h, in Philadel- 
phia, He attended lecture
 at. .Td'feI'50n medical phia, Pa.. 3 Vct" 1,U3; d, there. 2-t April, 1845, 
college in 1t<:!5. removed to Xew Orleans in 1
2!), His parents \\ere Lutherans, but he became a 

md became surgeon to the Charity hospital. Ill' )[ethodist when about ten years of age, and, after 
soon became \\ell known in his professi()n, estab- receiving a good education. was admitted in un1 
lished the Xc\\" Orleans medical school. of which as a candidate on probation for the mini4ry, 
he wa.;; the first dean, and foundell the SoeÏet\' of From that time until 1842 he labored as an itiner- 
natural history in 1

m. and in 1t;43 the Louislana ant )Ipthodi
t preacll('r. exclusively within the ju- 
medico-chirurgical society, being of both first risdiction of the Philadelphia eonference, As _ a 
president. In 1
:

-'4 he \'i
ited Europe, and wa!': pulpit orator 
[r, Lvbrand took high rank. "Of 
mlllle a corresponding member of the Acadpmy of the many sermons I.ha\-e heard him preach;' said 
Paris, Ill' performed successfully many of tbe l one who knew him O\-er t\\enty years, . " I do not 
most difficult surgical op('rations, such as the e'{- rememher one that was deficient in logical struc- 
tirpation of the parotid gland, the exeision of six ture, impa
sioned appf'al. or cha"te and beautiful 
inch('
 of ilium. and the tying of the primitive I illu"tration, Bis voice possessed great compass, 
iliac art('ry, Dr, Luzenberg is also credited \\ ith and was round, full. and susceptihle of the most 
being the first rhy
idan on this continpnt to pre- tpIHler modulation.;;." So strong was his com-ic- 
vent pitting in smal!-pox by exclusion of light. I tion that it was his duty to engage in no other 



58 


LYDleS 


LYLE 


work than that of preaf'hing, that he declined to I in geological science, went counter to the unh'er- 
nccl'pt some of the most important offices in the I sally accepted Huttoninn theory, that the furmer 
gift of his denomination, change!.- of the earth and it
 inhabitnnb were due 
L\ OilS, ,Jol1anne
, clergyman, b, in Holland: to causes differing- in kind and inten
it
 from 
d, in Schenectady, X, y,. 1 ,March, 1 jOn, Ill' had those now in operation. and taught that the true 
held the pastorate of II Heformed church in A\nt- key to the interpretation of the geological move- 
\VcrI'. Belgium. but came to this country in 1700, ment
 was tu be found in It correet knowledge of 
and 'HtS settled at Albany, He also labored in the changes now going on, Sir Charles yi
ited 
:::;chenectaùyafter 170:), and from 170
 till his death I this continent on two occllsioJ\
, and made c),.,ten- 
did missionary work among the Indians, Hobelt sh e explorations in the Lnited StHtl'
. Canndn,lI1ul 
Living
toll, the Indian tlgent, haLl promised the I Xm'a Scotia, lIb" 'l'rayeb in Korth Ameriea" 
l\Iuhawks in 1 JOO that he would engage Lydius to appeared in 1841, aIlll his .. Second Yisit to the 
learn their language and preach the gospel to Cnited State
," in which he treuts of the social as 
them, anù that he hoped soun to have the Bihle well as geological chllraeterif'ticf' of the Xl'\\' World. 
tran
lated for their henefit, In 1 j02 the "pra
 ing "as puhli:-hed in 11'\4;), Sir Charles "as JH'e
ident 
Indians" representeù tu the agl'nt that L
 dius of the Geological sociC'ty in 1k:;(j and 1
,)0. and 
.. had e\.horted them to Ih e as Chri
tiuns," and in 1tHi4 of the British association, J n 11"48 he 
that his teachillg
 had so wrought on their 
pirits was honored "ith knighthoOll. uIlIl in 1
(ì.t. he \\as 
that .. they were all now united and fril'IH1s." The, made a haronet, I n 1
J;; hi:" 0\\ n UJIÌ\ er:,itv con- 
returned 'hearty thank:" for the pains that he haj ferred upon him the title of }), (', L.. alHI' from 
taken with them, whieh they acknowledg-ed with a Camhridge he recC'Ì\etl the degree of LL, D, Hi:" 
belt of \\ampulll, and \\hen Lydius died tIlt.'y pre- late
t work \\a:"" The neologicul .E,-idence
 of the 
sented four Leaver-skins to the agent as an expres- \ntiqnity of :\ran, wit h Hemark
 on Theories of 
sion of condolence, Lydill
 mini
tel'ed among the thf' Origin of Species hy Yllrintion ,. (l
(i:n, 
trihes of the Fi, e 
ations, and received from the I,\' ELL, TllOlIIa
, dergyman, h, in Hichmonù 
gO\'Cl'Ilor and council suitable compensation for county, Va.. 13 May, 17.;): d, in 
e\\ York city, 
hi
 sel'\-ices, About thirty Indian communieants 4 :March, 1
4
, !lis parents "ere melllhC'r
 of the 
were connected with his church "hen Lydius died, Protestant Episcopal chureh, hut. a
 there were no 
The latter is represented by Thomas Barclay, his dergyman of that denomination in the neig-hhor- 
contemporary, and It clergyman of the Church of hood, young Lyell \Vas early thI"lm n "it h the 
England, a
 .. a good, pious man:' "ho "1Ì\-ed in ,Methodists, When only fiftef'n years old he be- 
entirc frielHl
hip" with him, and "Sl'nt his own gau to exhort, and after teaching for two "ears 
children to be catechizeù:'-llis son, J uhn I[elll'f, he !'avetl enough money to pureha
e a horse: awl 
Indian trader. b, in Antwerp, Be]gium, in Hi!l:
; in l'ì!I:? Uftl'I' l'\.amination, "as admitted to preach 
l1. near Lonllon, England. in 1 j!l1. hecame an In- on trial m: an itinel'ltllt. lIe ]ahorell on the Frell- 
dian trader in the provinee of New 1'01'1-... and nn- crick circuit in '
irginia, und sullSl'I}l1Cntly in 
der
tooll se,-eral nath-e dialects. among them C'her- Providence, R, I., and \, as elwp]ain to congre:"s 
okee, Choctaw, allll f'ata\\ba, besides speaking durillg the clo
ing ) cars of the administration of 
Dutch. Freneh, and .English fluently, Ill' was a John Adam
 aTllI the early part of that of Thomas 
counsellor of Sit, 'Villiam Johnson, and for several Jeffcr
on, Ill' oftl'n spoke of the shock he l'\.peri- 
year
 governor at Fort Edward, An English enced at the first official dinner that "as gin>n hy 
writer is re
ponsible for the statement that thc thf' latter on finding the usual h]e
sing omitted, 
Lydius family were possessed of considerable land- although both congn'ssional chaplains were pre
- 
ed property in the province under an original grant ent, Suhst'quently 
Ir, Lyell reeei,ell ordl'rs in 
from .Tames I.. allli that the (Julians, grateful for the Prote
tunt Episeopal l'hllrch from Bishop 
the services of the father as a missionary. added to Claggett in 1S04, nnd at the close of that year he 
the
I' domains It hu'ge traet of eountry in central bel'ame r('ctor (If ('hri
t church. X cw York eity. 
Xc\\" York, Lydius is said to han' gone to Eng- where he remained for over iorty year
, Ill' \\as 
land in 1j7() to solicit arrears for sel'\"ices that he gÌ\en tIlt' deg-ree (If "A, 1\1. by Brown in 1803 and 
hall renden'll the government and money that he that of D, [), hy Columbia in 1
:?2, lIe \\as 
e('- 
hat! expendl'll. and to visit Hollam1. Before leav- retary of the conwntion of the r1iot'ese from 1811 
in,g Xew York he gave homestead:, to many fami- until he declined rp-pll'f'tion in l
Hi, n memher of 
lies. and urg-cd his childn'n to pur
ue the sume the dio('e
1Il standing committee from 1
13 until 
policy, 11(' never returned to this ('Olmtry, but his death, a dl'pnt
 to the general com ention from 
resided in Kensington, lJlmdon, until his death, 1818 until 1844, a trustee of t}w Gencral theological 
), \'ELI" Sir {'lindt's. bart.. English geologist, b, seminary from 1
2
, und an acth-e member of 
in Kinnorlly, Forfarshire, 14 Xn'-" 1 j9ì: d, in Lon- Iwarly all the institutions of his dioee
(', 
don. 22 Feb" U
j:), Ill' 'HI" the eMC's! son of 1." I.E. .10hn, cll'rg
'man. b, in HocJ..briùge 
('harlC's Lyell, of Kinnordy, and was g-nuluated at county. Yu.. 20 Oct., 17()!); d, in Pari
, Ky,. 22 
O
flJnl in mw, HC' then 
tudied law, and Wit:,: July. 1R2;), lie "as graùuated ut Liberty lIull in 
admitted to the bar, but ubamloned the professiOlI 17!).J" and after teaching, 
tlldied theology, and was 
and gll' e him
clf to his favorite 
tudy of geology, licensed to preaeh as a Preshyterian in 17!17, He 
He made extensive geological tours in Europe in was ordained two years later, amI in 1
OO took 
1

4. amI ag-ain in 1

8-':lO. giving the rf'sults of charge of the ehurches of :::;alem and Sugar Hidge. 
his observations in the .. Tran!.-aetions of the (;eo- in (']ark county, where Ill' remaiued sewral years 
log-ical So(,iety" and else\\ here, In l
:W appl'ared and opl'neel a schoul. In May, 1807, he relllond to 
the first ,.olume of hb great work., " The Prinei- Paris, Ky.. where he estahlishetl an acudelllY. at 
pIes of Geology," which in scientifie cire}es at- the same time preaching' to the l'hurches of Cane 
traded much attentiou, The 
e('ontl yolume ap- Hidge and Concord, .Å bout 1810 he "ithdrew 
11l'IU'e,l in 1
:
2, and the thinl in 1s:m, )lemltime from the aeademy, as well a
 from the churehes, 
he \\as named profe
sor of geology at King',;: col- nnll soon aiter began preaching near C'ynthiana. 
leg-e, IJondon. but he filled the office only for a lIarri
on co, lIe snb
equl'ntly gan up pastor- 
short time, 
\nother relllarkat.le work fmm hi:- pen al work and de"oted the rest of his life to mis- 
appeared in 18:lt'. entitlell "The Elements of Ge- 
iona.r
. la hor
, 1\Ir, Lyle \\ as a t horoup:h scholar 
olugoy:' Thl'
l' work", "hich effet'Íed a n"-olution allll did lllueh for the l'au
l' of l'dul'ation in th(' 



LYLE 


LY)I.A
 


50 


\\{'st. fTe was the first to e4ahlish schools {'Xclu- I IJY')I'\X. ('1)('..1.'.' 
mith. {'(lucator, h, in :\lan- 
si\dv fnr th{' educatiou of \oung' women, and also ehc:,tl'r, Conn" l:l ,fun" 1t-'14, lIl' earlv sho\\c(l a 
the first to sug-g-cst the circulation of the 
I'I'ip- fondne
s for astronomy awl Required a'knowl{'(lrrc 
tures by means {If colport{'UI s, During- the rdig-- of that and kiIHlrc(1 scienccs \\ ithout a teacher. c
- 
ious excÏtcml'nt that heg-an in the south \\'{'st in struet ing', \\ hill' YI'1 a hoy. various ast ronomi('al and 
l
(I(I, aI'coml'anied hy \ iolent physical manifesta- ojJticltl appamtus, In 1H:?f> he computed almnnacs 
tions. he did all in his power to curb the ð.tm\lt- for the two following- yea
, and ulso till' {'('lil'ses 
gances of th{' reviHll. of the IH:',t fift{'en y{'ars, He was g-raduated at 
1.\ I.E. \\ïllinm. poet, lJ, in E(linhurgh, 
('ot- Yall' in 1
:;.. aftl'r \\hich h{' \HIS head tl'aelwr of 
lan(l, 1. XO\-" tH:.?:?, lIe WHS taken at till' uge of till' :-;chool in Ellington, Conn" and then studied at 
twelve to Glasgow, where hI' was sulJse(Juently ap- Cnion theolog-ieul 
eminury in Xe\\ York and at 
pr('nticl'cI to a pottl'r, He continul'd to study L
 Yale thl'ological seminary during 1R3f>-'42, In 
himsclf an(l in nig-ht-sehools, malh' rapid prog-ress, 1
-t3-',) he wa... settled liS pastor ov('r the bt Con- 
and on completing- his apprenticeshijJ soon ohtained g-reg-ational church in Xew Britain, ('onn.. hut fail- 
\\Ork a
 a jourrwyman, I n IHfi
 he \\ as offl'red a ing health compelled him to relinquish this charge, 
plnee in England, awl \\hile therl' he puhlh:hed and he 
 l )ent se\'l'ral 
ears in tm\el. In It-'4G-'7 
\'arious poems in the ScoUi<.;h dial{'ct, 
\mong- he' i
itel the Hawaiian islands, wlll're for a time 
fhese was one entitled" The Ürave of Three lIun- he had charg(' of the Royal sehool at Honolulu, 
dred," having referl'nc'e to the Barnsley mine dis- llml explor'pd the vol(,:\I1o Kil:lIIl':I, HI' Uwn s(lf'nt 
a...ter, It was isslll'll in uook-form a1Hlluul an ex- thrpe years ill Californin a
 a 
un-eyor. ueing- one 
tpnsive sale, :\lr, Lyle subsP(llll'ntlyeame to the of the first to send to the eastern states alltl\('ntic 
r nited 
tates, aml lJl'C'ame manager in a Iltanufac- al'('l)unts of the di
l'overy of g-old on the Paeific 
tUl'lng bu
inc.:;s at Rochl'
tpr, X, y,. where he has eoa:-t. Ill' then returned to Xew Haven, \\ here he 
sinee resided, His poems are \\ ('II known to 
l'ot- at first WIt:- occupied in the re\'ision of ,,- ebster's 
tish residents both in this country and in ('an ada, Dictionary, having- charge of the seientifi(' terms in 
ReshIps writing in the Seottish dialect, :\lr, Lyle is the l'(lition of 1t;U4, In IH,jR he ueearne as:-;ol'iated 
the author of spwml Eug-lish p(lem
. ineludin
 hi... in the de\"e!opment of the scil'utific dl'partmcnt of 
h Diotima." Ill' has also puhlished .. The 
lart)T Yale (now thc ShefTIeid scientific s('hlJol), and was 
Queen /lUll other Poems" (X ew York, 1
t\8), assignl'd to the '-'hair of industrial mechanics nnd 
J.\"L\
, H4'lIjamin Smi1h. mining eng-irwer, physics, whieh he hehl till 1t!.1. lIc tlll'n was 
L, in Xorthmnpton. )lllsS" 11 Dec" IH;.j,), Ill' \\a
 madl' profl'ssor of lI
tronomy and physic
, and so 
g-rmluated at Ban-anI in 18.'),). after \\hich he \\as eontinued until 18
..J, awl has 
ince had charge of 
assi4ant on the Iowa,state geolog-ical survey. and astronomy only, His special work has included 
'then studiell at the Eí'ole des minI's in Paris in the inwntion of the combine(l zenith telescope :lnd 
1
.,)!I-'U1. and at the Freiul'rg mining-school in transit for latitude, longitudl', unci tinll', \Vhil"h was 
1
Gl-'2, after whic'h he re
umed thc pmdicc of his d{'
ig-IIl'd mill HUlinl)' con
trlleted in 1/:;;)2, and in 
profession in the enited 
tatt's and Bl'Ìtish Amel'Ì- l
ü; he inH'nted and patented an apparatus for 
ell, In 1t;.0 he made a suney of the oilland
 in illustrating' the d
 namil's of ocean waves, About 
the PunjauL for the g-O\ernment of India, In 18.1 he cunstructed an uppuratus fOl' de
crihing 
1/:;;3-'5 he WHS chi{'f g-eologist and mining- engineer aeoustic cunes. abo making- irnprO\'ements in 
of the geological survey of lIokkaido in Japan, and dock e
cal'ement, compensating }lI'ndulllms, and 
111 18.6-"7 of the oil lands of Japun, fill'tlly filling similar apparatus, Prof, Lyman \HlS the first to 
a similar offif'e on the geological survl'Y of Japan oLsen e the planet Yl'nus as R delieate luminous 
in 18.t;-'!), It is said of him that" he has sur\-e
 ed ring when seen in f'lo
e pro},.,imity to the 
un near 
aml deseriued in printed r('ports a lal'ge part of the inferior conjunction, fie is a n1l'mher of various 
Japanese empire. and knows more auout it than scientific societies. was president of the Conne(,ti- 
uny other living white man:' At the end of 1"'80 cut academy of arts and scienees during H:
.n-'7., 
he left Japan. and \\ent to live in Korthampton, and is also an honorary memuer of the llriti
h asso- 
:\Iass" where he has since held se\-eral offices in tht, dation for the advancement of f:cience, Ilis wl'it- 
local government. In 1H:-;. he joined the corps of ings have been confined to scientific papers. which 
the geological survey of Pennsylvania, \\ith head- have appeared principally in the" American Jour- 
quarters in Philadelphia, Pa, :\Ir, Lyman has intro- nal of Sl'ience" and in .. The Xew Englander." 
dueed several improved forms of sun-eying instru- I. \' JL\X. DtlJli.'1 W 
UltOJl. philanthropist, U, in 
ments-::.uch as the topographer's transit.le\-el rod PrO\ idence, .l{, 1.,24 Jan" 1
44; d, there, W Dec,. 
notation. mine stadia, solar transit, and the use ISHIi, He was a lineal descendant of Uov, ,,- an- 
of equidistant cunes, or contour-lines, fo!.' map- ton, of Hhode Island, He was for a time a mem- 
ping the structure of rock-heds, He is a mem- ut'r of the cla
s of 1
ü4 in Brown uni\er::-:ity, Lut 
bel' of scientific societie
, and has published about was not graduated, For several terms he repre- 
one hundred professional papers, Among them sented the town of Xorth Providence in the gen- 
the more important are "General Report on the eral assemhly, In addition to $,')U.OOf) that he be- 
Punjaub Oil Lands" (Luhore. 1t!.H) : "Preliminary queathed to Bro\\ n uninrsity, :\Ir, Lyman left uy 
Report on the First 
eason 's 'V ork of the Geo- his \\ ill 
GO,OOO to thc Society for the pre\'ention 
logical Su!'vey of Yesso" (Tokio. 1t-'.4); .. 
\ G('o- of cruelty to children. ::;23,000 to the Providence 
logical Trip through and arouJllI Yesso in 1t!.4, lying-in hospital, 
,).O()O to the Providence nursery. 
and Four other Reports" (1:');,,)); .. neport of Prog- :0:10,000 to the city of PrO\ idence for a monument 
re
s of the Y esso Geolo
icnl Surve
 s for 18.,). and to his grandfather, Eli<:ha D
"er, 
,,),ooo to the town 
Se\-en Coal Survey Reports" (18;.); "A General of Xorth Providence for a soldier's monument, and 
Heport on the {}eology of Yesso" (18..); "_\ [{e- many other legacies, 
port of Progress for the First Year of the Oil Sur- I I. \'JL\
. D
t\ id ß('ltl(,JI. missionary, h, in Sew 
veys" (18..); .. neport on the Second Year's Pro"- Hartford, Conn.. 2
 J ul v. 1t!Oa ; d, in Hilo. Ila waiian 
ress of the Suney of the Oil Lands of Japan"'" 1 islands. 4 Oct" 11')84, Hè was gradullted at Williams 
(IS.S); .. Geolog-ical Sun-ey of Japan; Reports of I in 1
28, studied theolog
' at Andover, and WW50r- 
Progress for 1t<;S and 18;U" (1
ì!)); also sixteen dained in Hanover, X, H,-On 3 Xov.. H;:H, he 
maps of sUl'\-e
 s in Japan, and .. Logarithms of married Sarah J oÏJ)('r. of Royalton, Vt.. II, there. 
K umbers. Sines, and Co",ines ., (Xorthampton, lSt-'3), J :?t/ XO\ " l"U:;; d, in lIilo. ü Dee,. 181':;, and the next. 



no 


LY:\L\
 


L Y)L\X 


<lax .they)oinl'.l at Roston a pa.rty of ninet('e!1/ T.YJl.\X. .Tf!seJl
. cl('rg
:man, h, in Ld):mon
 
ml:-oSlUnarIe
 that \H'I'C anout to sail fortlw }Jnwltl- ('onn,,]4 AprIl. ],4tJ: d, III Hatfield. :\Ia:-o:-o.. 2, 
ian i:-olands, \rrÌ\'ing- thl:'l'e in ':\Iav of the foHo\\ ing )Iar('h, IH
H, lie wa!': grl\lluatell at Yale in 1767, 
year, :\11', and :\[rs, Lnnan w('re as:-oignea to th(' sta- sprwlI as tutor there in 1770-'1. stmli('11 the- 
bon at II ilo, then onp of tlw r('motest of the group. ology. all/Ion 4 :\Ial'('h, 1772, was OI"daine(l I':I:-otor 
but now a h/'autifnl aJl/l thri\'ing town, Even he- (If the ('ongr('glltiOlwl ('hurch in Hatfielù, :\Ia:-os.. 
fore :\[1', Lnnan h:1I1 entirelv mastererl tlw lang-nag(' where he l'I'maillpa ulltil his death, He receh-ed 
he was pl;l('ea in charge òf the lIilo church atHl the aegree of J), J), f)"Om \\ïlliams in I
Ol. Dr, 
of it
 outl\'inrt' rlependencies, Here he pr('ache(l. L
ïnan \HI:-o one of the earli('st patrons of the 
taught, mill travel1ed ince:-osantly, and \\Ïth the lIarnl'sldre missionllry socit'ty, anll in IRt2 "as 
most promising results, Tn 11);;ü two co-lahorers, ehosen its president. He 'was also, from the he- 
Titus Hnd Fidelia ('oan (q, 1',). arriwa. aJl/l the gillning. It memhpr of the American h0ard of com- 
growing pastoml work was assipled to the forlIlpr. missioners for flll'l'ign mis:-oions. its vice-pre:-oirlent 
while :\I!', IJynuul estahIi:-ohed an :wadelllY for young in 18)!), and its pr/'sirlent in IH
3, fIe was out- 
men. in whil..'h he was ai(led oy his wife, A farm 
poken in his earnest pat rioti"'lIl durin,g the Rp\ 0- 
wa
 cultivate!l UlHlpr :\11', T
yman's sup('n-i:-oion. awl lutionary war, ana of!'endefl many of his congr('- 
the pupils were thus suppli('d with fooel mainly gation hy this ('our
e, In IH
li he \\as gi\en an 
through their own lahor, ,
\[r, Lyman continueel assi:-otant, Dr, Lyman publi
h('tl 
e\'enteen occa- 
his work until failing strength compelled him in sional sprmOlIS (1774-1R21), 
187;J to gÍ\-(' up the charge of the sl'hool to ,\'ounger 1. \ JL\
. .lost'I_h. artist. h, in TIa\-enna, Ohio. 
hanrJ
, II is I'ntire career as a missionary cm-ered a 2G July. 1H4:t Ill' 
tudied under John II. Holph 
periocl of fifty-t\\o years, unbroken h
T nny vaca- and :-;amuel ('oIman, exhihiterJ first at the Xational 
tion or by any ah:-oence from his field of lahor :wademv in IH7fi. :md \\n
 ele/'Ìecl :In associate in 
other than that l'('fIuiretl hy 
lttentl
Ulc(, at mission- lRRG, tie, i:<it('ù Europe in l
li(j. 1 H70. anrl H.;
:t 
ary meetings at II onolulu,-TI is son, Henr) 
I un- His morl' important works arc" SumIller Kight": 
SOli, physieian, h, in flilo, Hawaiian islands. :!Ii " Ewning" (lH
O); "Perl'é l{oek. Gulf of 
t. 
Nov" 18PJ:). was graeluated at \\ïlliams in IR.')8, Lawl"/"Il('(''' (1
81): "Moonlight at Sun
et on the 
and at the 
('w York college of phr
i('i:tns and Maine ('oa:-ot" (18

); "'Yaiting for the Ticle" 
surg('ons in IHfit. Ill' was house-surgeon in Bdle- (1814:1):" 
trc('t in St, ,Augustin(', Florida" (It!H-t): 
vue hospital, X ew York eity, in l
ül-'2, During and" r 1111('1' her own Fig-Tree" (IRRï), 
the latter year he volunteered in t he X ational army L \' )1.\ 
, J O!'fllth ßa, rthH'1l ngrieulturist, b, 
as aeting nssi:-otant surgeon. ser\'Íng as such in the in ('hester, :\I:lss" G Ol't,. 1

tI; d, in Hichmond 
military hospitals at Knshville, Tl'nn" and in tt!Ga Hill. h 1.. 28 Jan" 1t-'72, lie wa
 graduatetl at 
resigned and hegan practice in ('hicago, where he Yale in 1
!)O, taught three years, and studielllaw, 
hhs since resielelf, paying especial attention to Ilis- He was gr:uluatell from the law-school of the rni- 
ca.",es of the nervous system, 1"l'OlII It-'70 till 187,) \'ersityof Louisiana in IH.ïfi, prueti"ed his profes- 
he wa
 I'rofl's
or of c1ll'mistry in Hu,,,,h medieal sion in Xew Orleans until lH(it, and then removed 
college. Chicago, and sinee It!7;) has heen professor to f'tamfora, Conn, There he engagpd in hor- 
of physiology and of IJel'\'OUS di:-oe:t:-oes in the same ticuIture. also writing for the .. .\griculturbt" 
institution, During the latter period he has also and other journals, 
ubsef{uently he renwved to 
oc('upipd the chair of the theory awl praC'tice of Xew York eity. and in 1
ü7 hl'l'lUne ag-ricultural 
medil'ine in t he Chicago women's medical college, ('rlitor of the .. \V orM," In IHliH he was manag- 
lJr, IJ
ïnltn is a memher of various professional ing- editor of "I1parth find Home," awl fi {pw 
associations, and has Pllhli:-ohpfl .. .An:l'stlll'sia anel months later joined the editoriul stuff of the" Trill- 
An:p4hetics" (Xl'w York, IHt-'I) and .. Insomnia une." on whil'h he sprn'd until his death, lie 
and 01 her DisordeJ's of 8leep" (Chicago, 1t-'t!3), WllS an active ml'mhf'r of the Farmers' and Hural 
J.YJI.\X. IIt'IlI'f. missionary, lJ, in Xorthamp- cluhs, one of the manag-eJ's of the .\merican in- 
ton, )Ia

., 2:3 No"",, 180!1; d, in the islaUll of Su- stitute, anù connccted in IIIl honorm'y C'Rl'acity 
matra, :!I'; ,June, l
;H, Ill' was graduated at Am- with numerous horticultural I1ml agdeultuml fiS- 
herst in It!
!). and at Anrlover tlwolog-iml 
('minary sOéiations, 1\11', Lyman had a thorough acqunint- 
in l$J
, ordained,l1 Oct" l
a
. anel sailed the aIH'e with the improvetl agriculture of Xew Eng- 
following spring for 8umatra, heing- one of the land. the more extensive tilillge of the wpst, and 
first mb
ionaries that were sent to the East Indian the less diwrsified s\'stem of the south, lie was 
arehipeJago hy the American hoard of I'ommission- all ea
)' and foreihlõ s}Jpaker, DUI'ing his r(':-oi- 
('rs for foreign missions, lIe hatl scarcely begun tlence at Stamford he wrote. with his wifl', "The 
his work wJll'n, with his companion. Hev, Samuel Philosophy of 1I0usekel'piug " (Hartford, Il)üÎ), 
:\Iunson, he was murclered hy the savag-e Hattahs III' also puhlished ., Hcsources of the Pacific 
among whom he was laboring, :\[1', Lyuwn com- Stfltl'S" (Hartford, 181i;)): ,,\\Y olllen of the 'Val''' 
pill'd II tract entitled" Condition aUlI ('haractpr uf (l
üli); and" Cotton ('uIturp" (Kpw York, IH(7); 
Females in Pagan and :\Ioharnmeelan Countries ,. and left se\-eral unfinished works on ugriculture,- 
(Bo:-oton, IH;32; reprinted by the American tra('t His wifp. T.aura F.1izahctll Ualkcr. journali",t, II, 
society, It!3-t), See" :\IemoÍr' of I1l'nr,\' Lyman," in Kent's Hill, Kenn(')leC' ('0.. ':\It'.. 2 
\pril, l
:H. 
Ly his sister (.:\'cw York, IH,j7),-Ilis sister, Ham- was graduated lit the Wesleyan acmlemy. ,nlbra- 
nah Wilbtl'tl, eelucator, b. in Xorth:unpton, 
Iass" ham, Mass" in 11449, Sh{' married :\11', LynHtn on 14 
in ltHli; d, in Poughkpepsie. X, y., 21 Feh,. IH71, July, 1t',)H, and in 11)70 II/'emne known hya series 
receiw(l It thorough education, began lifl' early as of urtides tlmt were puhlishetl in .. Ilpurth and 
ß teacher, and soon attained It high l'l'l'utation, 1I0me" ulI/ler the pen-name of .. Kate l[unnibee," 
Prior to IHli,ï she had been for many years known In It!7.; she \\3S lll'l'sidpnt of the Woman's physi- 
as a slH'ees:-oflll and thorough educator in :\lontreal, ological soeiety of Brooklyn, 1\, y, She eelitell the 
Canada, She left that ('ity six years hefore !tel' .. Homc Interest" departnwnt in t]w New York 
death to become vice-principal of \'assar college, .. Trihune" in 1
(ìf)-'
7, ullll the .. Dining-Room 
and to assist in its organization, She remaineù at ,Mugazinl'," in 1RìG-'7, 
her post till her }walth ga\-e way shortly beforp her I.\'JL\X. l)hitwas. :;oldicI'. b, in Durham, Conn" 
dl'at h, 'Iiss Lyman puhlished a memoir of her in 1 .Ili: d, near Xakhez, Mis:,:" 10 :::;ept" 1774, 
hrother, \\itil'h i:-o mentioned above, He was bred to thl' trmle of a wea\'er, but subse- 



qUl'ntlv prl'}larl'll for collt.g'l', und wus 
r:H1untl'I1 11R17 hl' agfiin yi
ited Europl' 81u1 
l)('nt two YI'ars 
fWIIl Yuh'in 1 j;;
, rplIlllining' thprl'tlJrI'p n'llrs u
 trawlling with 1.
tIwurd En'rptt thl'lIug-h (il'{'pec, 
tutor. 111111 ulso studying-law, _\ftt'r his IHlmis...ion I Turkp
'. I1IHI BIlIg'ill'iu, On his return II(' 
tudil'll 
to tll<' hur he :"l'ttlt.tI in Suflh.ltl. tlwn u part of law,llftl'r \\hi('h fill' the tlm'" ypars following hl' 
:\Ia...;suchuseìt...;. antI ut oncc took high !'link in his hl'lll tIll' oflicc of ui,ll'-,Il'-cump to Ow gl)\'ernor of 
profession, Through his c
l'rtions Slifliclil \\It:-; in :\lassaelmsl'tts, mill in 1

:; hllll clllllmlllHI of thp 
1 j .l
1 alhIel1 to ('onneet ieut, Ill' \\ as for sewn Boston hrigmle \\ ith thl' rank of lJl'igadier-gcneral. 
wars l'll'ctetI to thl' upppr house of the legislutllrl', l
 nder h i
 striet dis- 
Ìtnd during that pl'riml wus rl'pl'utp,lly chargl',1 ciplinl' this organ- 
wit h illlpOl'tant civil tru4s, In ì\[art'h. l'j,ì.ì, he ization lJl'came a 
wus appointl',1 mujOl'-geneml fillll comlllulHll'r-in- crcditable hod
' of 
chief of tIll' Connl'ctil'ut forf'ps, 1.00n in number. troops, Ill, ulso at 
thut \\l'l'{' 
l'nt against Crown Point, and in aCl'ept- this timp partil'ipat- 
ing he guve up the Inrg-est law practice in thl' col- cII in puhlie afTllirs. 
ony, In thl' fnllo\\ing SlIlIllllcr u fort was huilt unll in l

(/ becullle 
HIllIer hi:-; tIire(,tion on thl' cu
t hank of the lIud- n mcmllcr of the 
son, llIul wa
 at fir
t ealle.1 Fort LYlIlun in hi
 lower brunch of the 
honor. althou,gh thl' numc wus aftcrw'ard chang-cd state legisluturc, 
to Port Edwarcl. In tl}(' important "Ilttle that where Ill' continllcd 
wu:-; fought at the IlPUI10f Luke (icorge, 
 Sl'pt" until l
:?ì, l'\:Cl'pt 
Ij,ì.ì, the comnll1l1l1 de\oh-cII ùn (ien, Lnnltn al- in 1
:?.l. "Iwn he 
mo
t at the hl',
inning of the fiction, Sir' \Yillialll wus in the state H'n- 
Johnson, hi:-; supl'rior oflieer. huYing "l'en woumlell ate, In l
:
.l, and 
und ('ompl'lIe,1 to ref irl', \Ithough IJ
 nmn fought figuin ill l
;;,j, he 
gallantly for five hours uncI a half, frl'()ul'lItly was clcded muyor 
shIm ing himsplf in front of thf' dl'fenel's to l'n- of Boston, I1i
 fill- 
coura,
e his ml'n, he rl'ct'in:'11 no crl'dit. his name ministration was 
not appearing- in Gpn, Johnson's oflicinl report. murhed b
 the de- 
In 1 j,jü he was again placl'll in cummand of thl' stl'llf'tion of the e
uline ('011\-l'nt in Boston find 
Conncctil'ut contingl'nt, this time l'ompo:-l'tl of hy the adoption of his rCl'ommen(lation that a 
2,:;00 men. to operate lIg-ain
t erO\\ n Point. hut 
inking fUlH1 for the }lfiyment of cit
. tll,l,t 
hould 
the plan was finally abllluloned, In t he ('aml'ai
1I be c:-tahlislll'd, J n t
;J,) hl' rcscllcd "-i1liam Lloyd 
of 1 j;)ì he wa:-; for a timc in command at Fort Garrison from all infuriated mob at thp ri
k of his 
Edward, and in 1 j,j8, at thl' heacl of 3.000 Connec- 0\\ n lifl', On the completion of his sPcoHtI term he 
ticut troops, he shared in nen, 
\bercromhie's re- rl'tired entirely from public lifc, Ill' \\a
 presidl'nt 
}lul
c, and wa:-; \\ith Lord Howe when he fl'lI. III of the Bo
ton fllrm-
chool, to whi(.h Ill' hl'qul'lIthed 
1 j:ï!) he was again commb
ionl'd major-general. 
lO,OOO, und an active memhl'r (If the 
tnte horticul- 
allll, at the head of .l,OOn Connl'cticut troops, aided turul society, to which organization hp ldt a 
imi- 
Gen, 
\JHherst in taking possl'
sion of Ti('onder- 1111' sum, The ohjeet of his gn'atest belll'\ olpnce 
Opt nnd ('rown Point, lIe \\ a...; also prl'scnt at the was the State refol'm-school in \\' e
thorough which 
relluction of Fort Louis at Uswcgo awl the Cltp- II(' fOUJHlt'd and to which he ga\e :>:'.?:.?"ìflll dlll'ing 
tnre of :\[ontl'l'aI. In 1 jlil he \\ as ordpl'l,tI to ('an- his lifetime and :>:,ìO,OOn Ilt his deat h, II is worh 
ada. amI in 1 jG:? he was 
I'nt \\ith 2,:;00 men to a
- ÌJwludl''' Three "reeks in Paris" (llostoll, l
l.l); 
sist in the capture of I1a\ana, and sub...;equentl
 .. The Political 
tatl' of Italy" (lH20): "
\ccount 
plilced in eommand of the cntire prm-inC'Ìal force (If the I1artford <'ollvention" (lH:?3); .. The Diplo- 
durin
 that unlucky eXl'eclition, 
\t its close he lIlfiCY of the ('nitI'd 
tatcs \\ ith Foreign Xations" 
was deputed hy the suniving ot1icpl'S and soldiers l:! \-ok, It':?H),-His 
on, 1'1H'udOl'.', third of thc 
to proceed to England and re('eÏ\e the part of the name. naturalbt, b, in "-alt1111 m. .:\Iass.. 2;{ .Aug" 
prize money that remained due, A company of l!-;:m, \\as graduated at lIan-ard in l
,ì,), and at 
.. )Iilitan' 
\dventurer:5" hall also been formed by the La\\rence scientific school of that universih' in 
hi:-; ðeriions, chiefly compo:5ctl of tho
e who ha;1 1t',jH, aftcr which he continued hi...; scientific !'tudies 
sl'rved in the late wars, who
e object was to ohtain in Europe until It<ü'3, Soon after his rl'turn he 
from the Britbh gO\rernment It tract of lalld on entered the military sl'nice. and \\Us made aide- 
the :\li:,.sissippi and Yazoo ri\'ers, Soon after his de-cmnp on Gen, George G, .:\leaù("s 
taff, '\\ ith the 
firrÌ\ III in England in 1 jlj:J a change of ministry rank of lieutt.nant-colonel, on 2 Sept.. l
/j;J, in 
took placc, atHl so many ohstacles app(,llrl'd in the which eapaeity he 
en-ed until 20 
-\rril, l
/j;). he- 
way of accomplishing his dl':-ign that he rl'lIIained ing pl'l'
l'nt at the mO\ement
 on Centenille and 
abroad until l'ìÎ:'?, unwiJIing to return home llml '[inc Bun, the vattles of the 'Vilderne
s, Spottsyl- 
admit failure, lIe Was at la
t ta.kl'n back bv his yania Court-Ilouse, and Cold Harbor, the invc:-t- 
son. the \\ reek of his former self, but not uniil he ment of Peter:-burg, the pursuit of the 
\rIJlY of 
had ohtained rel'mi

ioTl from the crown to settle I XortllPrn Yirginia. and it..; capture at . ppomattox 
on II tmct of lantI twenty mile:-; square en
t of the Court-House, From IH/j,ì till It<1';;! he was fi
h 
.:\lis
issippi and 
outh of the Yazoo, The" .:\[ili- I commis...;ioner of .:\fas:-<aehusetts, making the fir:-;t 
tar.'" .\dvcntul'er:- " having- been reorg-anized, Gen, scientifie experiml'nt
 that were undertaken for 
Lyman hegan, in Dccl'mber, 1 j'j':;. \\ ith a few eOln- the cultimtion and prl'sen-ation of food fbhes by 
panions, to make a. preliminary :5un-l'Y, The party I any 
tfite in the rnion, Thl' annual" Heports of 
settled near Xatchl'z, but L\ man :5oon died, I till' Commissioners on Inland Fishl'ries of :\la
sa- 
LYJL\
. Th
odor
. phÌla!lthropist,.b, in Bos- chl
sctts" during his I
dministrat!
n were \\holly 
ton, :\!ass..:.?O feb" l.B:.?; d,1I1 Bl'Ookhne, :\[a:;=". or III part \\rlttell by hun, In H

,,) hp "as ell'eted 
IH .July, ltW), His father was also Thl'ollore L
- to con,gres.. as an Independent on the issue of re- 
man, and the :,:on i
 g-enemll\" called Theodore L\-- form in the civil scnil!e, and senred until 3 :\[ar('h. 
man, Jr, lIe was 
raduate,i at lIan-anl in H
t'O, lR
.'j, Ill' ha.. bel'n actiw in the interests of I1ar- 
after which he spent t\\ 0 year...; in literary pur:-<uib Hl.rd, ùein,g an O\-erseer of that unÌ\'ersity from 
at the 'Lniversity of Edinhurgh, antI then passed l
/i
 tilllHHU, and from l
til till 18
'ì'. and he has 
a few months on the continent of Europe, In al:-'II }Iet'n intere:-ted in the admini:-tration of chari- 


L y
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LY:\L\
 


61 


'- 


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, 

'- 
-'\ 



 



 


'?- 
-- 


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'" 'J 

 
 



. 



62 


L Y)lA
 


ties, is president of the Boston farm-school, find a 
trustee of I he Xational Peabody education fund 
and of the Peabody museum of arch(l'ology, :\11', 
L\'man is a memher of s('it'ntific sucieties bot h at 
IH)me amI abroad. and in l
,2 was electe(l to the 
Xational academy of science:-:, He has workcd 
chieflvon mdiateil animals at the l\luseUiIì of com- 
parative zuülo,
y in Cambridge, where since HmO 
he ha:-: been assisitmt in zo<iJogy, In tlwt connec- 
tion he has publisheù "Illustrated Catalogue of 
the Ophíurida' and 
-\strophytitla:' in the 1\1 use- 
mn of Cumpamtivp Zoülogy" (Camhridg-e, 11:3(j,j): 
" Supplement" (1l:3il); " Report on Ophiuridæ and 
Astmphytid:t' dredged by IJouis F, ùe Pourtales" 
(IHU!I); "Ohl amI New Ophiuridæ and Astmphy- 
tida'" (1H,-1); .. Ophi1,lrida' anel .\strophyti(la' of 
the lIassler Expedition" (18ì5); "Dredging Opera- 
tions of the U, S, Steamer · Blake'; Ophiurans" 
(18ì,")); ,. Prodrome of the Ophiurida' anti .\stro- 
phytida' of the · Challenger' Expedition" (pm't i.. 
II:3,H; part ii" 18i!)); amI ., Report un the Ophiu- 
rida' dredge(l by It 1\1. S, · C'lmllenger' during the 
Years II:3,a-'f)" (London, 11:3
2); also \-arious minor 
artid('s contrilmt('d to scientific journals, and 
" Pap('rs relating to the Garrison )[ob" (11:3,0), 
J.LU.\
, Thcollol'P H.'uf'lIi<'f, p, Eo hishop. 
b, in Brighton, l\Ia::;s" 27 XO\T" 181;), lIe wa:-: 
gra(luateel at Hamilton college in lI;;{ì, Itnù at the 
General theological seminary, Xew Y ork cit
., in 
IS-10, was or(lained d('aeon in Christ chureh, Balti- 
more, 
[d" 20 
ept., lR-10, by ßishop Whittingham, 
and prie:-:I in St. John's church, llagerstown, )1(1., 
1!) Del'" IS.!l, by the same bishop, lIe ent('r('(l 
upon thl' charge of St, John's ('hureh, Tla.!!erstown. 
in October, It'
O, he('ame re('tor of the pHl'ish in 
IH
l, and o('eupied that. post for t('n year,.;, In 
11'-1,")0 11<' accepted the r{'('torship of Trinity church, 
Pittshurg, Pa. In l:-o\(j(J he removed to Europ(', 
and was instrnm('ntal in estahlishing the .Ameri- 
('an (']lUr('h in I,']or('nce ulHl the 
\ml
riC!lll chapel. 
now St. Puul's churl'h, in HOllie, During his l'e,.;i- 
dence abroad he was elected <Il'an flf the Geneml 
theological spminar
', hut d('C'line(1. 'Ten years later 
he returne(l to the {T nitI'd State,.;, hecallle re('tor of 
Trinitv church, San Frandseo, Cal., and hel<l that 
omee 'for tlm.e vpar:-:, lie was elected as...istant 
l>i:-:hop of Xorth 'Carolina in ltìì3, and was conse- 
crated in ('hri:-:t ehurc'h, Ualeigh, X, C" 11 D
e.. 
IH7;t On the death uf Bishop 
\tkinson, in 1:-;:-;1. 
he hceame Lishop of the diocese, \\ïth his con- 
sent the eastern part of the sl ate \\ as set off as a 
separate diol'ese in 181:38, lIe receive(l the dcg1'l'e 
of D, J), from Ht, Jzune::;'s college, )[11" in I
,}(i, mHI 
by appointment of the presiding hishop, in 1 HH(i, 
took charge of the American Episcopal churches 
in Europe, Bishop Lyman has publishe(l a few 
oceasional sermons and a<ldl'l'sses, 
L\')L\
, William, legislator, b. in North- 
ampton, )lass" in 17,")3; (I, in Lowlon, En,glawl, 
in October, Ito\l1. Ill' was graduated at Yale in 
l'ì7(j, in 1 ì"'H wa,.; a nlf>lllber of the :\lassHl'husetts 
senate, amI was then f']e('tecl to eongress, serving- 
from 2 De('" 1 ,!);l, till a :\[areh, l'ìflì, Ill' was ap- 
pointed l'onsul at London in 180,"), and held the 
omee for six wars until his death, 
].rJlIU"u,'X}:n. 
.\lIalll, Canadian merehant, II, 
in Kilmarnol'k, Ayrshire, Scotland, in 17
(i; d, in 
I,0I1110n in 11'\:
(), Ill' cmne to Canada. e,.;tnhlislll'(l 
himsl'lf in 
llehC'c as a merchant, amI :-'l'rved for 
";l'veral years in the executive ('ounC'i! of the prov- 
ince, In I..!) the English-speaking population 
emp]oye(l )[1', I,ymlmrner to vi:-it London a,.; their 
agent and urge npon thC' home gO\-ernment a re- 
\'Ì,.;ion of tll<-' co]oninl s\-,.;t('m on a cunstitutiona] 
ha:-:b, IIis mission J"l'suitl'd in the tran,.;mission tu 


LYX'f' II 


the governor of a draft hill that provided for the 
estah]i::;hment of rl'l'resentati\Te government in 
Canada, The hiH WH"; not snti:-:factorv to the colo- 
ni,.;ts in all its I'rovi:-:ions, and was oPÌ)o:-:eù by :\11', 
Lnnhurner at the bar uf the house of commons, 
'1.r
fH, fhnrJcs, soldier, b, in Yirginia; d, 
near Staunton, Campbell eo.. \- a" about 1 j
.'), II.. 
WitS t he colonel of a rC'giment of riflemen that 
beha\ ell with gallantry at Guilf(l}'(l. The term 
"l\'nch law" is :-:aid to have been deri\-eù f!'Om hi,.; 
priwticl' of executing \\Ìthout trial the members uf 
a band of Tory marauders that inf('ste<1 the n('wly 
sNtled countn-, 
\nuth('r account derÏ\"es th(' term 
from the sunimary methods taken by a planter 
named John Lynl'h to riù th(' region of outlaws 
and escaped slaves who touk rt'Íuge in the Dismal 
S\\amp, This may ha\"e hcen Co1. (,hm"l('s's broth- 
('1' JOHX, who founded the town of Lyuehburg, 
Va" allli who is said 11\' sOllie authorities to IlU\e 
he('n the original "J WÌgl' Lynch": while others 
tm('e the phrase hal'k to one Lyn('h who \\as sent 
tu Amerieêl to punish pimte,.; Hbont 1Ii
ì, or to the 
ma\'or of Galwav, Ire]and, who in 14U3 ex('('uÌl.tI 
his'own son for JilUrder, A tra(lition of the Drake 
family of Xorth Carolina ascl'ihes the phmse to 
the precipitate hanging, to pre\-ent a rpscue, of a 
Tory I1Itmed :\Iaj, Beard on L
 neh ereek in ,Frank- 
Jin county, X, (', \Vhen it was fuulIII that the 
Tories \\
re 110t in pursuit. the ('al'tor::; went 
through the forms of a court-martial, and hangl'd 
the lifeless body in e"ecution of its dpcree,-II i:-. 
son, fhn..lt'
, h in YÌI'ginia; d, 11l'ur Xat<-hel, 
)Iiss" 1() Feb" 11'\:ï;
, was governor of )Iis:-.i,.;sipl'i 
from l
;l;) till l!-<Hi, 
1. \"
fH, hiidol'(' lip, FrenC'h soldier, b, in I,on- 
don, 'ì June, I,."),}; d, in FrUlwe, 4 Aug" I
-11. lip 
wa
 sent for his edn<'ution to the College of Louis- 
le-ltrand, Paris, During the war of 1,,0 in India 
he was taken to thut country by one of hi,.; uncle:-:, 
"ho eommHlHled a n'giment of the Irish brigadp. 
allll after sl'ning in the campaigns of I,ìO 11Il(1 
17,1 he ret\l1'l1<'<1 to France, Ill' thC'JI yolunteeJ"l'd 
to ai(l the _\nll'rieun colonists, awl seHcd first un- 
der the o I'd I' I'''; of Count d'E
tuing, At the most 
eritil'ul moment of the sil'ge of Sayannah, Ga" 
D'EstaiÙg. who was at the heud of the right of one 
coJumn, eomnHlJIdC'd Lynl'h to ('llrry 1111 urgent 
order to the third column un the left, 1'hc:-:(' col- 
Hnms w('re wit hin grape-:-:hot range of the intreJlch- 
ment=-- of the Engli,.;h, and It tremendous firing was 
kept up on both sides, Instead of passing through 
the centre or in the real' of the column, LYnl'h rode 
through the front. In vuin IfEstaing ilJld those 
who surround('d him shouted to him to take Ull- 
ot!wr direction, lie went on. executed his orùer, 
amI returned hy the :,;ullle \\ ay, B('ing asked b
 
lrEstuing why,he took a path in whil'h he was al- 
most l'l'l"tain to he killed, ]Il' replied: .. Bt'('au::;e it 
was the short(':-:t." and then joined the part of the 
troops that were most ardl'ntl
 engaged in mount- 
ing to the R!'sau]t. lIe wus afterward employ('d in 
the army of Hochamhl'au, amI continued to do good 
ser\"Ìce up to the surrC'll<ler of Corn\\ullis, ,After 
:-.eeing some fight ing in l\Iexico he f('turned to 
France in I,R;3, was namecl colonel of the 2d J"('gi- 
ment in th(' Irish hrignele. IHld Jw'eÏ\ cd the el'o:-:s 
of :-:t. Louis, Although all his re]atÏ\-e:-: in France 
were dewlte<l to the Bourbons, he touk s('ITice un- 
df'r the FreJIC'h repuhlic, antI commandell the in- 
fantryat the first battle of Yalm\' in I,!I:!, 
J.f:\CH, Jumps Bani.'1. author, b, in )Iecklell- 
hurg county, Ya,. G .Tan.. ll'\:W, He \\ as e<lllcaÌl.d 
at the rni\-ersity of .Korth ('arolinn, taught in Co- 
lumbus awl in "'e:-:t Point, )liss" in I
,ï!'-'(j
, and 
in the latter year juined the C'onfederatè army, 



lie rai
l'll a compnny of <'R\'nlry under Oen, Polk. nlf' hh,hop of Toronto in 
('ptC'mhC'r. 1R;)9. \\ ith 
\\ n
 ('11O
ell C'llptllin, p.llll wns \\ OllJ1ded ut Lnfayette. rig-ht of 
ucce
sion. amI "n
 con
f'('rah'd on 20 
(;a, ,\fll'r tIlt' war he bcg-nn tl1(' pral'til'c of law in .x 0'", following-, [n April, 1:-:liO, II(' h"('nme bbhop 
\\"p
t Point, )[i
s., hut abnwlO111'd it tor literal'\' on the re
ignntion of Bishop (Ie Charhollnp], lIe 
pur
uits, II i
 hC'st known poems arC' .. The ('lOl,k at once 
pt nhout ,isiting- e\ er
" part of his dio('p
e, 
of })pstim." .. The 
tHl' of Tl'xa<' nwl thl' .. Sieçe nnd in 1
(j;J held hi
 first :>\'nOl1. in \\ hieh h(' framed 
of the .\ ';"110," [Ie JlIIS nlso pnblislll'll ,. KpIIIIIPr a ('olllpll'tf' (.ode of t'ee!esi:lstieal jurbpr1Hlenee, In 
('ounty Yillllieuted" (Kpw York, 1
-;:-;): .. Bl'll('h 1l-ifi:? he \'i
itl'd Honlf' to attelHI the callonization 
and I
ar of )Iissi
sippi" (18
1): RIll]"lkneh nwl, of the,TnI'Hlll'
l'mnrt
rs, In 1t'tiH he\\ent Rg-nin 
Bar of 'I't.xn!''' (1"'
,)): 111111 has in press (1:-;'''1';-) .. _.\n to Honll' to attl>J1(l the Vatican council. and \\as 
Indu!'trinl [[i,.;tor
 of Tpxn
:' then m
ulc archbishop of Toronto mal metrol'oli- 
I.\'
fll. ,John JOSt'ph. C'nnndian H, (', arl'h- tan of Ontario, III' )Jre
ilh'd OWl' his first prO\in- 
bishop, b, near ('Iones. Ireland. G Feh" 1:-:1 Ii: II. in '1'0- ('inl eouneil in H.:-;a, Rllll in H
-;n nUllh' his d('een- 
ronto. 12 )lay. 1::-:

, He began hi
 clns
il'nl stUllie
 nial \'isit to Home. also \'isiting "'plnnd, In an 
in Luc'an, County Kihlnre. nnd finislwd them in intl'nip\\ \\ ith t hI' nuke of )[arlborongh, th('n 
('asth'knock, Duhlin, In 1
;J7 he was spnt to the lllrd-liputenant. and Sir Stafford Xorthcote. he {'n- 

eminary of St, Lazarus in Paris, and shortly af- dca, OI'ed to p('rsuade those !'tatf':-nlC'n of the ad- 
tenHLrll became a \'antage of cOlJc('ding home rule to In'lawl. lIe 
mem her of the \\ as reeei ,"C'11 formlllly on his return to LOlldon by 
LR7ari
t onlf'r, [n Sir ..AlexandC'r '1', (ì'alt. t he Canadian high comllli
- 
1
-l;J hI' rC'tul"Ill'd 
ioner. \\ ho reqlH'stcd him to be lll'espntpd nt court, 
to Ireland alHl was I A.ftpr !'ome llt'sitation hI' con:-entf'l1. h\' tIt(, :Hl\'ice 
Ol'llainell prie!'t by of C:mlinal )[Illlning, mill wns nll' first Homlln 
.\rchhi
hor )[ur- Catholic hishop since the reig-n of .Jnme
 II. to 111".- 
r:1\', of Duhlin, lIt' tl'lHl a rovallevl-e, On his return to Toronto he 
\\"IiS proff'
..;or in tleli,,'rC'(f a sl'rÌt's of lecture!' on the Yatiean coun- 
t he Collegl' of f'a
- cil in hi
 eat heùral before large audiem'f'
. the mn- 
tleknoek till 1
-lfi, joritv of whom "ere not Homan Cat holies, HI', 
mill Own. nweting LYIH:h was n vi
orous nlHl elofIUl'nt writel'. anll his 
Bishop Ollin. "ho pa40rals. which emhraee all qUl'stion:-i of a 
ocial 
was in search of and religious character. hall mueh intluelH'e on 
prie
tg for his \'ica- puhlic liCe in ('annda, lli
 jubilee \\ ns eelphratell 
riate of Te\.a
, he on 10 Del'.. l

-l, \\ ith grt'at magnifie('nee. the civil 
consl'ntell to ac- authorities of the provineI' taking an aeti\-e part 
compnny him to in it, During .\rchhishop Lyneh's ..piseopate the 
the l'nitell StntC'
, Roman Catholic ehurch in Ontario lIl:ull' rnpid 
He arrivell in Xl'\\' striùes, \\"hen he hecame hi
hor of Toronto there 
Orleans, 2!J JUlie. \\ere auout thilty p
'ie:-ts allll fOl'ty-t\\O ehur('ht''';, 
1
47, sniled for _\t rre
ent (H;'-.:'-.:) there are f:l'wllty-one ehurellt's 
(hlh"eston, and filially reached IIou
ton. which ue- and about ei
hty priesb, elideI' his guidance 
c:une the centre of hi
 mi

ionary labors, There chariÌllhle and eùu('ational in4itutioll
 sprung up 
werC' about 10,000 Roman Catholics scatterC'(1 over in e\ery pnrt of OntRrio, lIe folllllll'd the ('on- 
Tl'xas, and Father Lynch's labors were most ex- \'ent of the Pre('iou
 Blood in 11"74 and )[agdalen 
hau
ting-, Ill' WRS treated with great kilHlnes" hy n..;ylum in IH7,;, and establisl1l'1l COli wnts of :::it. 
people of all crC'f'Il
, and GO\, Houston offered to Jospph in St. CathariJ1l'
. Thorold, Barrie, HIHI 
rai
e funds to build him achurch if he wouldconseni Oshawa, Forty pal"Ïsh (.hurches and thirty pres- 
to l"l'
ide permanently in Houston, In his traveb byteries were erectl'd and !'f'\-enty prie
ts orùained 
through '1'('\.n:, he frequently lost hi:" way. at one for the diocese hetween 11-':;}9 and 1
H4, 
time stumhling- on an Indian camp, where he was r. Y
(,II. .Jolm UOf. member of congre!'!', b, in 
receÍ\"ed with kindness Rnd allowell to haptize the Concordia pari!'h, La" 10 Sept,. If.1-l7, He i
 R mn- 
ehildren of the trihe, lIe returned to Houston in latto, and was not horn a 
Ia\-e, but after hi:" fa- 
the autumn of 1847, after going north as far as ther'
 death the administrator of the e!'tnte held 
Indiall territory and exploring the country be- hi:" mothl'r in hondRge, \Yhen,a ("hild he wa
 car- 
tween Brazos, ('olorallo, Rnd Trinity rin'r
, lIe ril'll" ith his mother to X atchez, )[i
s.." here he 
WR
 strieken do\\ n hy a malignant 'fever 
hortl
 continued to re
idl' after he obtained his freeclom 
after reaehing Houston, and, after \ isiting XC''' on the o('C'upation of the city IIY the Xational 
Orlmns, was obli,ged, in )[arch, 1848. to go to the troop:'\, lIe lUlIl reeeÌ\ecl no prt'\'ious truining. hut, 
north, Jlp \'isited the LazHri
t colkgc of St. )[ary by attending a night-
('hool for a few months, aud 
the ßarren
, )[0.. awl hecame pre..;i(1C'nt of that in- a1ter\\ard !'tllllying priyatl'ly, he obtained a good 

titution in Septemher following-, He remollelleù Eng-lish e(lueation, He engaged in the hu:;iness of 
the system of di:"cipline on the plan of the ßf'ue- photography until 1Sli!l. when he was appointed a 
dictine monasteries of the middle ag-e;;;, aho1ishin
 ju!'tice of the peace, He wn,.; elected to the legi:,,- 
ull espionage, "ith entire sue cess, In 1f.1-lfl he \\as Inture in thC' 
ame yenr. a11l1 re-elel'tetl and chosen 
elected deputy by the Lazarists of Ameriea to thc :"peaker in 11-i71. In 1
7:! hI' was sent to congrcss, 
general a
selllblyof the order in Pari", On his re- and re-eleeted for the following term, In ]
71j he 
turn to St. )[HI'y'S. while performing- the dutie;;; of was ngain a eanùillMe. and his friends c1Rimed that 
president, he ga\-e mbsions throughout the sur- he was f'leded, hut ,Jnme:" R. Chalmers obtained 
rounùing country, In one of hi
 long journe
!' the 
eat. In 1
-;1; he defeated Gen, Chalmer!', and 
imprudent ð.posure awl oyer-fatigue re:"ulted in I in 1

0 was defeated hy tht' Democratic candidate, 
paral
-sis of the rig-ht side, hut Iw reco\"ered and wa,.; He was temporary chairman of the Repuhliean 
elected dl'pllty to the gf'neral a..;,.;emhly of his order national conwntion of 1

4, 
in 18,34, lIe founded the Seminnl"\' of our Latly of },\
(,H. Pa1r'ieio, Chilian nayal offi('er. h, in 

\ngc1s nf'ar Xiagara Fall!'. and ,1e\'oted the flext \
Hlpnrai
o. 1
 Oct.. It.:
;); d, at se.L ill )[ay, lRR(j, 
three 
 ear
 of his life to plaeing this institution on [I is fat her was of Irish extradion, The son studied 
a firm footing, He \\as nOllunated coadjutor to at the llayal academy, anù scrnd as a cadet in the 


LYX('[[ 


.. 
. . 



 


... 
 


\o#i 
'\ 


...- 
. .
 -. 
 
,,
- , \ 
' "'10.- " 
, =- 
\ 
. " 
I 



/
 


LYXCII 


03 



64 


LY
(,II 


LYKCH 


naval cumpaign of 1
a:-, against the Peru-Bolivian I also part of the time principal of the Collegiate 
confederation, In 11;40 he entered the British na\'Y I institute and vicur-:,('f'neral of the dioce:-e, In 
hy the order:- of his government, and took part in U-
,),), on the death of Bi
hop Heynolds. he \HiS ap- 
the \\aI' again
t ('hina in 1
-l1-':.?, lie heeame a puinted admini4rator, and gowrned the :-ee untIl 
lieutenant and \\a
 decorated with two medab, In I he \Hts llominated lJi:,hop, fie was consecrated, 14 
It\4 j he returned to hi::; native country, re-entered :\larch, 1
.j8, \rhen 
outh Caroliuu seceded, Bishop 
till' IHl\"yas a lieutenant, find ill ltì,"j4 was retired Lynch Lecame an arùent supporter of the Con- 
\\ ith the rank of frigate-captain, In 1t'(i,) he re-I federacy, In the fir
t )'ear of the civil war a fire 
turned to the service, and ùurin
 the campaign broke out in (,harle
ton, destroying thp new cat he- 
against 
pain was gm'emor of Yalparai:-o, organ- dral, the Li
hop's house, and uther ('hureh prop- 
iZClI the Kational guanl. ami commandcd a Chilian erty. and his flock was entirely scattprt'ù IJY the 
ve
:-õel. After tht' war he was pl'Omoted to post- su},
elluent siege and hOIl1Larùment. Then came 
captain, anù till the year 1tììH "as several timt'
 Sherman's marl'll to the spa. \\ith the burning of 
maritiuH' prefect of Valparai:-o, In l
ìtl he wa
 ('olumbia and its chur<'h, collegt" and com'ent. 
tlw first ('hilian governor of the Peruvian Territor) For the purpose of cOUlltcl'llf,ting thc effect of 
of Tarapaca, having been Lefore geneml cOlllmullIlt'r ArchLbhop lIughe
's mi:-
ion to Europe, tlw Con- 
of tmn:-port:ttion, In this same year he Was chief federate authoritit,:- sent Bbhop Lynch on a spt.cial 
of the expmlition that wa:-õ sent to the north of Peru, mi

ion tu France, and with a letter from Jefferson 
destroying property to tllf' amount of 
;t.),O()O.{JOO, Davis to the pope, On his rl't urn III:" found his 
On HI So\'" 11:$1';0, he landell at Pi
co with hi
 di- dioc('
e nead\' ruÏlll'd, In addition to los:-ões in 
dsion of tì,,:jOO men, amI Inade a Lold nuu'ch of church propèrty, he owe<l o\'er 
100.0()O to poor 
more than onf' hundreù an<l se\'en miles to Cura- people. \\ ho had intruste(l him with their sa\'ing-s, 
yaco, o\"ercoming great dif1ielllti('s, Ill' was obligl'll and the rehuildin,::r of such churches and institu- 
t!, catTY potable \Hlter for hi
 troops, hut Wa
 f:O tions as \\el"e ahsolutcly nee('

;lI'Y would co
t at 
fortunate as to lo
c but four soldier:-. On 1a Jan" least $150.000 more, Ill' hUll no r(,
Ollrces in his 
1
I'n, in the battle of ChorriIlos, he t'neountel"('(1 diocesc, and the rl'
t of his life was a struggle \\ith 
sueh stubLorn ref'istanc(> that he lost 192of1icers these obligation:-, lIe :-pent a great purt of the 
and 1,!".!) solùiers. the greater number in the at- time in other states collecting money, and fit his 
tack of .. )IOlTO 
olar:' lie abo was pI'e:-('nt. at death all the debt \\ as pnid except :-:1 ;,000, The 
the final hattle of )limflores on 15 Jan, SOllie ðertion ufTl'f'tl'd his nuturully vigorous constitu- 
months afterward congre
s promoted him to the tion, and led to a pn'nwture end, The life of 
rank of rear-mhnil'al, and appointcd him com- Bishop Lyneh was marked L
 acts of heroic charity 
mamIeI' of the Chilian army, which po....t he lwld and great litt'mryacti\'ity. In 1
--113 he took charge 
till Octoher, 1t'!":3, .\lthough it is said that he had of a ho:-pit;tl during an epillemic of yellow fever, 
not hepn U\er-serupulous in the prevjous campaign nursing the sick CH'n after he hml contr;lf'ted the 
regarding plundcr, he sternly reprcs:-ed the :-aek- disease; and on the outlm'ak of the disl'a:-e in 
ing of Lima by hi:,; own soldiers allli the marauders 1
ì1 he returnl'<l in 
reat haste to his ùiocl'se, :-0 as 
that infested the city, ordering the immediate ð.e- not to he a\\ ay from his flock in time of peril. lIc 
cut ion of e'"er) man caug-ht in the aet of robLing. "as a ela

i('al scholar allll a theologian, as well as 
and he court-Illartiale(l Sl'\ eral ('hilian ofTieer:- for a de\'ot('d 
tu<ll'nt of applie<l seÏence, He wrote 
extortion, lie suppre,,:-('d the Calùpron gm"ern- :-en'ral artiell's for re\'ie\\:- and p('1'iodieals, 111)(1 
ment., ami f:ent the pro\'i:-ional presiùl'nt a prisoner cdited DeharLe's .. 
eril's of ('ate('hisrns:' llis 
to Chili, notwith
tancling the prott':,t of the _\ rneri- artick's on the" Yatieun Council" in the" Catholic 
call minister, In 1

3 he planned the campaign ,,- 01'111," allli tho
c on .. The Blood of 
t. Janua- 
in which Cac('l'l's was defeated at II uama('hul'o rius:' \\ en' aft(,l"\' anlpuhlbhecl in book-form, 
in July, illvc:-ted Jglesias with the pre
idene." in J. \'
(,H. Thomas, patriot, b, in South Carolina 
OetoLl'r, withdrew the ('hilian garri:,on to Chor- ahout lì:.?O; d, there in 1'j,ü, IIi,..; [..th,'r, Thomu,..;, 
rillus, amI conducted the e\'ac'uation of the count)'v wus the first to cultivate riee on the alluvial lands 
after the mtificntioJl of pence, In r('compen:-e fo"r that are periodically oVl'rflowl'd hy the tides, The 
his senices he wa:- promote(l by congre:,.s to the son inherited It large et'tate on X orth anù South 
highbt rank of the Chilian navy, that of \ iee-' 
untee ri \'('rt'. hel'ame a nUll! of great infl Ul'ncl', \\ ho 
admiral. :1Il(1 in It\t;.) was 
ent as minister to 
pain, tuok a pruminent pllrt in thc pro('('eding-s of the 
III the following H';lr he WIIS rl'eaIIecl hy hi:- gov- l'ro\'ineial a:-õ:-embl
', and was an early anù zealous 
f'rlllllent to take charge of the (,hilian leg"lItion at advoeatl' of colonial re:-õistance to thc encroaeh- 
Lima, anll died on hi:- l'as:-age homeward when near lIIents of the crown und parlianwnt, II,' \\ as a 
the ('unary i:-laml:-õ, His remains \H're hllHll'cl in delegate to the ('olonial congre
:" of 1 ,G5, tUld, \\ ith 
'l'cneriffe, and aftt'rward tran:-õpol'Ìed h.y the imn- his eolleaguei'. ('hl"lstul'her Gad:-den ana ,John Rut- 
dad .. BJ
II1CO Enealadn" to Chili, urri ving in 
an- lc'll,::re, ani H'fl fir4 at the phtl'e of mel'ting, In thp 
tiago on 14 )Iay, H
'::Iì, "here they l'cceiH'd mug- dehate
 he ,1enied the po\\erof parlimnellt over the 
lIifil'ent funeral honors, eolonil'
. and oppo
cd sending a pet ition, With the 
L \ 
l' II, IJatritk 
 i('scll. H. C, bishop, b, in :-ume colleague
 he wa
 scnt to the 1st Continental 
('lones, I relanel. 10 )Iareh. 1
17; cl, in (,hurle
ton, eongres:-, and continued a member of that hody 

, ('" :,?H Feh., l
S:,?, In un9 his parents emigrated until he wa,..; c0ll1pelle(1 by failing health to re:-igll, 
to the C niteù 
tate
, alld \\ ere among the fir4 and was 
ueeee\ll'd Ly hit' son,-JIis son, ThoUla
, 
spttlers of Chera\\, S, C, After :-tudying at :-igne1' of the Dl'plaration of Independencc, b, in 
Bishop England's f:eminaryof St, John the Bap- Prinee GeOl"ge parish,
, (',,5 Au,::r" 1.49; d, at :,ell 
tist in ('harll'f'ton. t he son wus sent to the College in 1,ì1l, was SPlit at the age of Ì\\ dye to Englallll, 
of the Propaganda, Home, amI ùecame one of its where he wa
 educate(l fit Eton college allli Cam- 
most hrilliant f:tudents. Ilè \\IlS ordained priest, hridge univer
ity, und :-õtudied law in tlw Temple, 
and, a1tpr winning- the degree (If doctor of eli\ imt) London, but returned hOllle in 17ï:.? hefore com- 
by a public th
>
is in 1

O, returnell to ('harle!'t\ln' l plet
ng. his l'Ol1r
e, lun"ing 
 (h:-taste for, t he ,legal 
mal \\ëls appomte(l a

I
tnnt pastor at the eat he- profe:-
lOn, lip dt'voted hlmsplf to l'ultlyatm,::r a 
dra!. Here he remained until the (lenth of Bishop plantation 011 Xorth 
antee rin'r, whieh his fathpr 
Bngland in 1844, During tht' ele\"Cn following con\'eyed to him, and took part in till' puhlic dis- 
y('ar
 he \HIS l'a
tor of 
t. )1 a ry":'; ('hurch, l,eing , eu

ion
 of coloniul grienwee:-, On the organiza- 



LYXCII 


LYXDE 


Of) 


tion of the first rC'giment of ðouth Carolina pro- hC' dismantle,l thC' Smith\'illC' defences owl r(.tired 
Ùncials in 1 ììJ he \HIS eommi:-siOlll'd us cuptllin, \\ it h his nHlrilw:- to \Vilmington, lie publi:-hed 
mlll whilt' l"Ui:-ing his compaJlY in .Korth Carolina 1 .. XarratÏ\'e of the Cnited 
tatC's I<:xpedition to the 
eontral'ted swamp fe\er, \\'hen hi:- fatlll'r was Wn'r Jordan awl the nead 
ea" (l'hiladl'll'hia, 
striC'hl'n \\ ith paralysis lw wa" unable to obtain 1
4!1), and" Xaval Life, or Ub:-ervations ,Afloat and 
from Co1. Christopher GadsdeJl It'ave of ahS('IH'e, on 
hore" (Kew York, ]H,)l), 
but his eonnec- L\ Sfll, 1'i11ium "urn'lI. Canadian journal- 
tion "ith the reg- ist, b, iJl B(.tlford, tluebec, ao Sept" 1845, lie \\as 
imcnt \\tlS se\- educ'ated at Stanbriùge IIcademv, and at Vermont 
ered soon after- I and )lcGill universities, Hnù \H\S grmluated at the 
\\ard bv his unaJl- latter in 1t'liH, lIe \HIS mimittt'd to the bar of 
imous èlectinn b
 Lower l'amula in June, lHliH, nnd \\Us appoiJlted 
thC' proviJleial ns- I ((Ul'PJI'S counsel. ] 1 Oet.. IHHO, lip has been JlIfi
 or 
sembly to he his of the to" nship of Brome. wal"llen of the county 
father's SUCl'C'ssor of t hat name, IIml C'ditor of Hit. ('0\\ ans\'ille h Ob- 
in thC' ('ontiJlpn- I Sl'I'\'er:' and has 1\\ icf' bpen prC'sident of the pro- 
tal congress, Un 1 vincial association of Pl'Otp,..tllnt teaehers of 
ue- 
his aninll in 1 bcc, III' \\as t'lectC'd to tlw legi,..lllti\,e as,..embly 
Philadl'lphia he hy ueclamation in 18ìl, rc-l'lectell by aeclamation 
tonk his :-eat in I five timcs betweeJl that \car and 18Hti, lie bl'cllme 
the congrpss of soli(.itor-gC'neral. an Uct.: tt.:ìU, and on the aholition 
1 ;7ii, nnd. not- I of tlmt of!ief', al ,July, ]HH'.? \\as appointed COIl1- 
"it h,..tandillg t he missioner of ern\\ n hllHl:., which post he re:-igned, 

 /d wl'ak state of his :?O .Tan,. ]HH7, III' held the sllllle porttolio in the 
CY,..(J"r>"'-
 oGc.. 
/ own heulth. im- 1 Taillon administration from 2,) Jan" ]
H., until 
pn',,:sC',I that hody I it resignPIl,:!. ,Jan,. 1RRj, In JUIll', H':s;
, he re- 
with his earnestness /lnd elol)111'n('e, Olle of his ('dn'd the degl'ee of D, (', L. from till' (Yniversity 
lao..:t puhlic acts \\IIS to afTIx his sig-nature to the I of Bi....hop.s collC'g(', Lelllloxvillp, lie has hC'('n a 
Declaration of Inllependl'nce, In thC' autumn of lh'lC'glltt' to till' provinl'Ïal s
 110(1 of the ('hur('h of 
1;7ü the ailllll'nts that he had incurrell during his I England, nnd also a memher of the exeeutÏ\'e com- 
military sen ice compC'}]ed him to rl'turn to 
uuth mittel' of the dioe('sl' of :\lontreal. 
Carolina, II is lwalth continued to dedine, and, as J. \" 
 In:. UeJl.imll in, juri....t. b, in 
alem, 
(ass.. 
a last hope, he emharked about the close of 177!J 1 '
2 Sl'pt" lli1iG: II. there, 28 ,Jan" 174,], lIe was 
for 
t. Eustatius, whl're he e).pected to take pass- graduutpd at I1l1nard in lIi81i. studiel} law in the 
Rg'e in some neutral ship for the south of Fmnel'. Temple. London. practised in l\la,..saehusetts, and 
The yesse! in "hich he sailcI} was !'l'pn for tIlt' last was appointed a judge in 1712, and elder justiet' of 
time \\ hen a ff'w days out at sea, alltl was probahly the colony in 17;?!I, He" as a member of the COUI1- 
lost in a templ'st. 1 eil from 17
:J till 1 7:
7,-Ilis son, ßelljamill, jurist, 
I.Y
('H, William Franci
. nantl officl'r. h. in lJ, in Salem, )(IISS" 4 Oet., 1700; d, there, 11 Oct., 
Xorfolk, \-a" in April, 11'!OI; Ù, in BaltimorC'. )111.. l781, \HlS graduated at Han ard in 1718, studied 
1'j' Oet" It1 l i,j, Ill' entf'red the r, S, na\-y us miù- law, al1d practised in 1\1 assachUSl'tts, I1f' 'HIS 
shipman in 1819, allli \\as promoted }jeutC'nant in chosen a membpr of the council in 17:.37, and con- 
]t':.?
, The e
pedition to e
plore the course of the tinued in that body for many years, sl'r\'ing a 10..:0 as 
Jordan and the Dead sea Was pIlInllC'ù hy him in a representati\-e, and for sOIlle time ns nanll o1Jieer 
184., and, after receÏ\ ing the sanction of the gOY- of the port. lIt. beeamp judge of sessions and com- 
crnment, was earried out by him" ith suceess, He mon pleas, tlml in 1;4:) suec('eded his father as 
sailed for 
myrna in the storeship" ::-ìupply," nnd judg-e of the supreme court. Ill' presided at the 
thence made an overland journey on camds to I trial of Capt. Preston in 1770 for orùering the Bos- 
Constantinople, where he obtained the requisite ton mlls...."Iere, and W<lS aceused of p<lcking the jury 
authority and protection from the Turkish go\'ern- with the corrupt ohje(.t of disposing- of unsnlable 
ment to pas
 through Palestine, In )[areh, IH-!8, products of hi.. manufacturillg bu
iness to the 
he landed in the Bay of Acre, anù in _-\pril began I go\-ernment. In 177
 he resigned the chief jus- 
tl
e \\:ork of navigating the Jordan from Lake ticcship, and in 1774 
!lherIas to th
 D
ad sea, performing- the journe) 1 he was one of the 
lU two metallIc hfe-hoat
, By the establishment sicrners of thc Sa- 
of a series of levels, the Dean. sca was shmn.. to be 1 le
 addrC'
s to Gen, 
1,31
 feet below the :\Iediterranean, corrohoratincr I Thoma" Gagl" To- 
an l'arlier survev made under the direetion of th
 I wanl the close of his 
Britis
 navy, .
uhsel)uentlr he planned an ex- life he \\ao; judge of 
plorauon of western _\frica, but it failed of ap- prohate, 
proval. He was advanced to the rank of com- Lr
D}:,l\ïllinm 
ma!1 der in 184H. and in 1
,)1ì wns made captain, Pitt, memberof con- 
whIch rank he held until 18til, when he resignel} to 
ress. b, in 
herburne, 
jo
n the Confederate navy, In June, 181.H, he re- X, Y,. Hi Dec" ll-il7: 
celved the commisson of flag--officer, and was as- ù.in :\lilwaukee,\\ïs" 

igned to the command of the defences of 1'orth 1H nec" 188.], lIe 
Carolilla, He had charge of the na\-al force that was graduated at 
unsuccf':,sfully resisted Flag-Officer Louis )L Golds- Yale in lR:
H, studied 
horough's attack on Roanoke island in February, law in the law-school 
IHG2, and he subsequently commanded the remain- at Hanard, was ad- 
der of the fleet which \\ as surprised by part of 1 mitted to the har in 
Com, Stephen C, Rowan's fnrees 
md driven up --\1- Xew lork city in 
bemarle sound to Elizabeth Citv, Later he com- 1
41. and estabÌished himself in practice in :\Iil- 
manded ::-;mitll\-il1e during Adm"ïral Dadd D, Por- 1 waukee, Wi!':" and gained a high professional rel:u- 
ter's attack on Fort Fisher, and aftC'r it" surrender, tation, e,..peciall
 in the departments of COmnll'l"('laJ 
YOLo 1\",-5 



 
,
 


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t' :so-. 
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üü 


LYXDO
 


LYO
 


and admiralty law, Ill' wa
 appointed attorney- I to the assemhly in 18,30. but resigned on the ques- 
general of \\ï
con!"in territory in It!44, and in the tion of enlar
ing the Erie canal. of which he was 
foIlo\\ing year U, 
, district attorney, which office an advocate, and 'HtS in the same year C'lected to 
he held till the admi:>,
,;Ïon of the 
tate into the the statl' 
enate, At the cIo!'e of his term he again 
Cnion. when he waS ell'cted to congre::,;
 as a Delllo- went ahroad, and as a friend of ('apt, Duncan X, 
crat. amI took his !'eat on 5 ,fune, 1
-lH, He was Ingraham (q, t',) \\as concerned in the re:>,cue of 
It canditlate for re-eleetion, hut wa
 defeuted by )[artin Ko
zta from an Au
triun brig in the port 
Charles Durkee on the Free-soil i
:>,ue, whieh the,' of 
m\Tna, \Yhl'n he returnell he was elected af: 
llt.hatell in a joint CaIl\-a:>,
, His term ended on 3 an In;lel'l'fHlent to congre

. and f:el'\'('d from 5 
)[arch, LR49, antl in that year he wa;;: a Democratic Del'.. l
,);l till 3 ::\larch, IH,');j, .\fter the burning 
candidate for the supreme court hench, hut wa
 of the family mansion at Lyon:-dale he removerl t.o 
not electC'll. Ill' was mayor of 
lil\\'aukl'e in 18fiO, Staten island. amI occupied and re!'tored the coun- 
a member of the legi!'lature in 18GG. and of the try-seat knO\\ n as Hoss ca
tle, In 1
()4 hC' wa
 ap- 
state !'emtte in 1
G8-'9, In 18i4 he was again scnt pointed hy Pre
ident Lincoln governor of Idaho, 
to congre

, awl in IHiG was re-eledetl, whieh po
t he h{'ld till December, 1RHG, lie \\as a 
I.\'
n()
. .Jo
inlt. gOYernor of Hhode hlalHl. ("eady orator, who
e memory and knowledge of 
b, in XI'\Vport, I{. 1., 10 March, 1 iO-t: tl, in \\'ar- ,jtatistic:-: l'elltlerl'll him formillalM in dehatl'. As 
rcn, I{, I., an )larch, 17iH, He recpÏ\-ed a 
ood a connoi::,;sC'ur of the fine arts hi:-õ opinion was es- 
education, allli in 1 i
O beeame clerk of the 10\\ er teem{'IL Ill' puhli
h{'d poem!'. whieh have uen'r 
hou"e of the legi
laturC' and of the supC'rior COlll't been eolleeted, aHlllecturell on hb tra\-ek Xorwich 
of Xcwport cOllnty, whieh offices he hell! for Imm
' unÌ\er:-õity 
ave him the deg-rf>e of LL,J>, in 1
,)1. 
year:-õ, In 1'j(jt\-'g he was go\-ernor of the mlony, I. \"OX, (
('or
c "'ram'i
. I<:ngli
h tra"eller, h, in 
declining- to f:erve longer than one tl'rm, lIe then C'hiehe:-õtl'r, England, in 1 j!I,'): d, at sea in Oetober. 
returned to his clerk
hip, which he helll until his 1
:;:!, Ill' enterell the Briti
h 11Imll serdee in 
df>ath, His administration wa;;: markell by signs I
O!), wa
 present at the attaf'k on .\lgiers by Lord 
of growing hostility to the Briti..h gO\'l'rnment, Exmouth in 1
l(j. and in I
H; was commissioned 
and especially by a eorrC':-õpolllll'nee between the to accompany J{I
eph Ritchie on his tour of C'xplo- 
gll\-el'llor and the Earl {If Ililbborough, in which ration into central 
\fril'a, RiteJlie llied in Feu'an, 
the rOl'lner protested agllinst the arbitrary acts of and Lyon returned to England. aftl'r cncountering 
the home, govcrnment. This, with a similar letter many dang-l'r
 and prÏ\ ations, which he de
cribed 
to the king-, expres
ing the sentinll'nts of the gen- in his" Xarrative of Tr:l\-cls in Xorthern .Africa" 
eral a

embly and 
igned by HO\', IJ
ïHlon, is in (Lomlon, It421). In H
21, in command of the 
,John l{, Bartlett's .. l{f>conh of the Colony of "Hecla:' he aceompilnied ('apt. \Yilliam E. Parry 
Hhode Island" (10 vols" ProvillencC', It;,)ö-'ö3), on his aretic expedition, puhli
hing on his return 
IA

, Bl'njlllllin. pioneer, Ih'cll in thf' lattC'r .. The Primte .rournal of Capt. G, F, Lyon" (1
2-t), 
half of the l
th century, lie wa..: It wandering In lR2-t he 
niled in command of the .. Griper" 
huntl'r in Green rÌ\'er ntllC'y, Ky.. before its settlc- with the mi:-õ
ion of e'\.ploring l\[eh'ille penin:-õula, 
ment, and as soon a:.-; sto('kadc
 Legan to be built amI fllllowing its \\ e
tern shore a
 far as Turn- 
along Solin {XO-IJ
ïlH) rÌ\er, to which he had ag-ain, he fnunll, after three munth
' 
ear{'hillg, a 
gÏ\ en his name, he forllled in 1 it\2 n 
epal"1Üe Bap- pa:-õ
age through the group of islct
 eaIled ::;outh- 
ti:-õt l'oll
regation there and bel'ame it
 pa
tor, lIe umpton i
lalHl. but was unahle to enter l{epube 
afterward held other charges, and his nllme is con- bay throu
h Sir Thomas Ho\\e's ""elcome, On 13 
nected \\ith the tradition:-õ and l'arly recol'lb of the Sept., a violent tem}le!'t compdll'd hilll to rC'turn 
ollle
t churches in southern Kenttu'ky, He is to Eng-laHll. The story of the voyag-t> was told in 
eaIled the .. hunter-preacher" and the .. Daniel ,. 
\ Brief Sanative of an Cnsuccl".;
ful Attempt" 
1300ne of southern Kentucky:' (1H2,")), Ill' sub:-õequelltly I'a
scd i-cycrai 
e:Jr
 in 
L YO
. Asa, clcrgyman, b, in Pomfrl'Ì, ("onn" 31 )Il'
ico, llnd llied on his return from a second "bit 
Dt>c" 1 jü;
; ll, in 
outh Ih'ro, Grand Isle co.. Yt" to _\merim. II is rcmHinin
 work:-õ nre" The Sh.eteh- 
4 .\pril, 1
41. lIe was graduated at Dartmouth in Book of Capt, n, F, Lyon during Eig-hteen :\[onth::;' 
1itlll, studied divinity with He\', Charle
 Backus, HI':-õitlence in ::\lnico. Xo, 1 ., (London, ]
2i), and 
and \\a
 ordaincd pa
tor at 
utherlalHl, )Ia:-õ
.. 24 .. Journnl of a Hl'sidcnce and Tour in l\[eJl..ieo in 
Oct" 1 jU
, He remained there till the folio" ing l
:?H" (
 \'ols" 1 


), 
ycar, IUlll from 11';u2 till 1840 \\a
 pl1:;tor at South L\'OS, John l'hri
ti:lU. clergyman, b. in IJe- 
Hero, Hc wa
 chief judg-e of (
rand Isle county in on:-õherg. \\ïil'temherg, Uf'I'many, 11 Fell.. 180
: d, 
1t'O,J-'14, nnll \\a:-õ II repre:,entatin- in the legbla- in C'aton\'Ïlll', 
h1.. 21 :\Iay, 18öt\, llb parents 
ture in 1800. I
02, 180;:)-'ü. lR(I
, and It\1o-'14, nnd were Lutherans, The !'on came to this country 
a member of thc e'\.e{'utive f'Olll1cil in 180H, Ill' in 1
1 i, united with thc l\lethodi:-õt Bpi
coluil 
wa!' elC'ctell to congress a
 Ii Fedemli:;t, and sel'\'ed church in 1
:?f). awl soon aftel"\\llrd entered its 
from 4 Del'" 181,'), till 3 )[arch, un j, ::\[r, Lyon is ministry, in whkh hI' served until he "as ::,;uper- 
said to IHt\-e been a cousin of Robert Burns, lIe annuatell in 1H()2, Ill' preached generally in (jC'r- 
was an impre

ive preacher, distinguished for his man and did much to bring his countrymen into 
knowletlge of literature, He publi
hed sermOllf' his denomination, Ill' has been palled the founder 
amI patriotic addre:;:;es, of the Gl.rmnn ::\lethotlist church in the (Tnited 
). fO
, l'aleb, cong-ressman, b, in Lyon
llale, Stntes, Hc was tht> author and translator of Sl'\'- 

, y" 7 Del'" 1
22: (1. near I{ossville, Staten i
lallll. eral theologieal works, 
X, y" 8 Sept" 18j,), Ill' was gradu,nted at Kor- IJ fO
, I.ucius. senator, b, in 
hdburn, Vt.. 26 
\Vieh unin'l'sity, Yt., in 1
41, tra\'elled in Europe Feb" I
OO; d, in Dl'troit, )lich., 24 
ept., 1
.)1. 
for several yenrs, amI in 184 i was appointed con
ltl HC' reeeiwll a public-sl'hool education. Hnd, settling 
to Shanghni, China, On his return he trawlled in Detroit in 182
, wa
 eleetell a territorial tlele- 
through Cl'ntl'1l1 and South .\mcrica, arri'-ed in gate to congre
s as a Dl'mocrat. sel'\'ing from 2 
California in 1t\4tl, amI was :,ecretary of the con- Del'" 1833, till 3 :.\Iarl'h, 1
::.ï, In the latter 
l'ar 
\'ention that wa::,; called to fmme a state constitu- he was a memher of the State constitutional con- 
tion, 'Vhile there he de
igncd the state coat of wntion, and hc al:-õo sel'\'ed in that of 1830, He 
al"ln
, .After another jourliey in Europe and till' was a (;", 
, senator from 2li .Tan" 1
:
j, till 3 )[areh, 
Ea:-õt he returned to hi
 natin' 
tatl', and was eleetl'd 1
:l!J. and a repn'scntative from 4 Del'.. ltì-t:J, tilI3 



LYOX 


)[arch, 1t'4.i, From 1
:li till 1
a!J he wns a r('gmt 
of the l'niH'r
ity of :\Iil'higan, lIis la
t puhlic 
OfTil'l' was that of sUI'wYIH'-geneml of the states 
of :\lil'lugan, Ohio, anll Indiana, 
I. ,-OX. :Uun'. edumtor, h, in Buckl:md. )[a,;!'.. 

H Feb" 1 in;: i1. in 
out h llallley, :\[a

,. 3 :\Iarch. 
184!1, Her ead v ('dueation wus received at di
trict- 
:<choob. and ÍIi ItH4 she ùe,gü.n to teach at Shel- 
hurne Fall:::, 
\t the age of t\\enty she hecame a 
pupil at the SandL'rson academy in .\shfiL'1Ll, whcre 

he stlldil'd tWL'nty h(.urs l'ach day. and in three 
days committed to memory .\llam
'
 Latin gram- 
mar, In 1
21 she entered the sehool of the Hev, 
Jo
('ph Emerson at Byficlfl. near Xl'whuryport, and 
in 1t':?4 4udied at Amher:<t, Ululel' Prof, Eaton, to 
become f}wtlifil'd for giving experinwntal instruc- 
tion in dll'mi
tn', From 1
:?4 till 11;2
 
Ill' assi
ted 
:\[rs, Grant in 'the .-\.dam
's female !'eminarv in 
Londowlerry, 
,II. During the wintN'. ,
hen 
this school was clo
el1. m\Ïng to the 
eH'ritv of the 
climaH\ she taught in .bhfi
'ld nnd BucklaÌul. and 
SUh
I'quentIy at lpswich, Her grl'at work \\a..; tlI(' 
founding of )[ount Ilolyoke seminary. at South 
Hallie v, :\[.1":<.. on t3 Xm',. 1

i, and from that date 
until ill'I' death she sel"\'ed as ib principal. Une 
fentun' of her 
\'stem, to whil'h thl're was mueh 
opposition. was that till' entire dome
tic labor of 
thp in:<titution "as performed by the pupils and 
teachers, in 01"llcr to promote interest in th('se 
ta
ks, In the course of her life )Iiss Lvon in- 

tl ucted more than 3.000 pupil
. many oi \\ hom 
beeame mbsionarie
, Slw puhli
hl'd tl pamphlet 
entitled" Tendencies of the PrÍIll'iples el1lbraeeù 
awl the Sy4elll mloptell in the :\Iount lIol
 oke 
:-\emimlr
'" (1
40). and al:<o the " :\li

ionHry Uffer- 
ing" (no
ton, HH:
), 
ee" Power of ('hrbtian 
nene\'olenee, illustrated in thc Life 8nd Lnhors (If 
:.\Iary Lyon;' h
 Ellward IIih:hcfwk (Xorthamp- 
ton. )[a
!'" 1H,i1), and .. !:e('ollf'ctions of Mary 
Lyon:' hy FiLldia Fiske (D04on. Il"lifi), 
I. \'()X. )(attl...\\. politieian, 11, in County \Viek- 
low, Irelanù, in 1741j: d, in Sl'fillra Bluff. Ark., 1 
.\ng,. 1
2
, He emigrated ut the age of thirteen 
to Xew York, and. as he was nnahll' to pay for his 
passage, the captain of the ship. in al'cordance 
\\ith the ('u
tom of the time, a

ignell him for a 
sum of moneY to a farnl('r in Litchfield countv, 
Conn" in whose service he remaÍ1wd fO!' 
en:'l"ål 
W',lrS, He then became a citizen of \"ermont, and 
Ìn Julv, 177li, was commis
ioned n
 lieutenant in 
a comimny of .. Green )[ountain Boys," In the 
latter part of the same year he was ca
hiered for 
df'!'el"ting a post on Onion river. hut sub
ef}uently 

er\"('(l as commi

ary-gl'neral, and e\-entually be- 
came colonel of militia, He 'HI
 mndc dl'puty 

ecretary in 1 ii8, and suh:<equently clerk of the 
court of confiscation, After the war he 
ettled in 
'
ermont anù was elected to the state legislaturc, 
where he served for fonr successive veal'S, Hf' 
founded the town of Fair Hawn, vi.. in 1 Î
:;, 
built 
aw-mills and grist-miU
. e
tahli
hed an iron- 
foundry. manufactured papcr from bl-Iss-wood. and 
i
:<ued a Democratic new
l'aper entitled "The 
Scourge of Aristocracy, and Hepository of Impor- 
tnnt Political Truth:' of which the types and pa- 
per were manufactured by himself, He represented 
Fair Haven in the legislature for ten year
. and in 
17
lj was assi
tant judge of Rutland county eourt, 
He manied a daughter of GOY, Thomas Chitten- 
den, became an acti\'e political lcader, and was 
elected to congres!' by the anti-Federal party, s('rv- 
ing from l.i )Iav, 1 i9i. till 3 )[arch. 1801. In Oc- 
tober. 1 Î!It), he \\:a,;; indictell in Yermont for writing 
for publication a letter calf'ulatl'd "to stir up sedi- 
tion and to bring the pre
ident and the go\-ernment 


LYO
 


67 


of tll(' rnit('d Statl''' into contempt:' Ill' was pon- 
victl.d. contiIwd for four months in the \Tergermes 
jail. awl fined $1.000. whieh Wll
 paill hy his friend
, 
:\[r, Lyon i
 !'aid to ha \'e re\"l'llged his wl"Ong
 It\' 
gi\ing thc c]('t'Í:<ive vote for Jeffer:<on, While ii1 
prison he wa
 rl'-eleeted to eongress, and after the 
l'xpiration 01' hi
 term remO\ cd to Kentuch r, \\ IlPre 
he e:<tahli
hed thl' fir
t printing-oflìc('. tl'lln
porting 
the tyl'l' on hor
ehack a('ro
s the 11I0untain
, He 
served Ì\\O veal'S in thl' Kentuckv Il'O'i
latun' flI1l1 
was (.l('eted' to congre

 from that :tatl'. sCl:\'Ïng 
from 17 Od" I
O:l, till a :\[arch, 1tH 1. After his 
final retirement from eongl'e!'
 the 
pl'aker of the 
hou
e presented his pl'tition to Im\l' the fine I'e- 
fUlHkd to him thnt he had paid in Vermont. nnd 
on 4 July. It340, nn /let was pa
sed I'a
 ing the sum 
to his heirs \\ ith interl.
t, I [l' was l'mployed to 
builLl a fleet of gUlI-hoa ts for Sl'l'\'i('l' ill tll(' war of 
1
1j. but was mllile hnnkrupt hy hi:, attpmpt, In 
1
:?0 he was nppointl'Ll/l r niteLl Stat l'S factor among 
the CIl('rokel' Indians in AI"k:IIISI\!':, l"('lIlo\'('d to that 
territory, HIIlI \\ liS e lecÌ('Ll its tir
t delL'ga tc to ('on- 
gre:-:
. hut did not live to take hi
 !'eat. 
\ 
hl'tch 
of hi
 life was publi
hl'd Ly Pliny H, White, of 
Yerlllont, in 1
,i
,- Ili
 son, ('hitt(-'IHI('u. l'on- 
gr('
smlln, h, in Y l'rnwnt in 1 'ìl"ü: d, in Cnillwe]] 
county, Ky" I; XOy,. 11;42, reeei wLl a public-s('hool 
edlleation. anLl rl'lIlO\pLl with his fatlll'r to Ken- 
tuekv in 11:;01. Ill' was a memher of hoth hOIl:-:e
 of 
thl' Kentuckv kgi
lature, HIHI fifterwanl ell'cted 
It repre
l'lltatÍ\c fl'Olll Kcntll('ky to congl'l'!'s as a 
Jnehon Democmt, sel'\ iug from a })ec,. 11;2i. till 
3 l\lan'h, 1""33, Ill' was dl'featl'(l a
 a cfllulidate 
fo)" TH"('
idential elector on the Y nn Buren ticl\.et in 
1 "':Hi, Lnlll county. Kv" \\a
 named in hi
 honor, 
11(' inhe,:it('d the Ìmpl:tuouS Iri
h temper of the 
father, :lIld Wll
 a man of gigllntie stHturL'. strength. 
tlIlll pl'lJ\\ e
s, hl'ing" fully sÍ\: and a half fCl't in 
height. and \\l'i
hing 3;;0 pounds, Ill' wa
 more 
than a matl'h for any Hntagoni
t. and bore the r('pu- 
tation of "ehampion " among the border people, 
].YO
. 
athallh'I.soldil'r. b, in Ashford. ('mm" 
14 ,Iuh'. 1
1
; d, near Wil!'0I1'S Cn'ek. 
[o", 10 Aug,. 
1t<ü1. "lIe was graduated at thf' t T , S, military 
academy in 1
41, assigned to the 2d infantQ, and 
served in Florida during the latter part of tll(' 
.
elllinoll' WHl', He was engaged at the siege of 
\T em ('ruz, promoted l
t lieutenant while on the 
march to the l'Ítv of :\[exico, Hnd commanded his 
company througli- 
out the sub
equent 
eampai<rn receiy- 
ing tlu; Lre\-et of 
captHin for gal- 
lant1'\" Ht Contreras 
and "l'hllruhusco, 
[n the as
ault on 
the city of ::\lexieo 
he \\ as' wounded at 
the Belen Gate, 

\t the clo:<e of the 
war he was ordered 
to California, and 
in 1
.iO he con- 
ducted a succe
s- 
ful expedition 
a,gainsttlw Indians 
of Clear lake and 
Ru!'sian riwr in 
northern Califor- 
nia. receiving the praise of Gen, Per::,ifer F, Smith 
for the rapidity amI s('crecy of his marchC's, and 
his skilful dispositions on the ground, He wns 
promoted eaptain on 11 J nile, 1
51, and in 1853 
returned with his regiment to the east, \Yhile 


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LYO
 


LYO
 


li:;U'ning to the dehates in congress oyer the Kan- gara to seniority he assumea command on the de- 

a<.;-Xebru:;ka bill, hi:; 
ympathies were engagerl partnre of Harney. and frolll that time was rec- 
in behalf of the ne
ro, although lw haa heen ognized by tht' gon'rnment a:; commanding the 
hitherto an earne
t Democrat. In IH:)4 he was dppartnlPnt, On the night of 
Ii .\pril he secretly 
1-'ent to Fort Hill'y, and during the height of the 
ent away to Illinois all the munition:; of wal" that 
('ontest for the po:;session of Kansas manifestea were not"n('eded for the four r('giment,.:. which \\ pre 
his sympathy \,ith the Frl'(' - 
tate party, find speedily organized ana equipped. Although the 
gayI' it his aitl and 
upport, In 1
:)Ii. when the remmal of the arms from the ar
('Jlal frnstrnt('tl 
troops \\ pre (Jl'(lere,l to enforce the laws against the the gOYl'rnor's ohject in ortlering the militia into 
Abolitionists, Lyon seriously contemplated r('sign- camp at St, Loui:-:, it WH:-: d('('idell to hold the pn- 
ing hi
 commission. that he might not be employed campment newrthek:-:s, Daniel)1. Frosts hrigade, 
.. as a tool in the hand
 of e,-il rulers for the ac- numhering no\\, aftpr all tlw -Cnion men had with- 
compli:-:hment of ('dl end:, "; hut lw was 
a'-ed drawn, ahout 700 men. \\ent into camp on (i )Ia
- 
from the nN_'e:;sity of doing so hy being ordered to in a grow in the we:-:tern part of the city. which 
the Dakota frontier, He was on duty again in they calle,l Camp .Tachon, Ha\-ing heen anthor- 
Kans
I": in U
:i!I, antl was \\ it h Gen, 'Villiam ::-;, lIar- izell by a dl'spatch from the secretary of war, Lyon 
ney in Decemher. IS(jO, wht'n the go,-crnor of :\Iis- in::\1 ay JlIU:-:terell in fh e regiments, called the Home- 
souri f'ent a brigade of militia to co-operute \\ ith guarù
 or r, ::-;, rl'sene eorp:-, in addition to fh-e 
thc X ational trollpf' in arresting .Tames )ront
onll'ry, regimentf' of 
li
souri yolunteers that had been 01'- 
Ill' was left hy LIarl1l'V at Fort :::;cott, hut wislll'd to ganizefl in .\pril. The \'olunteer:; \\erp recmited 
he nearer thè SCl'np òf the impending eontlict. in alm04 t'ntirdy from tl1(' German population, as the 
whieh. he wrote on 27 .Tan.. 18Gl. .. I certainl\' cx- nati,"e-horn amI OJ(> lri,.:h were 
e('e
sinnbt", On 
peet to e\.po
e, and 'wry likely 
haU lose, my iife." 10 :\Iay he :;urrounded ('nmp Ja('kson, and made 
In the heg-inning of F'ehmary Ill' was ordered to prboners of war of the entire ('orps of militia, In 
::-;t. Louis, There he contested with .:\Iaj, Petl'r \T, the ('amp were sipge-guns that ,Teffprson Da\i,.: hael 
Hagm.r, whom he suspected of f'outhern sympa- sent from Xew Urleans at the request of GI)\", .Ta('k- 
thies. the command of thc arsenal: hut his appeal son, "Then Gen, nnrne\' re!'uml'd comman<l he 
to Gen, Harne\', awl tJwn to Pre
i<<lent Ruehanan. Ilppron
d the capture of ('amp .T:H'k:-'on, hut refu:-:ed 
wa
 unandlini, III' \\as soon in ('lose acc01"l1 with to l"arry out Lyon's plan for imnll'diate operations 
Francis p, Blair, ,J 1'.. and the ot Iwl' l" nioni
t lead- against the ho
tile forces that the gO\ ernor \\ as 
el'
, and at oncl' began to <lrill aIlll or,ganize the organizing in pursuance of an act of the legisla- 
lIome-guanls, A few days hefore President Lin- ture, On:H :\Iav, in a('eor(I:ll1ce with nn ordel' that 
('nln ':s innuguratinn Blair went to ,y a
hington to Blair had ohtain'c,l from the pr(':-:itlent, I.yon. \\ ho 
Pl.r:-:uad(' Gt'n. ::-;l'ott allll the presidl'nt of tIlt' ne('cs- had heel1 commi,.::-:ionea a:; hrigadier-general of 
sit
 of gh"ing the l"ommaml of the arsenal to Lyon. \-olunteers on 1 j l\lay. amI appointed to the com- 
but without sll('ce
s. .\n attl'mpt of the sl'(Oe:-:sion- mand of the brig-ade of German rel'ruits. relievpù 
ist minutl'-men to pnnoke a confli('t on inaugura- Gcn, IIarney of "the command of the Depal.tment 
tion-<lay <leciùetl tlH' new lulministration to place of the \Yest. The governor a1\(l nen, 
terling Pri('(', 
I.yon in command of the troops on 18 :\Iarch, 18m; in an intt>rdew "ith (fPII, Lyon. sought to ohtain 

et the or<ler \HIS qualifiell by in:-:truetions from from him a renewal of the agrpement Gcn, Harney 
<ien, Harney stilllea\"Ïng in charge of Jlaj, IInglll'r h:ulmade to resped tlw neut'mlity of the state; InÌt 
the arms amI materiab of \\ltr whi,'h Lyon int('mlt'd Lyon insi:-:tcd on the right of thl' (;", ::-;, gon'rnment 
in till' ('vent of a collision to <li
tribuie among the to enlist men in 
Iis,ouri. an<l to mow it
 troops 
llome-guanls, While (-;'ov, Claiborne F, .Ta('k
on within or acro
s t}1(' 
tate, Opl'n hostilities fol- 
was promoting the organization of seces
innist 100\"(>d, Lyon sent troops to thc south\\e:-:tern part 
militia. amI aftl'r Ill' had place(l the police of:::;t. of the state in ord('r to nll'et an apprehended ad- 
Louis under the control uf Ba:;il \V, Duke, the vance of Confe<lprate troops from .\rkansas, and 
leadel' of the minutl'-mcll, and after the municipal cut off thl' l'l'treat of the goyernor and the state 
election of 1 .\ pdl. l
lil. had transferl'l'tl t he cit
 troops, while wit h another fol't'e he a(h anced on 
g-o,'ernment into the hands of 
eces:-:ionists, <ien, Jpffer
on City, of which he took pO
"'l':;sion on 15 
Harney revoked his rl'cent order and gave Lyon June, the 
tat<> forces having' e,-aeuate.l it two days 
entire charge of the ar:::.enal. arms. and stores, Be- he fore, and then on the c'l\('my's new hC'ad(llU\r- 
fore the bomharclmC'nt of Port Sumter. L"on had tprs at Booneville, where he routed Col. John S, 

trengthem'd the fortifieations and mountètl heav
 I Marmaduke's for('e on 17 ,June, IIi
suùd('n move- 

iege-guns amI mortars that commanded the city, ment plac-ed him in command of the entire i'tate 
and it
 river appruaches, On the presitlent's call exc-ept the 
outll\\ pstt'l'n corner, On:3 July he left 
for troop:' ({ov, Jack
on prepal'l'd to plant hatteries I Booneville to c'ontinue the pursuit of Pric(', but 
on the hills owrlooking the aI's('nal. Lyon at on('e whC'n he learned t hat the :\1 bsourians had defeated 
l'ommunieated \\ ith Gov, Hil'hard Yaft's, who, by Sigel at Carthage, and l'ffe('ted a junction with the 
thc pre
itlent's orders, sent three l'l'
iments of the l'onfl'derate troops under (Íl'n, Ben :\leClllloch, he 
Illinois quota to 
upport the garri
on in :::;t. Louis, halted at ::-;pringfieltl to await re-enforccmenb, Un 
Lyon" as at the 
ame time comnmnded. aceonling learning that the ('onfeclerate
 were marching on 
to his own suggestion. to turn OYer 10,000 :-:tand of hi
 po:;ition. he adnuH'ed to meet tlwm, ulthoug-h 
arm
 to the Illinois state authorities, mail' had Iw suppo
ed that they outnumbered his force four 
procm"('d in \rn:-:hington :mother order authorizing to one. hut. after a 
kirmi
h at Dug :-'pring, re- 
l'apt. Lyon to i
,..ue ;:;.000 stand of arms for arming- treated to Springfield again wlll'n he found that 
loyal citizen
, Harney interfelwl to prewnt the their three columns had. joincd, Un 9 .\ug.. cou- 
drming of volunteer
, and onlelwl Lyon, who had I siell'ring a retrc':lt more haza rdous thlin a hatt Ie. he 
III aced guanls in the 
trpets in violation of the city dec'ided to f'urprisp the Confederate:-: in their camp 
ortlinance
. to \\ itliliraw hi
 men" ithin the RJ.senal. 1 on \Vil
c)I}'s Creek at da\-break the ne
t morning. 
but for this was renlO'"ed from the command of the I III' turned their positiOIi awl attlicked tl]('ir rear, 
clcpnrtment on 
1 .\pril. On the saIUe ùay C'npt. I while (Íen, Franz ::-;igd. at the head of :mother col- 
Lyon "as onlere<l to IUustl'r into the service the I umn. a:-:sailed their right fi:mk, Sig('l. aftN' dri,-ing 
fonr regiments. con:-:titllt ing :\lissouri'
 quota, which \ back the enemy, wa
 aefelited through mi
taking 
the gO\ernor had refused to furni:-h, "ïthuut re- one of theirregimenb for Iowa truops, Lyon, per- 



LYOX 


LYTTLETO
 


69 


eeiying- new troop:, coming to the support of P
if'e. filling various diplomatie al'l'ointnwnts wa:-; RI'it- 
hrOlwht ull hi:-; men to tlw f!'Ont for a final l'tIort. i
h mini
ter to the United ::\tates from Decemher, 
II i:-; ì
or
C' wn:-; kilIed, and Ill' was woundt:'ll in the 11-\,,1'), till F'l'lIl'lIHl"\', 11-\(i,;, when he returned on Ul'- 
heatl /till I leg", but, IIIounting- Itnot}H'r hOl'
(', Ill' couut of illll'airea health, lie was uppoint(>d :1111- 
dashell to t hl
 front to ralIy hi
 wa wring line, and ba
sadol' to Turlü'y in Augu....t of that} par. allli 
was 
hot through the hreast, )[aj, Samud D, fl'olll 1
(j7 until XOYember, 1";";7, 'HlS alllbas
ador 
Sturg-i
. who" as left in comnulIlll.after continuing to FraneI', I Ie became a melllber of the pri,"y 
the battle tlll'l'e hour
, ordered a retl'eat. uf the council in 11')(j3, was g
Yen the dpg-ree of D. (', L, 
ì.OOO Xational troops 1.al ì were killC'll. wounded. or bv O
ford in the same Year, 1Il I
H1 was ma(h' a 
taken pri
onors, whilC' of the ('on f"dC'rat C's. who werc YÌ:-<count, and in IHH7 "a
 a(lnmcC'd to ßn earldom, 
10.000 strong, l.
::O were killed or woundl'fl. The fAT LE, Wi Ilium II aill('
, 
oldier, h, in ('incin- 
Xntional fot'l.os fell ha('k on Springfield in good nati. Uhio, 2 Xo\".. 1
:.?lj; killed in the battle of 
o n1<' r. allli retreatC'(l T IH'nce to HoHn, "hile (Jen, ( 'h ickanulIIg:t. 211 Sl'l't., 1 H(j:t II i:-; gn'll t -graw 1- 
i\[cl'ulloeh, tIll' Confl'<lerate commander. rl'fused to father, \nlIialll. fought in the old .French war. untl 
pur:-<lle, IJ\'t)Tl'
 movement, though re
ulting- ill his grandfather. of 
defeat. hmt"enabl('(l the lTnion men in :\Ii

ouri to the :-<ame llIunC'. was 
organize a gon>rnment awl /UTa) the power of the an early pioneC'r in 
3tatl' on till' Kational side, (Ten, Lyon belilleathed Ohio, and aclÏ\"e in 
::;:;0,000. con..;tituting nearly hi::,; entire prol'crty, to honler warfare, II i:-; 
thc government, to aill in the pl'e
C'n'ation of the father, Hobert T, 
lTnion, ..A 
C'ril's of artide
, writtl'n "Idle he wa
 Lytle. was a mcm- 
on <luty in Kansas in a(hocac," of the elel'tion of hèr of eongre

 in 
.\.hralulm LinC'oln, and printe
l in à local l}(,W
- U:tJ:3-',j, and SllJ'\"l'Y- 
paper, were collec.ted into It "olume with It ml'moir, or (If public lalHis 
uHI puhli
hl'd llJull'r the title of .. TIll' La..;t Puliti- in Ohio in 1
:J,j-'R 
cal Writings of UI'n, Xathaniel Lyon" (Xl'W York, William lIaine
 was 
1
(j
), See also a memoir hy Dr, .\shhel \\TOOÙ_ g-raduated at Cin- 
ward (Hal"tfol'll. 1
1i2); ,James Pl'ckham's" Lifl' of cÏnnati colleg-e.stud- 
Lyon" (
ew York,1
ljli); It I. lIol('ombe's "_\c- ied lIm, awl beg-an 
count of the Battle of \Vil
()n 's l're('k"; and pra('tiel', Lut at the 
.. The Fig-ht fOl' )[i:-<
oul"i:' by Thomas L, Snead heginning of the 
(XI'W YOl'k, 18
G),' )Il'\.ican war Yol- 
LnÞ
. HÏ('hal'd. poet. lin'd in the 17th cen- unÌl'cred. awl wa:-; 
tury, HC' t'nterpli thl' ministn", ('ame to thi
 cotln- cllO
en captain of a 
tr
 'from EnglalHl C'al'ly in lifc., awl in 1(j.U-'. "a...; coml'an
 in the 2d Ohio rl'g-iment, lie sl'rwd 
prinlte tutor to a youllg English stwlellt in C'am- through the war. resumed praetÍcl' lit its clm,e, '\a
 
hrillge. :\Ia,.;s, He IÏ\'ed in the family of Pre:-<ident electl'd to the Ohio legislature. awl in 11-'". was 
IIl'IlI'Y Dun4er, alHl with him wao; appointed to re- the un:-<ul'(,l's
ful clln<liùatc of the Dl'moeratic pm'ty 
\'i:-<e John Eliot's" Bav Psalms," In the rO\ i:-<ion. fur lieutenant-
owrnor, Soon aft el"ward he he- 
many hymu:-; taken fròm other parts of the Bible CRme major-general of Ohio militia. and at the 
::rrl' inserted under the name of "
piritnal Songs hl'ginning of till' eiYÏl "ar he "as eOllllllissioued 
of t lIP 01<1 and X ew Testallwnt " (:?Uth e<l.. I.:.?:!), ('olonel of t he 10th Ohio regiment. ,\ hil'h he lpd in 
LH)
S. .\lh('..t Uronn. chemist. b, in WaÍ- West Yirginia in 1t'(j1. 
\t ('ltmifex Fl'rry, 10 
mea. lIa"aiian i::,;land
, 1 .\pril. 1:-:..H, lIe wa.. :-'l'pt" 1H(j1, he commandeù a brigade atHl wa..; se- 

rlt<luated at \\-illialll
 in 181j". and at the mcclical \'er('1\' wounded, Whell he hll<l recon>l'e(l he htHl 
department of the Cnh'ersity of )lichigan three dwrge of the I3arclstown camp of in:-<truetion, and 
wars later, Hp filled the chair of chemistr\" in then of a brigade in (
en, Orm:,.lIy )1. .:\[itchell'
 
Detroit medical college from 1
G8 till HNl, ,,:hen operations along the )[emphis and Chattanooga 
he was eallpd to he consultin,g- chemi
t to the drug railroad. Ill' wa
 again "OllUded ana tal,pn prÏt;- 
hou..;l' of Parke, Da,"is awl Co, In this capacity he oner at Perl''' ille, K,.. 
 Oct.. 1
(j2, but was :-oon 
hecame weil kno\\ n throug-hout the (T nited States e\.ehangl>,l. 
ind on :!9 Xm-, promoted to llrigmlier- 
hy his frequent contributions to medical and phar- general of volunteers, Thereafter he 
elTeù ac- 
maceutical ;ournals on adulteration:- awl frauds tively in the west under Hosecrans till he "as 
in drug
, Besitles his editOl'ial connection with killed whilt' Jmding- a cJwrge of hi:-; ùriglllie fit the 
various mediC'llI journal
 in Detroit, he became in battle of Chickamauga, GC'n, L) tie 'HlS a poet of 
1

. editor of .. The Pharmaceutical Era." Dr, much merit. hut no l'olleetion of his 'erst's has 
Lvons is a memher of scientifiC' societies. and sC'c- appeared in hook-form, His best-known poem is 
rètarv of the Detroit acadcm,' of medicinc, In .1l1- that "rittl'n in 11;"., bC'ginning 
dition to his many papers: he has published a .. I mn dying. Eg
"pt, dying: 
.. )[anual of Practical .\ssaying" (Detroit. H

(j), Ehhs the crimson life-tide fast," 
LfO:XS. .Jnnlt's Hilhnrn('. poet. h, in England; L\'TTJ,ETO
. William Hen..,. (Baron'Vest- 
d, in Haverford, Pa" 2 .Jan" lR(jR, Ill' entered the cote), gO\"ernor of South Carolina, h, in England 
ministry of the Church of England, and in 1RU about 1.20; d, 14 :-;ert.. l
O
, Ill' was a younger 
came to this country, awl was rector (If St, )[arv's ,.;on of Sir Thomas Lvttleton, hlirt, In 1'1;);) he 
c'hurch. Burling-ton: X, J, In 1
-Hi he removed' to \, as appointed .l!overnoi' of South Cnrolinn, and held 
Phihulelrhia, ,,'hen' he taught, and later he became the po
t till 1.1;0, when he was transfC'rretl to J
- 
principal of a clas
ical school in Haverford. near maica, He was British llIini
ter to Portugal m 

hnt cit\", remaining there until hi:-; death, He 1.GG, On 31 July, l'ì.G. he was raised to the Iri
h 
publi
he(l .. ('hri
tian Songs, Translations, and pel'rag-e, .tS Baron "Te
tcote of Ballymore, and m 
other Poems" (PhilnùelphiH, 1
1i1), 17.!), on the death of his nephew, Thomas, the 
L fO:XS. IUdaard Bif'kf'rtoll Pf'lIlf'll. Vis- baronetnge rewrted to him, In 1.94 he wa:-; 
count, b, in Lymington, Eng-Iand. 2U April, 181ì; created a peer of Great Britain, "ith the title of 
d, in LOIHlon,;) Dee" 1887, He was the only son of Lorù Lvttleton, Baron of Franklev, which had 
the first Lord Lyon::". and succeedptl to the' harony been bestowed already on his broth
r, Sir George, 
in 1838, He was educated at Uxford, and after I the poet. but had expired with hi:-< nephew, 


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1\lABERY 


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l 


)1.\ UERY. Char](ls FrNl('rie. ehemist, h, in' )leA noo. William Hibbs, jurist, b, near 

()rth Gorham, .Me" 1a ,Tan.. It\.')O, He was grad.u- Knoxville, Tenn.. 4 April, 1820, He was gmdu- 
ated. at the Lawrence seientific sf'hool of Harvard fiÌí'd at ERst Tennessee unin>r
ity, Kno'Cvillf', in 
in IHiG, and receivell his doctorate in conr
c in IH-!.'j, and. in 11;4.;-"G s\t in the leg.islatm'í', After 
lRHl. )[l';\Ilwhile he held thí' plaee of assistant in ser\'ing- in the :\Jexican \\ar in lR4i he was ad- 
chemistry from H:ìi.') until1RR3. \\hen he WIIS caUed mitted to the har, and was attorney-general of 
to the chair of ehemistry in the Case school of I Knoxville judicial d.istrif't in 1831-'(;0, Ill' re- 
applied st.ience in Clen'laml. Hf' hac;; pllhlished moved to neorgia in 1
1i
, serwll as a captain in 
in the "
\merican Chemi('al Journal" numerous I the Confellerate arm
", anll in 18il hecame judge 
l':tpers ,giving the rl'sults of original researclws, of the 20th jurlieial ,listrict of the state, III' has 
with Charles [J, Jackson, Henry B. Hill, Hadwl Jluhlished various adllresses, am], with Prof, II, C'. 
Llo
'Il, atHl other
, in the laboratory at Cambridge, \Vhite," Elf'nwntary Geo]og'y of Tennessee,"-Ili
 
,After he I'emoved to {,len'land he he('ame asso- wift'. Jlarf Faith FloJd, b, in Tennl's"pe, 
 
ept" 
ciatell in the repent developllwnt of the electl"Ìc 11S:J2, is n g-rlmddallghter of nen, ,John Floyd, who 
prodlletion of aluminium, having heen engaged in ('omnumded again
t the C'rpek lnd.ians in 1
13-'14, 
tlw enrly experimental work antI in the pprform- I She was Nlrly left an orphan, and married Han- 
ance of otht'l' chemical inwc;;tigatiuns for the com- : do]ph )[f'DouuM, of Gporg-ia, who dipll in IH:)-t, an,l 
pany ('untl'ulling the pllÌl'nt..;, In this connection in l
,;R she maniell :\[r, :\[e.\doo, She has hel'n 11 
he ha,.; inn'nted a IWW metlroll for the prt'paration I frí'quf'nt contributor to ppriolli('als, hoth in prose 
of anhydmus aluminium ('hloride, Prof, )[ubery aIlll in \Cr,.;l', and has ruhli
hed .. The X ereid:' II 
is a member of the .\nll'rican aeadl'mv of arts am] romanc(', anll ., 
\ntethusia:' 
sciencps and of the German chí'mi('al society, and ]lc t,FEE, Uoh<>rt UI'('('ldul'idg'<>. lawYí'r, 11, in 
was elí'cted secrí'tary of the ehemieal section of I :\["l'cer county, K
-.. in Fehl'llar
', 1 ,
4; d, there, 
tlw Ault'l'Ì('an as!-:ociation for the adnmct'ment of 1 12 :\Jareh,lRl!), His an('e
tors ll'ft Sinking Cret'k, 
science in tHI'i, but ,li.l not :<,'['\"e, Bot('tourt co" Ya., 1 June, 1 ;,;t HllIl seU]l',1 in 
JL\ IH. r. C;aln'h'l HOlllwt tI(., FJ"f'n('h author, Kentucky, where the
' were <'onspicuous in the In- 
h, ill tin'noble, 1-t :\Ial'ch, I,OB; d, iu Paris, :!:
 tlian warfare of the timc, Rohert was edu('atell at 
.April. I,S.). III.' was e,lu('uÌl'(l in th(' ,Tesuit collpge various s('hools ana at Trausylvania sl'minary, 
at lJyons, antI Jived chiefly in rt'tirt'ment, devot- !-:tudil'a law, and began praeti
e in )[ercer county, 
ing himself to liternture, Ill' puhlislll'd numl'rous I He \HIS one of the fir
t Kentuf'kians to join the 
work" on histOl'Y and IR\'
'" and 

 Ohsp
n
tiOl}s i'l
r I n011:h\\ cstl'l'll urmy at thp .opl'uing of the wn
' of 
Ie gou \'ernenlt'ut et II's lms des Etats-l ms d .\IllL'- INl
, and beelmll' slIcel'ssJ\'l'ly sprg-pant, en:<lgn, 
rique:' embod
 ing hi
 \'iews on the prepal'lltion of mill 211 lil'utenant, He was quartermaster in ('01. 
the constitution, hy rCf}uí'
t. of cong'l'ess (1i84), 1:i('ha]"(l:\1. Johnson's regiment "I!I'n it rcliewd 
This work contains many sentiment:,; ßtherse to I ['
ort \YaYIw from a threatellL'd Indian attaek, [n 
cÌ\'illiherty am] religious toleration, 181:3 he ltecame eaptain in this l'í'giment, mlll was 
)1.\('.\1>>.\]1, Johu LOIIClullJl. Seottish engineer, al'ti\'ely í'mp]oyp!1 on the frontier, .\t the clO
l' of 
h, in .\yr, Scotland, 21 
ept., Ij:)fi: d, in 3ft)fTat, the Will' he retirt'd to his farm in )[ereer county, 
Dum friesshire, 2ü X 0\',. l
afi, On the dt':tth of his awl in 1
1!) \\ a
 cleded to the ]egisll1ture, From 
father he was sent to his uncle, \\ïlliam :\Iaeadam, 1 H
20 till 1
:!-t lit' was lieutenant-gnwrnor of Ken- 
who had settled as a merchant in 
ew York city, tucky, He prcsidpd owr the f;t'nate during the hit- 
Thc nephew \\as placeù in a counting-house, be- tel' and e'\.citing ('on test knO\\n as the new allli old 
caIlle a succt's
ful ml'r('hant, alltI. e
pollsing the court controwrsy, \\ hieh \ irtually inyoh eel the 
roynl cause in 1 ii,'j, was agent for the :-:all' of prize
 1]1U'stion of the repudiation of a deht of doubtful 
at tlH' pOJ't of Sew York. In l'ìt33 he \\as eom- legality by diP state, and whil'h was 'lccÏde.l by the 
}lelled to return to Scotland., and purcha"ed an maintenance of fill it,.; ohlig
ltions, though thl'y had 
e
tate in Ayrshire, Ill' began in 1
1O to e'\.peri- I heen ohtained by fraud, Ill' declined an l'le"tion 
ment on the construction of roa
ls, and, in 
pite of to congress in 1S2!1, and :-:en-ed IIgain in the legis- 
grl'at oppo
ition, succeeded in carrying into effect lature in 18:n-'2, :\h', :\lc.Afee WI1
 a member of 
the s\'stem that is known bv his name, Thi
 sn;- the Baltimorp "om"ention of H.::J
 \\ hi('h nominated 
tem 'depends on :\11', :\lacådanÙ; disco\-f'ry tliat nl'n, Jnckson for pl't'sidí'nt, From 1
:la tilll
a, he 
small angular fragments of 
tone will ('oalt'
ce or I I"l',.;ided at Bogota, Columbia, a..; U, ð, chargé d'af- 
hind into a compaet mass under pr('ssUJ'L', and hi..; I fairt's, In 1841 he again sel'H'd in the statl' senate, 
principle that tht' etfieiency of a road is in propor- and in 184,) he 1"(.tired from puulil' life, Ill' was It 
tion to the thoroughness \\ith which water is eX- member of the Royal antiquarian so('iet
. of Den- 
cludt'd from the soil on whieh it n'sts, )11', :\Jac- mark, and an honol'llrv nwmb('J' of thf' K"ntllck\" 
udam 
a\'e his serdccs and advice without chargl' historieal so('iet\', lie wrote II .. IIi:<torv of the 
on all' occa:-:ion
, and declined many offers of re- \Yar of 1812" (Lexington, 1>416), nnd WIlS' the au- 
mUlwratÌ\'e ot1i.ces abrmu1. In 18
;) he was voted I thoI' of It prÏ\ate journal l'untaining much infor- 
.tfi,OOO by parlianwnt to\\ard rf'paying the expen:<ei' mation relatin' to the earl
' history of Kentucky, 
that he had incurrerl in introducing- his system, JL-\f'.-\lJ.:STER. ('Iwrl<>s. merehant, b, in 
and he declined tll(' honor of knighthooll, whieh Campbelltown, .\rgyleshirl\ Scotland, ;) April, 
was sub:-:equently bestO\H.d on his son Jame,.;, :\[I', l l'(i,;; d, near Phillllieiphia, Pa" 29 
\ug" l1'i3:.?, 
)[acad.lIIn married :\[argarí't 
icoll, of Islip, L,l., Hl' came to this country in 1'j
(i, was natumlized 
durilw his :-:tav in 
ew York, nnù after heI death I as an .\meriean citizen,l1ml st'ttled in Phil:-tdel- 
in 1

; took for his second wiff' Charlotte, 
h;t('J' 1 phia, From 178(i till I
O-t he ('ommmHleà \'í'ssels. 
of Bishop de Lanc'ey, He puhlisherl .. Practical g"l'nerally acting a
 superellrgo, and f;non became 
ESSlty on the Scientific Hepair awl Presel"\'ation of I an own "I' of the :-:hips in which he sailel!, Unp of 
Public Roalls" (London, It\W): .. l{"marks on the I the
t', the .. (ì('orge Barclay:' he nu\'igated \\ ith 
Pre
ent State of f{oadmaking" (1
:.?1I); ana"Ub- grmt su('cess again,.;t the pil'lltes, At the begin- 
seryations on Hoad.s " (1
:.?:!), I Hing of the H)th century he huilt a 
hip called the 



l\[c
\LESTER 


l\lcALPI
E 


71 


"Fnnnv." whi('h WRS the fastt'st sailing merC'hant- studipd law at Albanv law-school. wlwre he re- 
man or" lwr time. Recomplishing hC'r first voyngt' ('pin-(I his dpgrpe in 1
(i4, In 11'\ì:1 hI:' wns super- 
from Philwlelphin to the Isle of \Yight in SC'\"PI)- intl\wh'nt of public sehools in )Iilwuukee, \Vis,. 
teen days. thC' most rupirl pllssng'e thpn on record, and in 1Rì
 ht' hC'efilnc regC'nt of normal schools in 
In Lonilon hl' was C'ngHgC'rl to make a VOYHg't' in \\ïseonsin, holding- these officps until 18:;:t lie 
thb ship to Batavia, In 1804 hC' rplinquished his WliS then appointe(l first superintendent of I,uhlic 
SC'l\-\'OVIl,rps and dt'\ otcd himself to nwr('antilc schools in PhillHlelphia. whieh post he now (1Rt47) 
pursuIts ill Philaddphin. huihling IlIlmy finp ws, holds. In 181",) he was electerl II. nl('JIlher of the 
sels, which saill'd to London, Amstprdnm. (,hina, hoard of truste"s of the Lni\-ersitv of Pennsylvania. 
al1l1 the F.ast 1l1llies, In 1R2,) he retirC'(l with a and in 18
fi H. member of the .\m'C'rieun phiÏosophi- 
eompC'tency, and, hecoming' president of the lnsur- cal so('iC'ty, III' mh"oeates C'dneational rC'Íol'ms. 
nnee company of Philadelphia. rp(ll'l'me(l its for- l'spp('inlly thl' kiwlergartC'n amI the intrmluetion 
tuncs, and serwcl effi('ientlv until his dC'ath, 11(' of ilHlnstrial or mllllllul training mto H\C' public 
was also n dir{'dor of the B
lIIk of Xorth Anwriea, sehook He has pnblishl'd C'duc'ntiona] anclliÌl'l"Iuv 
)[1', )IHca]C'ster was an ardl'nt Prpsln'tC'rian, a addrC'sses. rC'ports. and .. )Innual of Prinwrv hi- 
founder of thC' )lllrinC'r's chureh. treaslÌrer of the strnction" (PhilllllC']phill. 11"
4): .. )Ianull] o'f In- 
)[I1l'ine Bih]e socil'ty of Phi]lldcl phia, Hnd vic{'- struetion in r nitI'd StMps II istol'\' awl l'i \"11 Gov- 
presirll'nt of St, AwlrC'w's so('id
', - IIis son, prnment" (1

7): and" ('ata]oguè of PC'dflgogical 
('hal'lt.!'.. mt'rdmnt, h, in Philmh']phin, Pa" 17 Lihrary. \\ ith Hihliog-mphiea] Xotps" (1
87), 
Feh., 17!1H: cl, thprt'. B Dec.. 1trj:
, was edueated at JI('.\LI,ISTEU. lUatth('ll Hnll. jurist, h, in 
the Gniwrsitvof Pl'nns\-l\-ania, which he left in f'anlllnah.l.a.. 
fi Xov.. 1
OO: d, in :-;an Franeisco. 
181
 to (,olllniancl a conipany of forty bo
-s, who ('al.. HI Del'.. l
fi;), 
\ ftC'J' l'l'C'C'Í\ ing his C'ducat ion 
worked fill' two days to assist in making the forti- nt P1"Ínel'Ìon hpstudi{'d la\\, was n(lmittC'd to the 
fications on the wpst side of thf' 
chuv]kill. F.IIJ']V h\r ahout 11"20. and prm'tisl'd in his nath"e eity, 
in life he eng-aged in mercllntile pursuits. awl rp- In 1

7 he \\a.. appllintC'd L
, di..tJ'iet attoJ'ney. 
sith.rl in f'inf'Ínnati in 1t421-" after whieh he re- ",hieh post had bl'pn hdd hy his fathC'r under Gpn, 
turlll',l to Philadelphia. and rptÌ1wl in 1
4!1, III' \\-ashin
ton's administl'lltion, In 11":

 he was IIC- 
WIIS president of the Orthopeclic hospitnl,lIIHl of ti\"e in opposition to nu]]ifielltion. and bC'ealllca po- 
the St, ,\1\(lrew'::,; socipty, In IHì3 he ga\"e a \a]u- ]itiea] lewlpr during the di..('ussions of that period, 
ahlC' property. ('onsisting of a ]111;,.('(, huilding- \\ ith lie wa.. seYt'ra] tÌllll's ell'ete(l tll both brunches of 
C'\:Ìensi \'{' grounds, for the estahlishment of a ('11]- the legis]aturt'. in \\ hieh he ohtaine(l the establish- 
legf' in 1\[ innenpolis, \\ hich has 1I(,l'n f'a]]f'd hy t hC' ment of the eourt for the correetion of prl'ors, and 
trusteps .. 
laea]C'ster ('oIlC'ge," Ill' hils fJ"'qut'nt]y in 1t-<4!i was (kfeated 11\' a 
lIIall yotp n
 Demoel'lltic 
presi(h.d at ]t1rgp mass mcptings in Phi]a(lelphia, (,IlIHlidatl' for g-O\ {'rl1(;r of (;eorg-ia, For sewra] 
)1(' \JÆSTEH. Jlil('s ])alli..l. solilipr. L, in Xew wars he was mavllr of Sa\-anllah, and \\II
 nOÌl'd as 
York.21 )Iarch. U
:
:l: d, in Buffa]o, X, Y.. 2:L\ pril. ;1, prote('tol' of tl;e ('o]oml people, In 11-'41' he was 
1Sfi!), Be was graduate(l at thc p, S, military aelld- a dl'lpgate to the Xationll] })l'moeratic con\'('ntion 
C'my in 1 
,)fi, nnd assignecl to the enginl'cr eorps. t hilt nominflÌpd (.en, Lewi::,; ('IISS for t]1(' presiclC'ncy, 
hC'coming 1st lieutenant, 
 Ma
-, 18m, and l'aptain. lip l'C'n}Owd to California in 11'\;j() with his fllllli]y, 
a )[arch, 18fi:3, Ill' served in thp construction nwl C'nt('rl'rl upon the pructice of law in 
an Franl'i:-e o , 
repllir of fortifications on the .\tIantic ('I)fiSt from and in 1
;j,j was appointpd the first L S. eireuit 
F]orida to 
ew York, superintl'wling t he (lefence
 judw' of Californill. l'C'lHlcring- I'min('nt s('rvieC' by 
of t]1P Xarrows in 1
,jU-'ül allli Fort :\Iifflin, Pa" his wi::,;e de('i
ions upon lan(l-titles. whieh wpre then 
in 11"fil. During the ciyi] war hC' WIIS l'ngllg-ed in in Hw utmost confusion, lip wa::,; also \\ ell known 
constructing the dC'Íenr'es in ". ashington, and also for his energetie actilln in sUl'prC'
sing the yigihml'l' 
serwd as chief engineer of the 3d corps in thp committee by an appea] to the naya] authority, 
Army of the Potomac till October. 1
fi
, heing in Judge :\Ie AllistC'r resigned his üffi('e in l
fi2. 0\\ ing 
all the importlll1t batt]l's of that army, fllHl win- to impairC'd llpa]th, In 18GO Columbia gaw him 
ning th... bre\ ets of major and ]ieuÌl'nant-colonel. the dpg'rpe of LL, J), Hl' was tht' author of It" .Eu- 
From October. 18fi2. till Apri], 18fj3, he serwd as logy on Prpsident Jaekson" and also of a yo]ume 
('hief engineer of the Department of the Ohio, for- of iega] opinions, which wa!' publishe(l by his son, 
tifit',l Cincinnati and its vicinity. and constructed -His son, .Tllliall, soldier, b, in XC'\\' York citv. 28 
hridge-trains for the western arÌnies. During the Oct.. 1S
:3: d, on Governor's island. X, y,. 3 jan" 

ipge of-Vickshurg he was detached unclpr the 01'- 1SR7, was graduated at the C", S, military ac'ademv 
del's of Gen. Grant. and :subsC'quently hl'came a:,;- in 1H4ì. assiglwd to the 2d artillerv. fin,i scn-ed iÌl 
sistant professor of engineering at \\Y pst Point, On the war with :\rC'xipo in 1H4 ;-'8, . He was tran
- 
I,) Ju]y, 1
li4, he was appointed chief enginef'r of fprrC'd to the ordnance corps on 1:3 April. 184t4. and 
the military division of west :\[ississippi. anù en- was at various arst'na]s till thC' civil war. during 
g-agC'd in the reduction of the Confederatl'defpncl's whieh he was chid of ordnance of the Department 
in )[obi]e hay and in the Mobile campaign. receiv- of the Pacific, He rf'f'eived all the brevets up to 
in,!{ the brevets of co]one],2:3 April. 18tH. for his colonel at the close of the war, and in 18fjfj beeame 
services as chief engineer of the military division major and a memher of the board to detprllline the 
of wpst 'Mississippi. and especially as supervising armaml'nt of the Pacific coast fortifications, He 
engineer of the siege of Forts Gaines and "!\Iorgan, was macle lieutenant-colonel on 23 .Julle, 11'\ì4. and 
and hrigadier-geneml. !) A pl'il. 1
(j,j, for sen ices at in 18
(j was tl'llnsfe1'l'pd to the command of the 
the siege of 310bilt', He was then eng-aged in con- X ew York arsenal on Governor's island, where he 
structing defences at )Iohile and Xew Urleans. also 8erve(1 as president of the board for tl'
ting 
and in the improvements of the )[ississippi rÌ\-er, rifled cannon,-)Iatthpw Ha]l's grandson, W nrd. 
He WIIS commissione(l major of the engineer corps jurist. b, in Xewp"rt, J{, 1., 
7 Ju]y, 1
.j,j, wns"C'du- 
on 7 ::\Iarch, 1
ü7. and appointc.a pngineer of the cated at Princeton and graduated at Han-ard law- 
8th light-house clistrict, 
2 )[ay, 18lij, schoo] in 1
t{O, lIe WllS assistant di:-trid attorney 
l\[a('AI,ISTER. .Tam('s. e(]ucator. b, in G]as- for California in 11'\

-"), resigned, amI then heellmè 
go\\'. S('ot]and. :W April. 11'-40, 
\.fter studying at judge of tht' l', S, court for the tf'rritory of A]aska, 
Glasgow unh"ersity, he came to this country and )I('ALPI
E. Willi
uu Jani... civil engÏ1wer, b, 
entered Brown, but was not graduated, He then I in Xew York city ill UH2, lIe received his edul'a- 



tion in his natin' city, and. in 1
'2j' became R civil university at 'Ya
hing'ton, Jud
e MacArthur has 
engineer, engaging (:hiefly on the con-:trllction of publisheti four yolunlPs of reports containing the 
canals and other hydraulic works, Suhsequentlv more important deei,.;ions of his court (\Vashington, 
liP was engineer of the ('ast{'l'n division of the Erie It)7,; et ,'wlj,), H11l1 is the author of "Edueation in 
canal enlar
eJIlent until June. It)-!(i, when he he- its Ht'lation to :\lanual lmlustn'" (Xew York. 11'84), 
came ('hief en
ineer of the con
truction of the Ilrv Ill' has now (It;
H) nearl
" really for publication a 
IIO('k of the r', ð, navy-yard in Brooklnl, He w:-is \\'OI'k {'Illled the" Riogmphy of the Englbh Lan- 
elected state engilweÌ' of Xew York Ín It\:);!. and guage:' He has for numy Yl'ars delivered leeturl's 
in l
.)-1-'G was state raill'Ouù commis
ioner, Later on hb:torical and literary suhjeet,.; which \\ ill prob- 
he was for t\\O years aeting president and l'n
Ú- ahl
' be gathered into a volume 
oon, 
neeI' of the Erie railroad, after which he was chief \IucA UT H l' U. t'hurl('s J.afup.t Íl', journal- 
en.!!inl'er of rWlIls in the west, The original water- i4. b, in Clarl'mont. X, H.. j ,Tan.. 1
;!4, Ill' was 
wOI'ks in 
\lhanv, X, Y.. allli in Chica
o. Ill.. Wert' educated in Watertown. K, Y.. learnet1 there the 
de:-;i
neù and c:onsÌl'uctell undcr his'supenbion, printer's trnde. hl'callll' l'llitor and proprietor of the 
amI he was assoeiatefl in the buihling of other "l'artha
iniH.n," printed in Cartha
e. 
, y,. and 
similar works, In It\70, at the refluest of thc Aus- was afterward a I"('porter for the nctroit "Fre{' 
trian g-oyernment. he presented plans for the im- Press," Ahout IH-l;! he remm"'ed to 1\1 il waukl'e, and 
prowÌílent of the cataracts of the Danuhl'rÌ\er, heeallll' the first editor of tllC ., Sl'ntirwl." In 
Since that time hi,,; nlh ice has })I'l'n larg-el
 soug-ht t84fi-'j' he was ('it\' editor of the Xl'W York" Sun," 
on important f'ngincering projed
 throughout thl' He next joined J()lm :\1. FrallC'is in thl' purchao;;e 
enitl'd ðtatl'g, lle hus published yaluahle r('ports of the Troy" Budget:' for \\ hich he \\l'ote lpttl'rs 
awl \\as pre
ident of the .American soeiety of civil from Europe in 1
;;t. mlll from the f:outhl'rn statf'
 
enginpl'l'S in IH(iH-'!), in 18,)(j, that attmC'ted mudl attention, Tn I:O::ï!J 
lUc,\

\ LIJ y, ))
H id Hicf'. ell'rgyman. Ù, in hl' estahlished the Troy "Duilv Arl'lUl:' \\ hieh hc 
Gran"er county, Tenn., 1 j Feh.. UHO, lle was solll in till' spring of iSlil in' orùl'r to go to the 
e,luC'lrted by pi'intte teachl'rs, allli at the flg-l' of war, in \\ hich he s('rved fir:-;t as }jeutl'lHmt and 
nÏIll'teen entered t hl' eon ferenl'l' of the :\Iethodist quartermastl'r of thc 2(' X ew York vol untel'rs, and 
Episcopal church at Alling-lIon, Ya.. as an itinerant aftcl"\\al'll as captain and fls
istant qnartermastl'r in 
prl'aC'her, Ill' travcllell for twelve years in the tlH' reg-ular army, In thl' autumn of tH(jl hI' estab- 
cirl'uits aIlll distrif.ts of \ïrginia, Xorth Carolina, Ili,.;he,l the Troy" Kewf::' one of the earliest Sun- 
flwl Tc'nnessl'e, wa:-; for three years the l'llitor of a day nl'\\sl'apl'l"s excl'pt those puhlì:-.hed in Xew 
sl'l'ular papcr in Xorth Carolina, HllIl in ISla be- York eity, In l
fifi he sold tIll''' Xe\\s."Iul\ ing he- 
eume lll'l'sident of flIP East Tenne..;:-;ee female in,..ti- ('orne one of the editor's and propriptors of tht' Troy 
tutf'. Knox\ ille, Ill' cOllllllcted this sdwol for .. Daily \nlÍg-." and in ,1\Iarch, I
(j!l, he r('\"'i\"'ed. ao;; 
eig-ht real's. 11 u1'Ï ng- four of whieh he l'dited a re- a Sllnda
 newspapl'l", the Troy" Xortlwrn Bmlgt't:' 
lig-ious journal. In H
'Jl he hecame ('ditor of thl For SIJlHl' Yl'ars prior to 1H
li Ill' was the proprietor 
"('hristian .Ad\oeatp" in St. Loui,.;, 1\10., IIml su- of the Troy" Daily Telegram," InI

l-'
 he \\a
 
perintcntlent of the :\lethOlli:-;t hook ('(lI1('l'rn there, a 1IIl'lllhl'r of till' XI'\\ York statl' senate, 
Besides 
ermnn
 and athlre"'
l's, he ha... lJuhlished lU(',\UTHl"U, ))uu('nll. soldier. h, in Dutchess 
traets on educational and eontro\"'el'sial 
Uhjl'Ct,.;, county. X, Y.. 14 ,JuuP. 177;!; d, ueur ChillÍ<'othe, 
alii 1 was lou
 IIssociatl'd with Horace .Mann in Ohio, 

 
\pril, IH:3!1, IIis family r{'moYl'd to the 
e{forts to im proYe the ('omlllOu-schooI sy:<1l'm, I h \\ estern fl'ontier of Pennsylvanin \\ hen he was 
is also the authol" of .. Life of :\Iurtha LUUl'ens eight 
l'ars old, 
Hamsa
"" (S1. IJouis. H
,;
); ., Life and Tillle
 of allli at the age of 
He\', William Patton " (l
,)(j): ., Life and TiuIPS of eightel'u Jwvolun- 
Itl'v, 1>r, 
amuel Patton" (tH,;7): "IJife and La- teen'll in (;en, Jo- 
bors of Bi,.;llOp :\Ianine" (lH7H); anù .. History of siah I larmal"s ex- 

Iet hodism in :\Iissouri ., (l
"'H), I'edition :I
uin:-;t 
Jla('.\RTHl'I{. Arthur, juri8t, ù. in Wasg-ow, the 1\liami In- 
Scotlaud, 2fi ,Ian" I
t.;, 111' ('amp to thi:-: eoulltry dillns, Ill' pnrti- 
when a child with his parPllts. ,.;peut a year in \\" e
- cipated m; a nln- 
lman univer,.;it\.CoJln"studied lawinXe\\ York, g-I'rol'seoutinthe 
ali,l \\as admitt
'd to till' bar in 1t:;.H, Ill' Le
an wnrfare with the 
prad il'e in 
pringfield, :\lass., and in 1
-l:3 wus 'ap- Inùians of Ken- 
}loiutl'd public mhniuistrator for the couuty of tuchY fl1ll1 Ohio 
Hampden, awl jUllg-e-:uhocate for the western di- until nen, .\ntho- 
visiou of tIll' militia, In 1::;-l!J he rcmO\"'etl to l\1il- nv \\'uvne's Yic- 
waukel', \Vis.. and in IH,;l was elected eit r attorm'\ t(;r\' on:r tlwm in 
of that city. in \\ hieh o1Iice he ser\'t'li one'term, [il 17Ù-t, 
onn after- 
1 H.):) he ,\-as eleded licutenant-gon.rnor of the \\ aI'll he 
l'ttl{'d 
state mIll served a part of his time us gOH'I"nOr as a 8un"'eyor nt'ur 
Iluring a vaeaul'Y that was crl'atetI by thl' resig-ua- ('hillicot}ll', Hnt! 
t ion of Go\"'. Barstow, In 1
,ì7 hl' WIIS l'leded acquired lurge 
ju,lg-c of tIll' 2tI jutlieial circ'uit. and Ill' \\IIS 1'1'- \walth in laml. Ill' was a ml'mLer of the Ohio 
e1eded in IHli;}. II I' \\:\:- appoint I'd a t;, S. com- 1l'U'islaturl' in t t;O,;.and in I
O::; became major-gen- 
mis:,;ioner to the Paris pxpo:-;itiou of I
(iì, In t
7(1 eral of the territorial militia, In the beginning of 
he \\as appoillted IIssociatc justice of the supreme the war with Great Britain he was cOll1mi:-;sionl'd 
court of the I>istriet of ('olumhia. \\ hil'h plllce colonel of the 15t Ohio nil un Ìl'ers, 'j :\Iay, IHl
, 
he resi"ned on 1 April. 1
H7, ullIlf'r the act of awl was ,.;ecolld in commantI at Detroit wlwn (;en, 
cong-rl's
 permitting- Fl'lll'ral j\lflges to ret ire on \\
ilIiam II nIl :-;UlTendl'n'll. . \ftN' the Anwricans 
full pay aftl'r rea('hing- tlH' ag-e of sl'H'nty, Ill' has I h:Hl 1',4abli:-;lll'd tllPm
elH's on tIll' Canadian side 
bel'n fl;r mauy nar:-; presÍlh'nt of the \rushing-ton of Detroit rÍ\"'pr he led a foraging--party that C'up- 
humane socÏeh:, antI occupies a similar po:-:t in the turpd prm"'isions from the settlements on the 
as:-;ociatl'(l ch;irit iI's for the di...trÏet. II I' is also I Tlwml's. allli in a reconnois:-;''111Ce towal'll Fort :\[111- 
l're:-;illent of the board of regents of the Xational I den Harrowly e:-;l'lIped being cut off by Tecum
dÙ; 


72 



IcJ,SALLï 


:UcARTlleR 


'1jj
 , 


'
 
" 




:\,'
 \. 
II 


 
GJJ,vÚp
 



:\1-\('.\ HT II rI
 


1\lcH
LEY 


73 


Indians, "-ht:>n Hull was tt'mporarily aùspnt from I Sell'ct plans for the npw court-house, Among- tll(' 
t}}(' armv for It time 
I('. \ rt hur determined to at- huildings dt'si
lJ('d and lmilt h\" him arl' the IHn al 
taek th
' fort at .\mhl'r
tburg, \\hieh would lun'e hospitals at Philadelphia, Pa" Ånnapolis. :\ld" and 
fallen without a ùlo\\ a fe\\ da\'::; earlil'r. but wa
 :\Iarl' island, CaI.; t he state ho:-:pitals for HIP in- 
now prote<'ted by a gun-boat antI a :-:trong- battery" sane at Dam ille and \Varren, Pa,; Lafayette ('(,1- 
{'ol. :\[c.\rthur and Col. Lewis ('a,..:-: werl' ahSPllt at leg-e, Easton. Pa,: the Continental. GÜ:anl. mal 
the time of the eapitulation, having- hl'l'n Sl'nt to LafaYl'tte hotels, Phi/a,Il'lphia; HlIII the" Puhlic 
the rin'r Haisin to eseort ('apt, Bru..h and his re- Leugl'l'" huilding-, Philadelphia, and the town am} 
lieving for('e to Detroit, They were ineluded in country rp
idelll"eS of nporge \V, Childs, 
the sHl"I"l'nder, allll when a British ot1icer canl!:' from )( r.\ nT H ('Il. .J oil II. soldipr, L, in Erskine, 
the fort with the artieles of eapitulation :\[('.\rthur Seotland, 1, XO\',. 1t-1:,?fj, lIt. is the :-:on of a blael- 
tOl'l' off hi.. epaulettl's and broke his sword in an smith, and \\orkell at tlmt trade till he \HIS h\('nty- 
outburst of indignation, Ill' \\ as eommissionet! as three vears of a!!e, whpn he eame to the r nitl
d 
hrio"adier-O'eneral on 1:! 
Ial'C'h. 1
la, and when :-;tates' allli settl
d in ('hi('a
o, Ill.. "herl' hI' \\as 
(
e
, lIarrison resignf'd. :H :\Iay. 1
1..t succepded emplo
l'd as foreman of hoÙt'r-mahing- in a foun- 
to tllP chief commnml of the westel'n arm\, lie Ilry, alllI wa" suhsl'ljupntly at tli(' he
1(1 of an es- 
projl'cted a plan for the conf/ul'st of C'anatia, amI tablishment of his 0\\ n, \\"hen tIll' civil war h('gan 
on :!ü Oet.. ISt-!, cl"Ossel1 St. ('laÍl' river with ,;,0 }l(' jnilll'd the 12th lllinois yolunteers, \\ith 
I com- 
men awl fl\{, field-pieces, pa:-òsed through the pan
 of \\ hich he \\a:-: C'è1ptain. and \Hb ('hosl'l1 
Scot<:h anti :\lo1'èt\ ian :-I'ttlpml'nts, reè1("hl'd ()....ford lil'utl'wmt-('olonel. II.. soon aftprwanI bl'emne 
on -1 
ov.. and I1ro\-e the militia hl'fol'e hilll, until colonel of the reg-inwnt. COlIIllHlIlded It brig-ade at 
he reached Brantforll. \\ hen' he fou
Hl a lar
e fOJ"el' the as:-nult on FOI"t J)"nebon, nnd for his g-allalltrv 
of Indian
 and militia posted on the opposite hank "as promotl'd hrigwlil'r-g-eneral. 2t .:\Iat";'h, 1
G:.?, 
of (
raJl(1 ri\er. and hl'ard that the mad to Burlin
- \t Shiloh Ill' I'l'('l'i\ed a \\Oluill in the foot in the 
tOil was defended b) Briti,..h reg-ulars and eamll;n, beg-inning- of the fÌl,,..t da v's hattIe, but retuJ"]wd 
TIe accordingly turned soutll\\ard. dc,..:tro
ing- Jluh- aftt'r it \\as clre:<sed to his' hrig-ade, and "':U('eel'lkd 
lic property awl defeating- a force of militia, Un to the eommand of the 2d ui\'Ísion, \\ hl'n G('n, 
reaching Don'r he learned that Gen, ({porgl" bard "-illiam II. L, \\-aHaee wac; Ilwrtallv \\ounded, In 
had \\ ithdrawl1 his troops from Canadian soil. and the operntions ag
tinst Yick,..:hurg he commanded a 
t hat a strong- foree of reg-ular
 wa
 coming ag-ainst di\'Ísioll in (
pn, .:\k Ph('rson's corps, II p took n 
him, Turning westward, hl' ha4ened baek to Dl'- con...pieullus part in the Lattle of 
asln illl', where 
troit by \\a
 of St. Thomas, diseharging his foree at he \\a.. I1t the head of a tli\ i,..ion UllIler (;en, An- 
Sand wich on 1 ì X ov, Ill' hatl hl'l'n elf'etl'd In; t}ll' d J'PW ,J, Smit h, \\ hieh canil'tI the sn lil'nt point of 
Demoeratsa member of congress from Uhio in iR13, thf' enem
's lilli', allli for g-allantry in thi:- aetion 
but deelined to lea\"<' tll(' at'mL .\fter hf' wns mu:-- he \\as hn'H'ttpllmajor-g-ellernl. Ill' was po:<tnUls- 
tered out. 1,) June, 1
t.), he \\ns returned to the ter at Chiefi
o ill 1
î:I-''j, 
legislature, In 1H16-'1ì he sened as a cnmmis- )J..\l' \ri,\ \, :-;ir .J
IJIH'
 lllH'hantlll. C';m8(lian 
siUller to neg-oliate treaties \\ ith the [ndians, \\ hieh jurist, b, in Xingarn,:J 1)l'e.. 1 îH::: II, in Toronto. 
"ere ratified in 1
1
, awl b\' \\hich the Indians con- 2G XO\'" 1t;,)!), IIis father. Dr, .Jaml's )Iaeaulay, a 
Ye
ed to the go\"ernment their laJH},.. in Uhio, [n nati\"<' of GlasgO\\. 
eotland, eaml' with his rl'g-i- 
1S1 ì-'1n hp \HlS ag-ain a uU'mber of thl' :<tate house ment. the 
ueen's ran.!!er
. to ('an:ula in 1 î!l2. and 
of representatives. and \\as ehosen speaker, [n \\a.. IIften\ard deput
 in"'pedor-genl'rnl of ho
pi- 
1


 he was elected to congress as a Clay Demo- tals, James was educated in ('ornwall, amI after- 
erat. nnt! served from 1 Dee.. 1
:!3. till 3 .:.\Im'eh. ward entl'rell the fI
th f('giment as ensigll, In 1:0;12 
182,), [n 1
:W-'2 he was governor of Ohio, and in he joined the Glengarry fencihles a:-ò a lieutenant, 
1
32 he was again a candidate for cong-ress, hut and foug-ht at Ogllcnsburg-, ():-'\\l'g-o, Lundy's LUlU', 
lost the election by a 
ingle ballot, While gOY- nnd at the sieg-e of Fort Erie, 
\t the close of the 
ernor he suffered se\-ere phy:,;jeal injuries through \\ ar his corps Was disbanded, and after engllging 
an aceident, from whieh he newr reeo\'ered, ill the 
tud\- of law hc \\;as admitted to the bill' in 
JIacA RTH rn. .Jnhn. architect, b, in Blarle- 1S

, Ill' rosp rapidly in his profession, "as an 
noel". \\"igtonshire, :-\cotlan(l. 13 :\Iay, 1

::' He exel"utÍ\e councillor during the administration of 
came to the r nitI'd States at the a
e of tell. stud- 
ir Pcregrine )Iaitland, and in 182!) Leeume a judg-f' 
ie(l architectural drawing-, and sel'\"'
d as a foreman of the court of Queen's Lelleh, ""hell the court of 
under his unele in the 'eonstruction of the Penn- l"ommon plea
" as con..tituted in De(,l'mLer, 11-\.!!), 
syh-ania hospital. In HH
 he was appointl'd b
 he \Hl" transferred to it as ehief ju:,tiee. alld con- 
the city of Philadelphia architect and superintend- tinued on the bendl until his resignation in U
,)G, 
ent of the new house of rl'Ínge, During- the (,1\-il A short time before his death he accepted the 
war he was architect in charge of tllP hospitals and appointment of judge of the eoul't of error and np- 
other g-o\-ernment builllin,
:' in the Phil:.ulelphia peal. In 18,)!) the honor of knighthood \\as eon- 
di4rict, In 1
(j!) he \\a.s selected by competition to ferred upon him by the 
ueell, Hl' was ('hairman 
design and construet the new eity hall in Phila- of the commission that was intrusted with the 
deìphia. on whieh he is still (1 RQ ì) enga!!ed, ha \"ing consolidation of the statutes of r pper Canada, and 
gi\-en up his prh-ate busine:-s in order to dp\-ote this \\ork was eompleted in It;,')t) larg-ely by tllP aid 
his entire time to this strueture, In 18î1 he was of Sir .Tames,-Ilis brother, JOHX SI\[('OE, sel'\"'ed 
appointed by the r nited ::;tatps arehitect (,f the I us ('olune! of en
ineers, and afterward \\ as a mem- 
new post-offiee in Philadelphia, which was built ber of the Ipg-islatÍ\-e council of Cpper Canada, 
anil furni
hetl entin'ly under hi:, direction, In the JIt'A l-tEr, .J(,n'minh. missionary. b, in Ire- 
same year he was appointed superintendent of re- I land in 18
!): d, in Xew York city. 18 
ept.. 1t;ti4, 
pair,..:, hadng charge of all go\-prnment huildin!!s 
\t the age of thirteen he was sent to a married 
in Philadelphia, In 18ì-1 he was t\\ ipe ofl'ere(I the sister in X ew York city, and assbted her hu
hand 
post of sl1pen-ising arehiteet of the r, :-\, treasury, in his bu
iness, but, forming yieious as
oeiations, 
but declined, In t
î,) he was commissioned by left them soon, and lind in \Yater street, where 
the go\'ernment to examine amI report on the con- he became a thief and a prize-fi
hter, At the age 
struf'tion of the eu:-:tom-house bnililing in Chicago, I of nineteen he was arre:-òted for hig-h\\ ay l'Ohhery, 
In It;S5 he wa:; appointed by the city of Bo..ton to and, although innocent of the charge, was com"iet- 



74 


:\IACBHIDE 


ell and sentenced to fifteen years' impris(Hlment, 
When he had Leen aLout five years in pri
on he 
hecame religious, but after he was pardoned, in 
:\Iarch, 11;G4, he returned to his evil practices, 
Wh<>n l'l'duced to pon'rty, he found a friend in a 
mi

i()])arv, who ailled him to find work, and re- 
awakelH.'tl his religious convictions, 
\Jter repeated 
relap
es, he enterell the Methodist chun'h, amI in 
Uctoher, 11;,2, opened a mission called the .. Help- 
ing- Hand ., in \Vatt'r 
treet, Ill' was very SUCCeSS- 
ful in arousing- religious feelings in the (iegrade(I, 
a
sisted by his wife, )I.ARIA, who had heen his COlll- 
panion in vice, In 1882 they openeù the "l're- 
morne )Iission," and in J une, 1
S3, he hegan the 
publication of a weekly calle(I "Jerry )lcAuley's 
X ew
pa I'er," See" .T erry )I('.\ uley. his Life and 
Work," an autobiography, edited by the Rev, Hob- 
ert )1. Offord (New York, 1885); 
JI \{'llRI))E, Jam('s, botanist, h, in Williams- 
burg county, :-;, C.. in 1784; 11, in Charle4on, 
S, ('" in 1tH" Ill' wa" 
raùuate(l at Yale in l
OJ, 
and then studied medicine, :--.,ttling in Pine\-illl', 
S, C" he practised hi
 profession for many years, 
but later remo\-ed to ('harleston, where he died of 
yellow fC\-er, Dr, )Iuehride was an ardent de\'otce 
òf botany, amI contrihutl'ù papers on tll11t scienee 
to the> .. TranslCtioJls of the Linntl':ln Sodl,t\'" and 
elsewhere, Ilis name was gÍ\-cn hy ])1', ::;"teplwn 
Elliott to the )Iachrillea pulcra, u ge>nu
 found 
in St. John's, Berkele\", S, C.. of which but two 
species are known to 'e),.i
t, This sanl(' authority 
,Iedi('atC!I tlU' 
e('ond volume of his" Skl'tl'h of the 
Botany of South ('arolina and Georgia" (Charles- 
ton, ll'ì:.?-1) to VI', :\Iaehridl', 
'rd
RlnF., .fallH's II('III'Y, soldil'I', b, in Ken- 
tw'k\' ubout UHJ: d, in Pocuhonta
, Ark" in the 
autuinn of 181i
, 11(' 
tudied law, and practi:st'd in 
the eourts of )Iis
ouri, whither he removed in l
-tJ, 
Whpn the civil \\111' bpgan he joined (;('n, 
terling 
Pri{'e ill rai
ing t II{' I"tate gUHni of )Iis
ouri, 1'1'- 
eruited II hrigade, awl \\as nftl'l"\\anl commissioned 
as hrig-allier-general in the Confederate service, In 
the eOllllter-attaek on Gen, LHIll'
 force at \\ïlson ':0; 
('reek he 11'11 the iuf,lIltl,\" OIi the COIlf('(lerate le>ft, 
JI.'(',,\ In:, .laUl('S n;.hnc')". cll'r
yman, h, in 
H.iehmoml, VII" 1.) .\pril, 1H08; d, in Baltimore, 
)Id" 1 .\u
" l
j
, Ill' enter(,ll the )I('thodi
t rnin- 
btry at the IIge of twenty-une, Lut afterward con- 
necte>II himself with the Protestant Epi
c()pal 
ehurch, and in 11'ì;jU hecame assoeiate rector of 
St. Paul's ('hurch in Baltimore, lIe afterward wa
 
rector of otllt'r parbhes in .:\laryland, <lnd t\\ ice de- 
dined a hishopric, J Je eùited the" (nino Branch," 
and also the" Odd-Fellows' )Ia,gazine," and puh- 
Ii
hf'tl a" :\1asonic Text-Book,"-Ilis hrother, .Tolm 
('oHins, cll'rgynHlll, h, in HichnlOml. Ya" 12 XO\'" 
1
1fI: d, in l'hambcr
burg, Pa" 21i Feh.. 1
7
, le>ft 
school early, and bpcame It clerk in a hank. He 
eontrihuteJ a poem to the first number of the 
.. Sou t hern Li tpra1'
 )Ips
enger:' fornlt'd It friend- 

hip \\ it hits editur, Edgar. \, Poc, awl \\Totl' con- 
stantly for it awl other magazines poems, es
a
 s, 
awl papers on culonial hi
tory, In ll'ì-t,) he entered 
the ministry of tIlt' Protestant Episcopal church. 
anù after being rector at Smithfield, Ya.. for fi \'e 
ye,U"S, took ch;lJ'ge of a pari
h in Hampton, and 
\\ hile there prusp('uted re
ear('hes among l'lIrish 
regi
tprs amI family archives into the early history 1 
of his C'llUrch in Yirginia, and publb:hed papers on 
the 
ubjl'ct, Lut. on the HlIl10nnCement of Bishop 
William l\leade'
 work. handed O\-er his materials 
to Dr, )I('fillp, At this time he receiw'd from tl1P 
eolle>ge of William and :\Iary the degree of n, n, 
In IHJ,) he WIiS chnirlllan of the stntp vpllow f('\-er 
committee, He wa
 rector uf a chur
h in Balti- , 


:\lcCAFPREY 


more, )Id" in U
,)ß-'9, and then in .\nne Arundel 
county, )hl., till 18Gl. \\ hen he hecame chaplain of 
a Yirginia regiment of l'onfpderate troops, From 
18U2 till the close of the war he was chaplain of 
Lihby prison in Hichmond, In 1
li,)-'7 he had 
charge uf It church in Bladpn
Lurg, )1(1., then went 
to )[iùdlelmrg. Del.. and left th
tt parish in 11;72 
to become rector of a church in l'halllbersburg, 
Dr, :\IcCabe lectured fre(luently on literary topics, 
and delivered mpmOl"ial addre
se
 anll poems. many 
of which were published, ..A volume of his eat'lv 
poem:,: was printed under the title of .. 
(,l"apS \, 
(Riehmonù, 1
;3J),-James Dabney's son, Jnm

 
Ualnu')", author, b, in H,ichmond. Ya" 30 July, 
1842: <1, in Germantown, Pa" 2. Jan.. H-:-:3, w
"s 
educated at the \ïr
inia militarv institute, Dur- 
ing- the secession cri
is he puhlished a pamphlet en- 
titled" Fanatieism and its Results," Lv ....A South- 
erneI''' (Richmond, ItHiO), 
\ \\IH'-
tòrv ('ntitle.l 
.. The .\ide-Ile-Cump:' was issued in bOI;k-form in 
It
Ua, awl three play
 of martiul tplwr \\ ere 1)('1'- 
formed at the Hiehrnond theatre in 1H(j2-'3, In 
thf' winter of l
(jJ he puhlislwd "The Bohemian." 
a ('hristma
 hook, to which his wife and Charles p, 
Dimitl'\' abo contrihutl'd, awl in 1HU;}-'4 he eaited 
the" :\Ing'nolia Weekly." lIis "S\\ord of Harry 
LeI''' awl othl'r \\ ar-poems were very popular, lIe 
pu\,lishe(l a" Life of (ten, Thoma
 J, Jal'kson." hy 
"_\n E....-Cadl't" (Hichrnond, 1:-:(i:J: enlarged erl.. 
1
1j-f): .. )Iemoir of Gen, 
\lhe>rt S, .Tohn
ton .. (18U{i): 
and" Life awl Campaign
 of Gl'n, Hohl'rt E, Lee" 
(X ew York, 1 !-)U7), in \\ hieh II(' di
l'arag-e>s Jefferson 
Da\'i.., awl a
criltes the> lo

 (If the southern cause 
to his hlullliers, III' I1Jso Ilu,de fi compilation of the 
romance awl humor of the war entit led ,. 'I'hl' Gnl\-- 
.Tackl,ts" (1
li7), He was the author of se\l'r;tl 
hundred short storie
, e..says, poem
. and tmnsla- 
tiuns, lIis \\ ork
 include .. Planting the \\ïldl'r- 
ness" (Boston, 1
liH): .. Ilistory of the Late War 
betwcl'n ((e>rmany and Francl''' (lB.1): .. Lights 
awl Shadow:,; of )lew York Life" (Xcw YOl'k, 
11;72); .. The Great Hepuhlie" (l
ì2); and a .. His- 
tory of the Gmngf' )lovemcnt:' whiph, with some 
of hi-; suh
e!]uent \\ orks, was puhli
hed UIHll' I' the 
pen-name of" Edward \Vinslow :\Iartin " (Chit:ag-o, 
1t\ì4), lIis latcr publicatiuns al'e .. PHl'is by SlIn- 
lig-ht amI (;n
light" (Phihuh'lphia, 1I'ì,J): .. Cen- 
te>nninl 1I btorv of the r nitI'd 
tatl'::-" (phillitlel- 
phin, 1I'ì,:)); .. Pat hways of the IIol) Land" (l
jì); 
"History of the Turko-Hussian War" (l
ì!)): 
.. OUl' Young' Folks A Lroad " (Philadelphia, 1

 1) ; 
ami" Uur Young- Folks in Africa " (1
1;:?),-
-\. 
()n 
uf ,John ('" William (;ol'.lon. edueator, h, nl'ar 
RiphmOlul. Ya.. -1 
\ug.. ll'ì41. HI' wn
 graduated 
at the Cniwr
ity of \ïrg-inia in 11'ì(j1, and imml'di- 
Melv enlisÌl'd in the Confederatt' arnl\', and sen-eù 
thròug-hout the eivil war. for the fii"
t year as a 
privatI'. and afterward as a ('aptain of artillery, 
After the \\ ar wa
 l'IHIed he (.
tahlb;ll('tl the unÍ\-er- 
sit\' sehoul ut PI'tersbllrg, \Ta.. of which he is still 
(lt1SS) hea(I-master, While in the army he con- 
tributed many poems to southI'm magazim's. and 
after returning to eivil litl' puhli
hed e
says, re- 
\ iew
, ske>tcllPs, awl tran
lations from medhp\-al 
Latin }lOI'tl")', Ile translated and revised .. Aid
 to 
IJRtin Orthography," from the German of \Vilhelm 
Urambach (K ew Y ork, 1
7
), edited .. Banad
 of 
Battle and Bra\'en'" (l
j3), and is the author of 
"The Ddenceoof pètl'r,;burg. Campaign of 1tjU-l-';j .. 
(Richmond, 1 HìG), lie has also published a .. Latin 
nrammar" (Philadelphia, 1
8:J), edited .. ('æsar" 
(philadelphhl, l
HIi), awl i
 eng,lged (11;88) in pre- 
paring fin e,Iition of .. 11 ol"a('e's \V orks." 
'It'CAF..nEY, John. clergyman, b, in Em- 
mettsburg, )lù,. Ü :-;el't" 18Uü; d, there, :!J Sept" 



:\lcCAGG 


1


, ITe studied theology in Emmettsburg and 
Baltimore, was ordained prie
t in 1tì3S. and imnu'- 
diatelyafterward nppointed president of )[ount st. 
.Mary's college, where he made many iml'ro\"eml'nt
, 
Among otlll'r
. he uegnn the erection of a fine 
chureh, Ill' twice declined a bi
hopric, Dr, .:\lc- 
Catfrev was a man of wide erudition and much 
literary ability, His principal publications were a 
cour
e of lectures on literary and philosophical 
suhjects delivered hefore the Philomatheun 
ociety 
of )[ount St, .:\lary's, a series of lcetures before the 
Catholic as
ociation of Baltimore, severalalltll'es..es, 
among which one on the .. Landing of the Pil- 
grims" attm('ted g'l'l'at attention. and funeral ora- 
tions on ßi
hop Dubois and Bishop nrutt-. which 
ha\ e ueen considered models of their kind. Ill' was 
also the author of a series of catechisms (Kew York), 
McC.\(
H, I:zra Uutl('1" lawyer. h, in Kin(lcr- 
hook, X, y" :?2 
oY" 1

,"), Ill' studied law in 
Hudson and 
ettled in 1S4i in Chica,
o. where tw 
has taken a high rank in his profession, ha\Íng 
refused a nomination hy both parties for judge of 
the Illinois 
Ilpreme court, )[1', :\[c( 'ugg wa
 a 
member of the C, S, 
anitary commi

ion, :uul prl'
i- 
dent of the KOl'thwe
tern smitnn" conllnis
ion :nul 
of the uourd of trustl'l'" of the IlÌinois eustl'l"Il hos- 
pital for the in::-ane, nml fir
t pI'l'
idf'nt of the Lin- 
coin park tru
tee
, His lihrarv ullll nrt collcetion. 
one of the be
t in the \\est. '\a
 de
tron'(lll\' the 
fire of 1
il. He ha
 
inee then collectèd an
)ther 
large library and many ehoice works of art, 
\mong 
them is the hi
toril'al picture by G, p, 
\, Healy rep- 
re
enting the conference hetwl'l'n Lincoln. Grant. 
Sherman. and Portèr, on uoard .. The Queen;' 2tì 
:\larch. 1tìfj,"), at Cit
 Point. which is rl'l're
('nted in 
the art ide SilER'IAX. \\- ILLL\)1 'fECL"
ISEII, .:\lr, 
)lcCagg has delin..red many lectures, and puL- 
li
hed numerous l'amphlet
, 

[('(' ,\1:\"1:, AI('xalHlt'r. clergymnn, b, in Tip- 
perary, Ireland, auout 1 ii,"); d, in )[ontg-omery, 
Ala" 1 J une, 1

G" Ill' 'Hl
 eclucated in England. 
and was intended for the 
\nglil'an ministr
 : hut, 
nfter emigrating to the United 
tates in 1 ill1, he 
accepted the :\Iethodist doctrines, \\ as admitted iu- 
to the conference in 1 i!)i. and ordained an elder in 
1
01. Ill' was for many years a tnl\-elling com- 
panion of Ri
hop Franci
 Asbury. filled important 
pulpits, and loented in 1H
1. He hecame interested 
in the que::,tion of lay rel're::,entation in the pouncils 
of his church. and aftcr the ad ver::-;e deci
ion of the 
general conference of ltì24 published a treatbe in 
support of his yiew
. culled" History and :\l \'ste1'\' 
of :\[ethodi
t Epi
copacy" (Baltimore. 1!"
!I). \vhich 
called forth a reply from ni,.;hop John Emorv, en- 
titled" Defence of our Father,.;," He was a lèruler 
in the organization of the :\lethodist Prote
tant 
church in L 1 t;:JO, and one of the most eloquent and 
Ínfluential mini"ters in that denomination, 

[(.('. \ L L. '[(I wa rtl R.. na val officer. b, in 
Charleston, S, C,. ,") 
\.ug" 1 i!)O; d, in Bordentown. 
X, J.. 31 July, 18:):
, Ill' entpred the na\-y as mid- 
shipman, 1 Jnn" 1808. and was promoted to a lieu- 
tenancy, 11 :\Iarch, 181:;, at which time he was on 
duty on boanl the brig .. Entf'rprise." fourteen 
guns, then unùer the command of Lieut, Johnston 
Blakeley. who was ,.;hortlv afterward succeeded by 
Lieut, \\ïlliam Burrows (q, '1.',), The" Enterprise;' 
left Portsmouth, X, H.. for a cruise, 1 Sept.. 1
t:
, 
and on the 4th. at :?O minutes past :3 p, 
I" she 
brought to action the British brig" Boxer," fourteen 
guns, Lieut, Burrows being mortally wounded 
early in the engagement. though he" refu:-:ed to 
lea\-e his po;;t, the command devolved on Lieut, 
)le
all, who carried the 
hip gallantly through the 
action, the enemy surrendering at 4 p, :\1, By re
o- 


McCALL 


75 


Iution. approved 6 Jan., 1814. congress eau
ed to be 
presented to the nearest male relative of Lieut, 
nurrow
. and to Lieut, :\lcCall, gold medals" in 
testimony of the high sen
e entertained of their 
gallantry and good conduct in the conflict with 
the British sloop 'Boxer,'" Lieut, :\lcCull was 
promoted to the rank of master-commandant, 3 
:\larch. 1
:?,), awl to that of captain, 3 :\lareh, H,tJ,j, 

I('f.\I.I.. (;t'HI'g't' Archihald, soldier. h, in 
Philadelphia, Pa" 1fj :\larch, 1802; d. in '\Vest 
Chester. Pa., 2fj Feb" 1tìU8, IIp \\a
 the son of 
Archihald :\lc( 'nIl. merchant of Philadf'lphia, Ill' 
was graduated at the U, S, military academy in 1
22, 
ami. afkr sening as aide to Gen, Eclmund p, 
Gaines in1S:31-'G. wa
 commi

ioned captain in 1:-::;G 
and mnjor in 1847, and served in the Florida and 
l\[exÍf'an \\ ;U'S, receiving the un'\'et,.; of major and 
lieutenant-colonel "for gallant and distinguished 
senil'e
 in the hattles of Palo Alto awl Hesaen de 
la Palma:' On hi
 return from the l\re....il'an \\ar 
he \\as gi\-en a 
word hy the citizen
 of Phila- 
delphia, In 1
;:;() he was appointed insl'eetor- 
general of the nrmy, \\ith the rank of colonel. 
which place he re,.;igned,:!2 _\ug.. 18,")3, and 
ettle(l 
in Chester county, I'a, At the beginning of the 
cidl war he tl'mh'I'ed his scnices to Gov, Andrew 
D, Curtin, who made him mnjor-generul of militia, 
with the task of organizing thc Pennsylvania 1'(>- 
SCITe,.;, [Ie was commi
sioned hrigadier-gl>lH.'ral of 
,olunteers on 17 :\Ia\', l
fj1. lie comm;ullh.d the 
re::-;l'n-e
. which formèd a divi
ion of three hrigades, 
until June. 1t'ü:?' 1 ,lannin g the su('eessful mO\ ement 
a
ain
t I>mlh'syi Ie. 20 Del'.. 1
(i1, and commnnd- 
iÌig all the Xationnl troops lit thf' bnttle of :\Ie- 
ehanicsville, :?G ,} une, 1F:(i:? where he rl'lll'lled a 
g'l'eatly superior force, Ill' wa
 at Gaines's Hill 
and Charles City Cro
s-road,.;. hut wa
 taken pris- 
om'r at Xew :\Iarket ('r()

-rond
. on 30 June, nllll 
confined in Libby pri,.;on for several week
. after 
which he \\as on 
ick-IeaYe. and resigned from the 
army. 31 .:\Iarch, 1tìli3, In August. 1
(j:'? he re- 
ceh-ed a sword from the dtizens of Che!-tercount\'. 
Pa,. and in the nutumn of that yeal" he wa
 Dl'mo- 
cratic candidate for congres
 {rom Penn
ylnmin, 
lIe was the author of " Letters from the Frontier," 
a po
thumous work (Philadelphia, 1
G
),-Ilis 
cousin, I)('t('l" lawver, b, in Trenton. X, J" ;-H 
Aug" 1:-:0!); d, in I'hiladelphia, Pa., ;J() Uet" 1!-:tìO, 
wns graduated at Princeton in l

G. studied law 
with Joseph H. Ingersoll in 18aO, was admitted 
to the bar in Philadelphia, and until within a few 
months of his death continued in the praetiee of 
his prolession, in \\ hich he becmne eminent in all 
its dcpnrtments, lie 
en'ed in the councils of the 
cit\'. and in 184-1-"5 \HlS its mayor, Ill' was for 
thÍrty years one of the vice-pro\-osts of the Law 
acndemy of Philadelphia. and for mllny years pro- 
fessor of pleading and practice in the law depart- 
ment of the rniver
ity of Penn
ylnmia, of whi('h 
institution he Was a trustee from ltìGl till his death, 
Among- his puhlished addre
,.;es are "Progre
s and 
Influence of the Society of Friends in Philadel- 
phia." delivered hefore" the Historical society of 
Pennsyh-ania (Philadelphia, 1832); "Hbe. and 
Progress of Ch il Society" (183G); and ., [hstory 
of Pennsylvania Law and Equity" (1838),-
\n- 
other cou'sin, John ('adwaladN" poet, b, in Phila- 
delphia, 24 Dee" 1 'jfJ:
: d, there, 3 Oct.. 18
6, stl
d- 
ied law. and was admitted to the bar of hIS natIve 
city in 1
t.'), Ill' published" The Trouhadour, and 
other Poems" (Philadelphia, 1822), and" Fleurette, 
and other Rhymes ,. (18:?8), " . 
J[('{' AI.L, Hugb. soldier, b, III South Cnrohna 
in 1i(j7; d, in 
a\'at1llah,Ga.. 9 July, 1H24, He be- 
came ensign of the 3d suu-legion, 12 )lay, 1794, 



76 


)IcCALLA 


1st lieutenant in )[ay. 1'ì!JtI, deputy paymaster- 

eneral,:H Jan.. l
OO, and captain in August of 
that year, Un the reorganization of the army in 
1
(J:! he Wa
 retailll'd in the 2d infantn", urevetted 
major, 10 July, HH2, and mustered oùt. l,j July. 
ItH,), Ill' was made military storekeeper at Sa\-lln- 
nah, (;'a,. 31 :\Iarch, 1t\1
, and at Charleston. S, C" 
in )lay. 1
21. )Injor :\lel'all puhlh.:heù a .. Hi
40ry 
of Georg-ia .. (2 vols.. SaHulllah. 1811-'1(i), It work 
that, as .Jared Sparks 
aid. had ,. it:; merits. uut 
the authllr labored under di:..:advantllg1's, and his 
materials were 
cantv," 

I('(',\LI,.\. n
lId('l. clerg-yman. h, in 
esham- 
in
-, Pa.. in 17-!H; Ù, in Wappetaw, S, C.. 6 
\pril. 
IHO!), He wa
 gra(luated at Princeton in 17(j/i, and 
then taught in PhihHlelphia, at the 
ame time 
:-.:tuuying theology, lIe was licen:..:e<<l to preach A.s a 
Presbvtprian in 1772, and two veal':..: lat!'r ordained 
pa40r of the churches at Xl'\\' PrO\-idence and 
('hadeston, Pa" where he preached till tlw He\"o- 
lutinn, lIe was then appointe(l a chaplain in the 
Continental army, and served in Canada till the 
hattle of Trois HÍdères in 177ü, \\ here he \Va:..: eap- 
tured, .\fter confinl'nwnt in a prison-ship he was 
released on parole in the !attf'r part of the year. 
and returned to hi:-.: congregation, hut \\as accu:-.:ed 
of violating" his parole by his patriotif' prayer:..:. and 
fOl'cell to flee to \Tirg-inia, where he \HIS soon aftel'- 
ward exchanged, I'll' tlll're e:..:tahlished a 
ehool in 
llano\-er county, Ya" hut in 1 7H8 went to "
appe- 
taw, S, C., where he wa:-.: pa
tor of the Congrega- 
tional church till hi
 dpath, South Carolina col- 
lege gave him the degree of f), D, Dr, )1('Calla 
po:-.::-.:esse(lmuch learning awl eloqlwnce, His" Ser- 
mons and EssaYs" \'-ere eùite,l \\ith a memoir h\" 
William Ilollilig:..:ht'1ul ('2 yo!:':,. l
lO), ' 
}lc{,_\I,J,,\, William [,ath., dergyman, b. nenl' 
Lexing-ton, K v,. 2,) X ov" 1 ,t\H: d, in Louisiana. 12 
Uct.. 'IH3D, ile \\as graduatell at Tran:-.:
 Inu1Ïa 
university, studied theology priHttely, wa:-.: li('en:-p(l 
to prea('h in 1H1/i, amI was a ('haplain in the IT, S, 
army in l
lU-'l:-;, Ill' was 
ettlpù OWl' Prpshyte- 
rian churches in Augusta. Ky.. in It-'HI. and in 
Philadelphia, Pa" lUuch of the time frlun It\'.?3 to 
l
:).J" During part of this periOlI he \\as in 'fe....as 
on account of failing health, :'.:erving" as an itinerant 
mis
ionary, nllll al:..:o as illl army ('haplllin, Ill' af- 
terwanl prea('heù in :-;t. Louis. wa:-.: eonneeted with 
a 
('minarv at St, Charles, :,\10,. and in the ypar (If 
his dpath 'rpmovell to L(Iuisiana, Ill' nbo eilgaged 
ill missionary work among the boatmpn of St, 
Louis and the 
laves of the south, )11', :.\ll'CaUa 
was a fine linguist and a notablt' pulpit omtor, 
lie was an active amI forciblp contro\"erf:ialist, nnd 
held lUany public dehates including diseus:..:ions 
with AlcÅander Camphell on Baptism. \\ ith 
\lml'r 
Kneelamlon Cnivel':-.:alislU. and with Jo
eph Rm.ker 
on Infidelity, llis :..:elf-control and I'olit(' manner 
of saving ('utting things led to the remark thut 
" he \\ a" smooth as oil, but it was t he oil of vit- 
riol:' lIe publi,hed lUany sermons and e:-.::-.:ays, 
"The Doctorate of Di \-init r ": .. Ad \"pntun'.., ill 
'l'ða:-.:. chiefly in l
-!O" (Phiiadelphia); and a col- 
leetion of p:..:alms and h
 mn:'.: in French, 
JldULLU}I, Uaniel ('raig, ellgineer, 11. in 
Jolm:-.ton. ltenfrew:..:hire. Scotland. 21 Jan" 1813; 
<<1, in Bl'Ooklm, X, y" 27 nec" lHÎ8, Ill' came to 
I{oc}l(':-.:ter. X, y,. with hi:..: parents in his youth, 
hc('ame un architect anll huild('r, and in IH,).)-'ü 
wa:-.: general 
up('rintpwlent of the Erie railway, 
()n 11 Fe!',. IH{i2. he WIIS appointed Ilirector of all 
the militarv railroalls in thp Cnited State
. with 
the 
taf'f mÌ1k of colonpl, HTHI to him wa
 ùue much 
of the etJicipnc\" of the railroad ser\"Îl'e during the 
civil war, Ill'. was brevetted brigml.iel'-gencral of 


l\lcC.AS
 


volunteers" for faithful and meritorious services." 
'.?-! Sl'l't., 1H(j4. and major-general. 13 )Ial'l'h, IH(i,"'j, 
and on 31 J ul v. 18(j6. was mustered out of the ser- 
\'ice, In the' same year he published a \aluable 
report on the military railroads ùuring the war, 
JIc('.\LI.l'1I, LachIiln, Canadian member of 
parliament, b, in Tiree, .Argyleshire, Scotland. 1:) 
:.\Iarch, It\'.?:1, Ill' Came to Cawula in 1:-:.J,2 and :-.:et- 
tled in lIaldimand count .\', where he engaged ex- 
ten:-.:ively in contracting and ship-building, During 
the Fenian raid in .June, l
(i(i, he commanded the 
IJunIl\ ille run-al cOIllpanyat Fort Erie, lIe \\IIS 
an unsucl'l':..::..:ful candidate for Ualdimand in the 
Canada a:..::-.:elllbh- in It\(i:J, fir:,t eleetell to the Do- 
minion parlimnènt in 1
(j7, anù wa:-.: a member till 
his defeat in 1H72, I [e wns a member of the legis- 
latÍ\Te a
:-.:emLlv of Ontario fmIll 1H71 till IH72. 
\\ hen hp rbiglied in consequence of till' act abol- 
i
hing Ilual re}lre
entation, H,' wa:" rp-elef'ted to 
the Dominion parliament in 1874, un:::>eated 1111 pe- 
tition in )[1\.\". 11'7,). re-elected in June, 1
7,). in 
1H7H, and in it\
2, alld sat until the di:-.::..:olution of 
parli
Ullf'nt in 1
H7, On;; Feb. of tllllt war he be- 
callie a Dominion senator, . 
)lcL\LJI()
T. \1f.'('d nrllll
en. soldier, h, in 
Franklin, Yenango co" PII.. 2,
 _\pl'il. 1
'.?,): d, in 
Philadelphia. Pa., 7 )lay, IH74, Ill' was admitted to 
the har IIIIlI l'racti
ed in Franklin, unù afterward 
in Pittsuurg-. \\ here he became cit
 solicitor in 
18,j
, Ill' wa
 as:-Ï:..:tant attorney-general of the 
l 
 nih.d State:..: during Buchanan's administration, 
and afterwa)'{l J"l.turne(l to hi:..: natin' to\\ n, He was 
cOIllmis:..:ioned lieutenant-colonel of the 14211 Penn- 
sylnmia J"l'g-illlpnt in ::-;e}ltelllber. 1H(j2, awl in 18(j{ 
uecmnp eolonel of the 20Hth Penn!-ylvania. taking 
part in tll(' hattle:-.: of Fr('(h'rick
burg, (,hanceUor
- 
ville. Getty:-.:hUl'g, and other
, TIe was hrewttell 
hrigadil'r-general of volunteers on 1:3 )[urch. 18ij,j, 
and u fter the war resllnlf'(l his profe
:..:ion, 
JIc(,.-\
Dr.ESS, Wilson. juri<.:t. h. in Pitt!':- 
hurg. Pa., 1!1 .Jun(', 1
1O: Ù, tl1Pre, ao .Tune. lk82, 
He wa:-.: 
raduate(l at the \Yesh'rn unin'r:-.:ih- of 
Pennsvh-àllia, 
tUllied law, and I/(lmitted to tJw' bar 
in 1831. .\fter praeti
illg succp:..::..:full
 for more 
than twenty-fi\-e ycar
. he wa
 uppointpd hy Presi- 
dent Buchanan r,
, jlld
e for the westl'rn di:-- 
trict of Penns\'lvania, 
Jh'('.-\

. \Hlliulll Pt.'IlIl, Banll officer. b, in 
Pari::>, Ky,. 4 
lay, 1$30, lie \\a
 appointe,1 mid- 
:,;hil'man in the IT, S, na\-y, 1 Xov" 1848, and. hfi\- 
ing he('n promotl'd through the various grade's, 
hecame lieutenaut-comlllaIllh'r, 16 Julv. 18(i:
, He 
was stationed at Yem Cruz on the. fir:,t ho:-.:tile 
demonstrntions at Pensacola, Fla.. and r('-en- 
forcpd Fort Pi('kens \\ ith sailors and marinl's on 
14 anll1;) 
\l'ril. 1H(j1. fIe remainell of[ the fort 
127 du
s. Imd in June II:-,:,i:-.:ted in landillg" alldi- 
tional re-enforcement:..: under ('01. Han-ey Brown, 
In 1H{i'.? he operated on York. Pamunkey. aiul Jame
 
ri\'ers in co-operation with the .Army of till' Poto- 
mal'. and captul'l'd. on -1 July of that year. the 
Confederate gun-boat.. Teazl'r," with plans of hat- 
teries, tOl1wùoe!':, awl th.rencl'S of Richmonù, 
Ila\'ing heen ordered to the command of the 
.. Ilunchha('k" in the foUo\\ ing October, he wa:-.: 
present at Xew Berne,14 )[ar('h, lRG:3, \\hen tlU' 
Confederate forc.e
. with eighteen gun:-.: and se\-eral 
thouSfillll infantr\', attackpd that ve
sel and Camp 
'
\mler
on, Aftpi' an action of an hour antI a half 
he silenl:ed the ('nemy's glln
 amI compellell him to 
\
itllllraw. After further :..:en-iee on the 
()rth 
Carolina coa4, )lcCann was ordered to the" Ken- 
nebl"':' awl had thirtepn months' acti\'e hlo('kude 
:..:ervice hefore )[ohile, pHltieipnting- in sewral en- 
gagements with the hatteries awl Fort Morgan 



l\kC.\RROLL 


while nttacking strlllulea hlo(,hade-runners, lIe 
cupturl'(l at 
ea three of the latter louded "ith cot- 
ton. tOg"pther with forty-the of the omcer
 and 
l'rew, TIll' Ye
sels and carg-ops were suhsequently 
sohl for half a million dollar
, During the hattle 
of 'Iobile Bay, ,ï Aug., 18(j..1, the ,. Kennebec" was 
la
Ill't1 to the .. )Ionon
ahela:' fifth in line of bat- 
tle, :\[('('ann was reli'eH'd from the ,. Kennehec " 
in Deeember. 181;.!, and was eng-agct1 in various 
routine duties until H Ikc.. 1
li7, whl'n he wa:- 
commi

ioned eommander, Ill' was promoted 
captain. 21 :O;ept.. 1
71i, and commodore, :W .fan.. 
1

7. and i
 now (18S8) commandant of the Bos- 
ton JUt\ v-var(l. 
.J!('('ÀIÜ:OI.L. JUIIH'S. journali4, L. in Lanl's- 
how, County Long-follt Ireland, 3 Aug.. It31-t, [Ie 
l'ame with his father's family to ('anada in 1
:n. 
and 
oon aftel"\\ anI ('ontrihut
.t1 pro
e and \ erse to 
thc new
papl'rs, In 1H-t.ï he hecame proprietor and 
editor of "Pl'te)'borough Chronide:' and in 1
-1 j 
remoH'd to Cohourg, 'where he taught music in 
adt1ition to his jouI'llali
tic work, He becallH' eon- 
nectell \\Ïth the cu
toms departnll'nt in 1 Rl!), in 
1
:;1 wa
 appointed colle(.tor at Xiag-am Fan
, aTHl 
about 18.ï4 out-door surn'yor of Toronto, \\ hieh 
place he retained until the oftil'e wa..; aholished, 
'Vhile in Toronto he edite(l 
('veml ne\\ 
paper
, 
In 181i6 he remon.t1 to Buffalo. X, y" amI after u 
few veal'S to X ew York, \\ hert' hI' has h('('n sin('e 
engåged as a mu
ical awl t1ramatic critie, and II"; a 
writer of general literature, He is the author of 
,-arious inH'ntions, thp la:-:t of \\ hich in(')'l'a:-:l's the 
light and flame in the chimlH'y of IIn .\rgan(l gas- 
hurner. or of any other hUI'ller. to douhle theIr \01- 
ume hy retardÌli g the escapp of unconsunwd ('111'- 
hon throu
h the ehilllHe,', [If' is well kno\\n ns a 
poet, awl ìms puhli:-:hed i'n hook-form hi
 humorous 
letter
, UIull'r t hI' pen-name of Terr) FillIwgan. to 
Thoma:-: I>'.\rcy :\Icl;ee (Toronto, 1t;G-1): "The Xew 
Ganger" (1
1)-t.): "The .\(l\'('ntur

 of fI Xight" 
(181i.ï): and "The "\"ew Life-Roat" (18(j(j), 
Jh'r -\ RTf:E. Uohl'rt. clerg-
'nHlIl, h, in Xew 
York oity, au Sept., 1iBl: d, in Yonkers. X, y,. 12 
:\Iareh, l
û:;, He was graduated at Columbia in 
1
O
, studied law, and was admitted to the Xew 
York har, but after a few years of pral'tice en- 
tered the theolo,
ical seminary of the A:ssocillÌe 
Reformed church in the city of Xew York. lie 
was licensed to preach in "April. lAW, amI ac- 
cepted a call from the Old Scots church in Phila- 
delphia, lIe re
igned this charge on 21 April, 
1
21. and became in 1822 pa:-:tor of the Iri
h 
Preshyterian church in X ew York, The church 
wa:-. at that time composed of only about thirty 
members, mostly emigrants from Ireland, Dr, :\Ic- 
C'artee built a new edifice and incrpa
ed the at- 
tendance to one thou
and communicants, He was 
not only pastor, but also the advi
er, the leg-al 
counsellor, and informally the magi:,trate of his 
congregation, In U;;3(i failing health compelled 
him to abandon this post, and he was succe
sivelv 
pastor of churches in Port Carhon, Pa" and Gosheil 
and Kewburg, 
, y" till 18Jû. when he uecame 
pastor of an 
\
sociate Heformed church in Xew 
York city, He retired from pastoral duties in 
18fi2. and remowd to Y onker
, Ill' received the 
degree of S, '1', D, from Columbia in 1
31.-His 
wife. .h'ssie Graham. poet, b, in Xew York city 
in October, 17!Hi: d, in Xewburg, X, y" 1 j' Feh:, 
1H,ï:). was a sister of Rev, George 'V, Bethune, 
She was the author of yariom: poems, chiefh r of a 
religious character, some of which were 'print- 
ed in mrious periodicals during her lifetime, 
-Their son, Dhie lIl'tllnn(', mis
ionarv. h. in 
Xew York city, 13 Jan"1820, was educåted at 


McCART I [Y 


77 


Columhia anò at tlH' Cni\'('r
itv of Pl'nns)Tlvania, 
and sailed for China in IH4;3, 'Uesides mastering- 
the ('hine
c languag-e and practising a
 a phy
i- 
('ian, he actl'(l fre(}Ul'ntly a
 e, S, consul at King-- 
po, awl sat as judge in the mixl'd court at Shnng- 
hai. In )[ay. 1t;IH, ut the request of e, S, FllIg-- 
Uf1icer Stribling, he enteJTed Kllnking, through the 
lin('s of the '['ai-Ping rehels, amI ohtaine(l fmm the 
.. Tleawnly King" a seale(l doc-ument granting 
non-moll'
tation, not only to AII\('ril'an
 in (,hina, 
uut to all ('hine:-:c in their l'lIIploy, B'T this meas- 
urelarge numhl'rs of nati,e ('hri
tians and their 
friewls were re:-:clll.t! w IH'n t hf' n'hels entC'retl 
Xingpo, III 11'172, wlH'n tlH' coolies of the Peru- 
vian ship" :\Iaria Luz" \\('re f)'('l'd by the ,JapmH'se 
goyernnlt'nt upon his suggl'
tion. a commission wa:-: 
appoint('d frum Peking to prol'l'l'd to Tokio to 
bring home the freetlmen. and Hr, l\[('('al'tee was 
nominated secretnry IInd intt'rpreter. reeeidng for 
his :-:l'n-icC's a goltl metlal Hnd eomplimentar
 let- 
tl'rs, Hcmuining in ,Japan. he was from Ol'lol'f'r, 
1R72, until ,A pril. 1
'ì'ì, a prof('ssor in the Imperial 
university oÍTohio. and he nl:-:o ne-tetl as secretary 
of thl' ('hinese legation in thnt city, hut returne(l 
to the Cnited Statcs in l
HO. IIn(l in lA
2 visited 
lIa waii on bu
ine

 ('(InnedI'd \\ it h Chinese immi- 
gration, In 1f'H,ï he Itct('ll 11:-: ,,American se(,l"etflry 
uf the leg-at ion of ,Japan in \Vashington, In 1HH'ì 
he retul'lled to ('hina and ,Japlln, })r. :\1('('artC'e's 
\\ ritings on ,\
iatic hi40ry. lin
uisti('s. nntural 
science, medie-ine, and poW i('
, in the puhlieati(lns 
of thl' A lllC'rican gl'ogrnphical socif't
, the Aml'ri- 
can oriental sOl'ictv. awl other associat ions, IUl\'e 
heen 11 u 1lI1'rOUS ami nl1 uahle, II i
 religious wri t- 
ings in Chine:-:e an' 
till \\ itlely circulatetl and 
reall. .. 
\udi 
\lterum Parte)))" (Yokohamll. 1 Hì9) 
treats of the conflil'ting claims of China amI Japan 
l'oncerning tllP Loo<'hoo i
lands, 
}[cC \RTIIY, .Tustin. Irish author, b, in Cork, 
Ireland, 22 XO\',. I$W, He \\as lihl'mllv educated 
in his nati,e city, amI fro))) H:Wi till 1H,ï:J he \\as 
COlllll'cted \\ ith 'the ('ork "E
aminpr," lie th('n 
j(Jined the 
taff of the ,. 
orthern Times" at 
Li,"erpooL In It-:IiO he was a reporter in Ih(' house 
of common:-: for the IJondon .. Morning Star:' of 
whic'h he \\n:-: suh..equently foreign e(litor, and in 
1
1i-1 chief editor, In 18U8 he re
ignf'tl, in order to 
vi:,it the C nitecl States, \\ here he re)))ained for 
nearl)' th)'ee year
, lecturing and travelling, Bf'- 
forf' his return to Eng-land hp was employed for 
a timp on the editorial staff of the :Kew York 
.. Tribune:' ana al
o on that of the Kew York ., In- 
dependent:' In 1tìi!1 he \\as el('cted to parliament 
for Long-ford, Ireland. and re-electecl in 1t-\HO, in 
both in
tances without a conte
t, At the general 
election in If<
:) he contested Derrv, and wns de- 
feated by a majority of twent)"-ninè. but was im- 
meJiately chos('n for Longford by nn oycrwhelm- 
ing majority, In 188(i he was returned fro!n t
Je 
latter town unoppo
ed, He afterward ag-am ns- 
itetl this country on a lecturin
 tour, 1\Ir, }\[c('ar- 
thy has contribllh.d to Eng-lislì amI 
\mericHn (leri- 
od'icals and servetl as political-leader \\ riter for the 
London press, Besides many noyels, he ha
 pub- 
lished "('on Amore." a collection of l'ritical essa \'s 
(London, 1t;(j8); "Prohibitory Legislation ill die 
rnited State:,," an account of a study of such leg- 
islation and its workings in 1\laine. Massachusetts, 

Iichigan. Iowa. etc,: .. )[odern Leaders." a series 
of articles on liying cplebrities (ltì'ì2); "A II istory 
of Our Own Time!';" (1878-'80): nntl "The Epoch 
of Heform" (1882), 1\11', )(c('arthy's most impor- 
tan t work is his" H i
torv of Our Own Times," He 
has al
o puhlished the flr4 yolume of a" History 
of the Four Georges ,. (1884), 



78 



lAcCART
EY 


)I:Ic('ARTXEr. WHshiJlg'ton. educator, h, in 
\\. e:,;tmoreland county, Pa" :?4 Aug,. 1812; d, in 
Philadelphia in J uly, 1
,)(;, lIe wa
 graduated at 
Jefferson college. 1'a,. in 11'184, and was profe:;:sor 
of mathematics and moral philosophy in Lafayette, 
Pa,. in 1835, and again in It!37, It!43-'4, and 184G, 
In 183U he filled the chair of modern languages in 
Jefferson college, In the latter in
titution he was 
nlso professor of mental and moral philo
ophy for 
!"l'H'ral years suhsequent to 184ft lie had pre,-i- 
(lu
lv studied law and was :uImitted to the bar of 
Xorthampton county, Pa" in 183t3, In 184G-'8 he 
served the county as dc>puty attorney-general. and 
was electe<l presi<lc>nt judge of the 3d judidal dis- 
trict of Pennsylntnia in IS:;I. \\ hi<'h office he filled 
until his death, In IH4ß hp e
taulished a law-school 
at Easton, Pit,. which in IH,,)4 was incorporated a
 
the ., union I.Jaw-School." It was in successful op- 
eration at the time of his decease, Prof, :\IcCart- 
ney h:uI received the degree of LL, J>, 
M('C,\UT\', WilliHIll )Ionrop. jurist. U, in 
Brookville, Franklin l'II" Inù,. 18 :\la,', 1HHi. Ill' 
studkd I11.w, was admitted to the har 'in U
;H, amI 
hegan to practisp in his native town at the age of 
twenty, Ileremo,-ed in 1840 to Cincinnati, \\ here 
he became widely known uy prosecuting persons 
who had usurped the corporate name and prid- 
leges of a defunct bank for the purpo
e of defraud- 
ing the puulic, Finding that the climate of Cin- 
cinnati did not agree with his health, he retumed 
to Franklin county. Ind.. and a call for troops being 
made soon aftel'\
ard to re-enforce the êlrmv in 

h'xico,l\Ir, :\Id'arty rai
l'd êI regiment, of whi
h hl' 
was elected lil'utl'lUlIlt-colonel. Ill' servell through 
the war, and his l"l.ginll'nt was highly complimentc<t 
for its l'ollllul't at tilt' uatt Ie of Hm'na \ ista, On 
his return, he wa
 ele<:ted to the state senate, In 
1
4H he \\ a
 placed on the ('a
s ell,C'toral ti('kct, and 
took part in the C'illl"a:,;
, lie wa
 I're
id('nt-ju<lg-e 
of the 1;lth cÏn'uit in 1
:;()-',\ and in It361 was 
cho!,pn C S, 
('n:tt()r, hut failed to obtain his seat, 
)[('(',\["1., John, Canadian edncator, b, in Duh- 
lin, Ireland, in 1t'i07. Ill' was educated at Trinitv 
colleg"e, Duulin, where he uecamc cla!'''ical tuto"r 
and examiner, Tn XO\ember, 1t!38, he was ap- 
pointed principal of l
pper l'analht college, in It!4:? 
vice-president of King's college, and profes
or of 
logie, rlll'torie, mHl classics. Ill' wa
 elect<.d presi- 
dent of the Lniver::;itvof Toronto in 1
.tn and in 
18.33, lIe has lwen ed.itor of a Canadian month- 
lr. the ":\Iaple Leaf," published several ,-olumes 
of e:-::,uys and treatise:,; on classieal subject
, edited 
portions of Horac!', Longinns, Lucian, and ThuC'y- 
llides, as colleg"e text-houks, and gave special atten- 
tion to Latin inscriptions, His works inelnde 
,. Britanno-Roman Inscriptions" (1:-:(i:
) and "Chris- 
tian Epit:tph
 of the Fir
t Six Centuries," 
J(('CAl'I.E\'". fhall'h's Adam "01\:<>, soldier, b, 
in 
liddletown, ,:\[(1.. 1:
 July, 1S47, Ill' wu:-: g"mdu- 
ated at the r, S, militan' academv in 18ì() awl en- 
tered the 
d artillery al" 2d Jieuteliant. Aft er ben'- 
ing variously until i87
, he was transferred to the 

lt CU\ aIry, an<t on [) 
Iay, 1
7!). was promoted 1st 
lieutenant, .:\leanwhile he had devoted his atten- 
tion to natural scieilce, and in 1
71i aceompanied 
the Hed riwr exploring expedition into the Indian 
territory and Texas as ornithologi
t, Suhsequent- 
1 v he sen cd in cunnection with Indian affair's nn- 
til :; Feu" 18
1, when he was made assistant <plar- 
termaster with the rank of captain, Since that 
time he ha..;; heen stationed at various posts in the 
western states, beC'oming in October dbuursing 
quartermaster at Chicago, lll, Capt, 
tcCauley 
invented in It371 the military sy:<tem of signalling 
by means of mirrurs, He is a corresponding or 


MeCA \VLEY 


active member of ,"arious scientific societi
, His 
puhlications, issued by the :Xational government, 
include" Ornithology of the Rtd Ri
-er .Region 
of Texas" (\V ashington, 1
'ì7); .. The San Juan 
Reconnoissance in Colorado and Kew .l\Iexico" 
(1877); .. .Reports on the White Hh"er Indian 
\gf'ncy, Colorado, and the Uinta Indian Agency" 
(1I:ìì!J): and "Paga:,a Springs. Colorado; its Ge- 
olog-y and Botany" (IR7!J), 
)le{,A lTIÆY, (,harl('s St<>\\ art. naval officer, 
b, in Philadelphia, Pa" 3 Feb.. lÎ!J
; d, in Wash- 
ington, D, C,. 21 l\lay, 1
(;!J. Ill' wa
 a nephew of 
Admiral Charles 
tewart, and hec-ame a mid
hip- 
man in the navy, 16 Jan" l
Otl, rising to the rank 
of lieutenant.!) Dec.. 1t!14, commander. 3 :\Iarch, 
l
iH. and captain, 9 Dpc" It;
9, Ill' sen-ed on the 
.. Constl'llation " in H-ìl;
, and took part in the gun- 
hoat attack on thl' British frigate ., 
arcis:;:us" in 
Hampton Hoads, and in the defencp of Cmney 
island, lIe serwd as acting lieutenant of the 
"Jefferson" in 1814 on Lake Ontario, In 1

3 he 
ohtained lca'"e of ah
ence, amI for two years com- 
manded a Yl'ssel in the merchant marine, Rpfus- 
ing an offer of $10,000 a year from a shipping 
firm. he then returned to dutv, and served four 
wars in the .. Hoston," in the South Atlantic 
squa<lron, In April, l
,ï,3, :\Ie{'auley wu
 plaee<l 
in command of the home squadron, and directed 
by the secretary of the navy to go to the island of 
Cuba and protect .American intere4s, For his suc- 
ce::-s in this he was publil'ly complimented on his 
return in.T une hv Pre
ident Pierce at a dinner at 
the White I1(}u
e: In 1t-1GO he was orden'd to the 
comm:md of the Gosport navy-yard, and in 18U1 
he de
tro
 ed a large amount of property there, to 
prevent its falling into the hands of the Confed- 
erates, He was place<l on the retired list, 21 Dec" 
1
(il, and promoted commodore, 4 
\ pril. 18(;7,- 
lIis nephew, .:d n all'.1 \' ol'k<>. na':ll officer, b, in 
Philadelphia, Pa,,2 Xov" 18
(;, was appointed mid- 
shipman in the navy, !) 
ept.. 1841. and promoted 
lieutenant, 14 Sept.. lH,ï:), He rpsigned, If) 
\ug" 
H<,ï!J, but entered the sen"ice ag-ain as acting lieu- 
tenant. 11 May, 18Gl. Ill' wa
 made Iieutenant- 
comnlllllder, 1U July, ItjU:?; commander, 27 Sppt" 
1
lifi; captain, 3 Sept., 1
'j
: commodore, Î Aug" 
It!t-!1: all<t l"l'ar-a<1miral. 2 l\larch, 1
t-!,:;, [fc> was 
present in the" Powhat:m " ut the attack on pimtes 
in the China seas in 1
,j,'), took part in the "
i- 
agara" in luying- the Atlantic cable in 1
,j7-'8. and 
sen-ed in the .. Flag" in the South Atlantic block- 
ading s(Juadron in l
fi1-'2, lIe commaJlllcd the 
steamer ,. Fort lIenrv:' of the Eastern Gulf block- 
ading squadron in li<(i
-':3, and in 18(i3-'4, when in 
command of the "Tioga." took part in the hoat 
attack on Bayport, Fla, In 1
(i-1-',ï he had charge 
of the gun-hoat .. Benton, " of the .:\fi
sis
ippi 
quilll- 
ron, In 188(i 
\dmiral :\leCaulev commanded the 
Pacific :-:tation, and in Fphruary. 1887. he was re- 
tired, lIe has puulbhed .. The Eg
'ptian :\Iamml 
and Dietionary" (Philadelphia, 1
1'm-'4)' 
Jle{' \ W, .TUUl(,S H,'.mn, surg-eon, U, in Vir- 
ginia in 1772; d, in Richmond, "\ a,. in 18-1U, lie 
was graduated in .Edinburgh. Scotland, in 17!t?, 
and engaged in medical praetice with his uncle, 
Dr, ::\[cl'!urg. taking rank fi.
 the leading snrgeon 
of eastern Yil'ginia for over thirty year
, lIe was 
one of the first to tic the externul carotid arten', 
an operation he performe(l in 1807, I Ie wa
 pos- 

essed of great physicnl strength, and at the burn- 
ing of the Hichmond thl'atre in 1t311 he saved the 
li,-es of twenty-one women, 
)lcC
\ wIJ.
r. ('hßrl<>" Gn Ult'S. officN' of ma- 
rines, h, in Philadelphia. Pa,: 2!) Jan" 1827, lie 
was appointed fmm Louisiana 2<1 lieutenant in the 




....\ '; 


\, , 


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//";fY':;"V ' 
\' .'//

, 
:. '..

,


 

.:
 
 
-II .. 



 


( ) ) 1- 
f;r _/J//! ((r(a<- 


- - ... 'OiP 
, ."" - 



)[C('LEERY 


marine corps on H )[areh. 1
-1 i; became 1st lieu- 
tenant. 2 Jan.. 1
,),); captain, 2ti ,July, 1
(i1 ; major, 
10 .June, 1
1i-1; and lieutplHult-colonel, ,) Dec.. 1t-:{ij', 
He served \\ it h t Ill' army in )[e).ico. bein
 present 
at the storming of Chapultepec and the capture of 
the city of 
I(').ieo, for gallantry in which aetion
 
he was hrevetted 1st lieuh'nant. 1?, Sept.. l1-1-1i, In 
)[ay, 1
ti
. Iw \\as sent tl) reoccupy the Surfolk 
nun--\ard with a forl'e (If 200 men, and hoisted the 

at"ioilal fla!,!on hehalf of the navv, In .July. t
Ii;3, 
he \Va
 ordèred to join a hattali(;n of marfnes for 
sC'rvice in the South .\tlanti(' squadron, amI was 
pre
ent on )lorri
 i
laIllI during- the ùombardment 
aIll! destruction of Fort Smnter and the capture of 
Forts Wagner and Gre
g-, In the boat attack on 
Fort Sumter, t\ Sept., 1
li;t Ill' led a detachment of 
100 nH:'n awl officer
, and recei \-ed a brevet a:,. major 
for his bravery on that o<!eusion, 
in('e l
Îli he 
ha
 been in command of the marine corps with 
rank of colOlH'l. and hpadquarters at \\- ashin
ton, 
J(('{'I,t:ERf. .lulU('!'>. soldier, b, in uhio about 
11-!-10: d, in 
ew York dh', 5 XO\-,. 1
il. Ill' was 
cOIllmi
sionpd 2d lieutewLnt in the 4bt Ohio in- 
fantry on 2t Au
" tt-:lil. allli mlHle bt lieutenant, 
9 Jan" 1Hli
: captain, !} Oct,. 1jo:li2: atHl major. 2:l 
Xov,. t
li,), He lost hi
 right arm at Shiloh, und 
was wounded at 
tone River.:n 1>ec" 1
(j2, On 28 
J ul
", 1S(jti, he entere(l the regular army as captnin 
of the 4,jth infantn", ullli \\ a
 retirell. 1,") Dec" tHiO. 
He had received the hre\"eb of major. 2 )[al"{.h, 
1Hlii, for gallantry at )[is
i()n Hid
e, atHl brigllllil'r- 
general of volunteer
, tH )[arch, 1Hli3, .After hi
 re- 
tirement he settled in St, :\Iary's parish, La,," here 
he purcha-:ed a plantation, pral'tise(l law, and wa::: 
connected with the Freedmen'
 hUI'eau, lIe \\as 
elected to cOllgn.'ss as a Hepublican in 1t'iO, but 
\\ as unahl,e to 
el'\'e, owin,!! t? iml;'aire(
 health, 
Jh'rLEL\
. Ahnpr ReId. CunudulIl senator. 
b, in Hopewell, Xl'\\' ßrunswiek, 4 Jun,. H
;n, II{- 
was edm'uted at )Iount 
\lIison academy. afterward 
eng-H!,!ed in busine
s. an,l becanif' a merchHllt, lIe 
hns heen one of the governor
 of )lount 
\llison 
"y e
leyan cOlleg-l', f'ackdlle, 
, B.. eommi
sioner 
of thl' civil court amI auditor of the municipality 
of Albert, amI represented thnt town in the Xew 
Brunswick assemblv from 18,")4 till the union, lIe 
was ('hief ('ommi
siòner of public "orks from April, 
1:O:fiG, till 1
lji, and became a member of the Do- 
minion senate in )[av, IHI", 
J!('fLELL \X. (;
orgp ßl"inton, !'=oldier, h, in 
PhiludelphiH. Pa., a Dee" 1H
G: d, in Oran
t', X, ,T.. 
2!ì Oet., 18">5, His father was Dr, George )[cClcl- 
Ian (q, l',), who married )liss Eli711beth Brinton. 
and (
eorge was t Iwir second !'=on, The three nohle 
elm
 to bl' seen at \Voodstock, Conn.. were plunted 
by ,Mrs, )[cl'lellan, the general's great-grandmoth- 
er, in honor and rememhrance of her husband, 
Capt. :\[cC'lellan, on hearing he had pns
ed 
afelv 
through the hattle of Bunker Hill. The genenil 
!'=a \V them for thp fir
t time in the summer of 1H1')-1, 
lIe was educated bv private tutors, and spent two 
,ears,18-10-'2, in the Cnhersity of Pennsdyania. 
,vhere he acquired a love of polfte literaturè. "hich 
was ne\'er lost in his later life, Ill' wa
 always an 
industrious 
tudent. and shared the first honòrs of 
his class in the unÍ\-er
ity, At the age of fifteen 
year
 and six months (the minimum age being six- 
teen, amI the exceptions rare) he entered the r, S. 
military academy 1 July, 18-12, In his clas,," "ere 
.. Stonewall" Jackson. Jesse L, Reno, and others 
who 
uhsequently became distinguished, lIe led 
his class in mathematies, He "as graduated 1 
July, 18-1G, appointed brevet 2d lieutenant in the 
corps of engineers, and assigned to a company of 
engineer troops (the only one then in !'>en-ice) 


1\lcCLELLA
 


79 


rai,ell for the )[exican war, \Vith it h(-' wns at 

[alan. ('amllr
o, Tampico, and V cra Cruz, 
\ fter 
the fall of Vera Cruz they took an aetive part in 
the lmttle of Cerro Gordo, 1'j' al\(l 1
 
\pril, 1H-17 
and )[eClellan led the un
uccessfulattack on th
 
left ugainst the triplp batteries that swept the 
road, .A seeond attack \\as rendered unneeessRl'y 
by the fall of the Cerro de Tclegrafe, Ill' wås 
promoted to a 2d licutellllllcy on 24 April. and 
afterward took part in thl' hat tIes of Contreras 
and Churuhusco, 1H and 19 
\ug,. in the former of 
which his horse was shot. After the rupture of 
the armistice Ly the )h').icans in Sppt('mher, he 
\\a
 enga
ed \\ ith his compnn
 in constructing hat- 
teries again
t ('hal,ultepl'c. and shared in the as- 
sault al\(l eapture or tlH' city of l\[pxico. 13 a 1111 14 
Sept.. 1
-1 i, II e recei \t.'d t he brevet of bt lien ten- 
ant" for gallnJit alld meritorious conduct at Con- 
trern-: and (,hurubu
co:' and thut of captain for 
his part in the assault of Chapultppec, In 18-t.8. 
after the \\ar was l'll(led, he sened at \\Test Point 
as assistant instructor of I,ructical engineering, 
In 1
:ï2 he \\Us \\ ith ('apt. )[ar('y (later his futher- 
in-Inw) on an exploration of the uppl'r Red river, 
lwt\\een Te....as al\(l the Indian tl'ITitorv: nnd 
nftl'r\\ltnl hl' 'HI' t'lIgineer-ilI-eharge of l:....plOl.a- 
tions HlIII sun evs in Te).lIs, I n 1
.");J he wns (In 
engineer <luty iil Oregon and \\'a:,:hington terri- 
torie
, and later \\n
 l'mp]oy(',l lh engineer on the 
\\e
tel"ll didsion of the Xorthern Pacifi(' rnilroad, 
On 3 
[a}"('h. 1t-:.j3. he \\as tlppointed a captain in 
the 1st ca' aln-, amI in the sallie veal' wus sent to 
Europe, n
 a illl'mher of a military cOlllmi
sion, to 
report on the condition of th(' armi('s of Europe, 
and to oh!'en-e the operntions of Loth sides in the 
('rimenn \\lIr, IIi
 colll'lIgUf'S Wl're Col. Rie}uml 
1>elllfield. of the engineers. a.nd )[ajor 
\lfl'f'd )[or- 
dt'cai, of the or,1nlln('e, The commi
sion lw'ein'll 
fncilitie
 from the Rritish gO\ernment, hut not 
from the Frl'lwh an,l Hu!:'siun, The spparate re- 
ports of the
l' offiel'r
 \\ l'rp puLlished hy eOllgress, 
Capt, )[('CleUun's \\as a model of fullness, aecu- 
l"aey, amI system,and \\as repub]j
hell in 1
{i1. with 
the title" The 
\rmie
 of Europe," Thp detuil
 of 
the org-ani7ation and f>quipment of European armies 
hl' put to good u!'p in organizing the Army of the 
PotomltP. soon aftt.'r the Leginning of the cÍ\-il war, 
On Hi Jun" H
.)i, Capt. MeClellan re
igned his 
commission to aeeept the place of chief engil\l'er 
of tlw I1linois Centl'lll railroad, lIe hecam(-' its 
dce-president in 18;)
, and in 1839 wn.; eleded 
pre:5ident (If the eastern division of the Ohio and 
)lis,..issippi railroad, residing in Cineinnati. In 
t
liO he was mude president of the St. Loui
, )[js- 
o;;ouri, amI Cincinnati l'IIilroad. which office he Iwld 
until the Leginning of the cidl \\ar in 1
(j1. While 
engaged in railroad work, he \\ as ahle to help 
his clas
mate, AmLrose E, Burnside. who, ha' ing 
re
igned from the service, \\as in need of as:5ist- 
anee, On 23 April, 1
(j1. )IcClellan 'HiS appointed 
Illlijor-general of ()hio volunteers, amI "laped in 
command of the Department of the Ohio, includ- 
ing the state
 of Ohio, Indiana, ana I1l in oi::>, with 
portions of Virginia and Pennsylvania, In a 
month he "as in the field, and on 26 )[ay he 
crossed the Ohio into Virginia, and occupied 'Par- 
kershurg, This admnce into "-est Yirglllia, he 
,ays, was made" without orders, and entirely of 
his 0\\ n ,-olition," The plain bordering the Ohio 
wa::; occupied b
" )IcClellan's forces: the moun- 
tains bv the Confederates under Gen, Garnett, who 
looked'down upon the plain and the Great Kana- 
wha riwr from two spurs separating the )Ionon- 
gahela from Tygart '\ alley river and Cheat riwr, 
The southern portion was called Rich mountain, 



80 


l\[cCLELLA
 


and the northern Laurel hill: ana behind them 
both runs the great Yirginia turnpike through 
Beverly allli Leed::wille, To cO\'er this turnpike, 
Garnett had posted I'l'gram at Hich mountain \\ it h 
2,000 men, while hI' held Laurel hill \\ ith 3,000, 
)I('('lellan, who had five urigadl's, posted Gen, 
Jacoh }), ('ox's command on the Lower Kanawha, 
<-ren, Hill's to guard the comm unimtions het\\ een 
,\'estern Virginia and the upper Potomac, and 
went in person with the l'l'Illainder, divided into 
two columns, TIH' fir
t was to make a demonstra- 
tion ugainst Garnett at Philippi; the st'cond to 
capture Pegram at IUch mountain, and cut ot1' the 
enf'my's retrl'at, Adnuwing with Gl'IIS, Sehleieh 
and Bosecl'ans, who commanded these columns, to 
Buckhallnon, 011 10 J nly he \\ as in fro lit of Pe- 
gram, and spnt Ro
ecrans to the right to gain his 
rear, Ih' some mis('alculation there was a dl'lav, 
allli Pegi'am evacuated Hieh mountain, uut nuuiy 
of his seattered fOl'ce were c:lptured hy )I({'lel- 
Ian near Beverlv, Garnett abandone(l IJlturel hill 
, to join Pegram, but 
fuullli himself inter- 
cepted, III' then Ìl'ied 
uy dm ious pat hs to 
escape to the Cheat 
river, HI' was u\-er- 
takl'n at ('arri('k's 
ford, hut sucl'el'lh.d 
in crossing wit h the 
loss of all his mate- 
rial, awl was killed 
on the farthl'r hank, 
and his furce was 
scattered, In this 
eight days'eampaign 
Me< 'lellan had driv- 
en the enem \' from 
the great Kaimwha, 
and l'aptured 1.0ÜO 
prisoners, and he 
wrote to \Vashing- 
ton that .. he h:l(1 
completl'ly annihi- 
lated the ('nemy in west('rn VÍI'ginia:' Lee fared 
no hett!'r when he succee(I!'(1 Garnett and at- 
teml,ted to (lislo(lge the foree of Hoseerans, under 
HevnoMs, at Cheat mountain, In a connntion 
hel
l at Wheeling, 11 ,June, It:;til. at which -lO coun- 
ties we1"(, l'l'p1"esented, thi:,; portion of tlH' state had 
di
al'provl'd secessiun allli adhered to the enioll, 
whi('h it was now frf'e to ent('r as It separate :,tate, 
as it dÍll. hy ad of eongre
s,:H 1>1'('" 1t\ti
, 
On 1-1 )ray :,lc('It:'llan had heen appointell a ma,jor- 
general in t hl' e, :-;, anny, 
r eantiml' preparati(}n
 
hall been pushe(l forwarll at Washington for a lli- 
rect mo\-ernl'llt toward Hil'hmond, tl}p command 
of the force being g-i ven to (
en, Irwin )[el)owell 
(q,1',), Immediately after th(> hattle of Bull Hun. 
)IcClellan was called to Washin
ton, allli on 2. 
July he was a
siglJe(1 to tilt' comìnaJHlof the De- 
partment of \Vashington awl Xorthea;;tern \Tir_ 
g-illia, \Vhile reorgllllizing the 
\rmy of the Po- 
tomac he was, on 20 
\ug" inwstcd with its cOln- 
mand, amI. on the rt'tirement of ltl'n, ::5eott, 1 X 0\." 
he was malle COlTlllHmder of all the armies of thc 
Fnited :-\tates, to thc grl'at satisfaetion of the 
wholp country, who hope(l more from him than it 
was in the power of man to aecompIish, \Vhat he 
had (lone so sagaciously, intelligpntly, allli prompt- 
ly in \Vest Yirginia placed him before his country- 
men fiS the incarnation of perfect military genius, 
In his r('port he declared that, on his arrivHI at 
\Vashington, he hUll" foun(l no army to command 
-I\, mere collection of regiments cowering on the 



 -=-=-- ... 



.. 
-Ì' 


3\ 


A\ \ 

- 
"', 
 
'\ \ 




 


l\lcCLELLA
 


banks of the Potomac, 
ome perfectly raw, others 
dispirited lIy recent defeat, some going home, 
There wpre no defensive works on the southern ap- 
proaches to the capital. \Vashington was crowded 
wit h straggling ofJieers and lIll'n ausent from their 
stations without uuthoritr:' Ill' had to Lring or- 
der uut of this chaos, to create an armv, and to (le- 
fend the dty, If he was slow in doing this, he dill 
it well. He declared that the trul' place to defend 
\\Ta:-:hington was on the ,James river. 
\fter the 
discussion of his plan, a compromise Wfi
 made in 
fa\'or of It movement by the York and Pamunkev 
rivers, (irowing out of his reputell tardim'ss anti 
the conflicting opinions fis to the hest plan of cam- 
paign, )Ie( 'lcllan was now looked upon uy the go\'- 
ernment with suspicion, 
Ir, Stanton, who had 
sucf'eeded Simoll ('ameron as secretar\' of \\ar, and 
who was at first )r e( 'lellan 's friend, sòon took issue 
\\ith him on vital points, amI emharrassed the gen- 
l'ml and the army greatly, In spite of )IcClellan's 
remonstrances the secretary was constantly urging 
a forward movement, and prenLÍ!t'd on )[r, Lin- 
coln to issue an or(ler-iml.ossiule to he carried 
ont-that It comuined lTlovenH'nt Lv land and water 
should lw made on 22 Fcb.. 1
{)2, . Thl' serious ill- 
ness of 
Id 'Iellan in December retarded the organ- 
ization, and it was not until 10 1\rarch, It\(í2, that 
h(' put the army in motion for a demonstration 
upon )[anas,..;as; an unnecessary and unfortunate 
movement. Ll'eallse, in e
peetation of it, the ('OIl- 
federates had enl('uated the position the day be- 
fore, One good was ILccolllpli
hell, hO\\"('ver, the 
gigantic machine hlill 1I(,l'n put in suecessfnl mo- 
tion, allli aelive operations \H're fairly begun, 
Various plans of campaign \\ ere considered, The 

eneral pnrpose was to emhark at Annapolis, pro- 
c!'cd to l'itlll'r the Happahannoc-k, the York, or the 
.J ames, uncI thl'Ill'e move upon HiehmolllI. One 
proposition was to llind lit Fort :\[onroe, which 
\\ould be a base of opl'ration
, and proceed by 
,James rin'r to Hichmond, Another was to pro- 
c('('eI hy York riwr with the eo-operation of the 
na\-y, This la:-:t plan of ('ampuign IHt\-ing ueen 
reluetantly aeel'pterl hy the president, )lcClelhm 
mO\ed the 
\rmv of the Potomac l'Îo Alexandria 
from 1ì )[al"f'h 'to (j .\pril hy \\ater to Hampton 
Roads, and, landing nt Old Point Comfort. en- 
tl'rl'(l upon the peninsular campaign, As soon us 
he WlIS g-one from \\'ashington his oppolll'nts de- 
clarl'll he had left till' eapitlll undefended, The 
cour:-:c of the government was shape(1 in a grl'ut 
(Il'grce lIy the \-ieW's of the oppo!'ition, lIud his plan 
of camlmign WIiS uHere(I. He had bel'n assuretl 
of the co-opemtion of 'I('Do\\eIl's corps. 40.000 
men, marehing 
onthward to join him and to form 
his right hefore l{ichmontl; hnt such were the 
ff'ars as to the ,sel'uritv of Wnshington that Blenk- 
l'r's division of Sumlil'r's corp
, t.welw regiment!' 
mill eig-hteen ,guns, was detaehed on 31 )Iarc'h, and 
)[I'!)owell's corps was divl'rted from him on 4 
.\ pri I. On a 
\pril an of/IeI' was issued to di!'l'on- 
tinue nIl rl'cruiting for \'oluntpers, upon which 
)[eClellan dppl'nd!'d to supply his losses, mId till' 
rl'cruiting-ofJiees were dose(I. \s soon as he left 
\Vashington he was relil'ved from the command- 
in-e-hier' hy a publishell order that ha(1 not heen 
eommunieated to him hefore, and bee-a me ::--imply 
commlllllll'r of the Armv of the Potomac, 
Thus thwartetl, wlwtlier right or wrong, he n:ade 
it clear on \\ hat eOlulitions he WfiS fighting. and 
then went Gn, His first ohjf'ctive point was York- 
town, which he hesil'gl'(l from .3 
 \ pril until 4 )Iay, 
\Vithout venturing an opinion whether Y ol'ktown 
could have l)('en taken earlier by a vigorous as- 
sault, it is known that the enemy held it until the 



l\[d.'LELL.\X 


)[c('LELL
\
 


81 



Rtional hatt('ri('s \\('r(' rPIHly to op('n, an(l thl'ir CorC'e, .As )feDowl'l1 dill not eOIIl(', allll it h('came 
gl'nl'rat )la
TlHIl'r, ('\':prl':-::-:l'tl hi:-: :-:urpri:-:l' thllt known that he would not, Portt'r wa:-: retnrlll.d to 
thl'\' Wl'r(' not :-:tol"l1ll'(1 without all this eng-inepring hi:-: ori.!!inal enmp, The rin'r now divi<led tile 
\\Ol:k, . lie :-:aid that with ;;,/100 men he hl'ld 1011,- _\l"Inv of tll(' Potllmae, allll the commllnielltions 
000 in chcek. refu:-:ing to obl'Y onh'rs to It'a\"(' the w('re' plw'ariolls, TIll' army atl nmeed UpOll Hich- 
place until the hnttl'ril's were rt'ad
' to oJlt'n, Oil mowl along- the (,h
ekahomin
'. now gTl'at1y 
wo]- 
10 _ \pril 
 orfolk was occupil'd by Gl'n, \\"001. On It'n-t Ill' l('ft \\ ing ill four di\-i:-:iolls along thp York 
the other hallll. it ma\' he said tlwt :\1('{'Ie]lIm':-: l:Ïn>r railroad, south of the ('hiehaholllill\-, allll the 
caution" Its not" ithmit its peculiar logie, 11 \HI:-: rigl.lÌ" ing', ('on:-:i:-:ting of th-e dh'i:-:ion:-:. Iiy t II(' op- 
tll(' fir:-t ('ngagl'ml'nt sincl' the battle of Bull Hun, pll:-:lt(' bank, th(' swollpn stl'l'mn ru
hing b('t\\('('n, 
:\Ic{,lellan coul<l affonl to "ait rathl'r than to ri:-:k amI no hridg-e heing a 
ure COlllnHlJli('atilln eX(,l'pt 
much: hut critiei:-:m, in the light of latl'r en
nts, Bottom's hridg-I', IlI'low tIll' ruilroad cro:-::-:ing, On 
warrants the opinioll that his hahits as an elll-.d- the nig-ht of au )Iay the Con fl'(l('rat 1':-:, takillg- ad- 
neer and his ]/H'k of ('xperienl'e, comhitH'd with u nlllta,!!e of a deluge of rain, mO\"l'tl out 11I)(1l'r (;(,11, 
5\'st('matic charaeter of lIlilul. in whieh dl'lih('ra- ,Jo:-:('ph E, Jolm:-:ton to attal'k the .Kational I ('ft, 
don wa:-: a strong faetol', cau:-:e(l him to he l1n- whi<'h it "ouM h(' dillicult to support from the 
neel's:-:alil
' slow in this early portion of the cam- north, Em'lv the Il('\':t day Lon!!:-:trel't allll Tlill 
paig-n, Ill' was ,leceived hy thp ell('my a:-: to the attal'keù. allll t]ll'rc was fOlig'ht tile hatt]p of Fair 
numbers in his front, anll was misled hy fnls(' map:-: ()ak
, call1'll bv the {'onfedeI'Htes Sl'n'n PilJ('s, 
of th
 t('rmin, in whieh the direetions of stream:-: ('a:-:ev's dh-i:-:ion' Wlh dri\'l'n I,ach. alld ('OUdl and 
.and the localitil's of rOlHls were wron!!, Aceord- IIl'ilitzl'lman eomillg to hi:-: support wer(' ahout tv 
ing- to the returns on 1 
\I'J'il. 18fi::!, tht' ßrm
' :-:ucelllllb, TIll' enprny nlldueioll
ly Iltt(,lIIptl'11 to 
wa
 di vidl'll into four corp:-;, t hn:-:e of )Ie J}(}\\"('ll. 1'11":-: hd" (,l'1l t hI' ll'ft "ing- anll the riwr and to 
Sumner, lIeintzl'lman, allll Kew
, "ith a dh i:-:ion s('ize Bvttom's bridg-(', "ll('n )Ie(,]('llan, 
iek ill 
()f re
ular infantrv IInel canlh:vawl a re:-:l'l"\"e 111'- h('11. ordl'red Sumner to att(,Jnl't the crll
:-:ing (If 
tiller)', Ilumbcrin,!.{' in 
rawl ag
regll1l' 011 the roll:-: tIll' tottl.ring hridge in hi:-: fl'Ont. Sumner ull'l'a(1\' 
of 1 
\pril. l1-'ü
. 1HU)fi,j nll'Il, rhi
 due
 not lu\(1 his ('orp:-: preparetl to mo\'e lit u "ord, lI11tl 
incIwle )[e Do" ell's corp:-:. w hieh was soon de- ;-\l'd
\\ iek' 
 d i vi
ion ru:-:}wll aero:-:s, p]an t('ll a bu t- 
ta('hetl and (lid not partieipate in the Pl'nimm]m' tery of t\\ent
-f(lur Xllpo]eon g-uns 
o as to flllnk 
campaig-n, Hiehmond was the objl'eti\-e point. the Confl'l!el'llte 1H1nul<'e, and hurled the attuekin
 
The :-:outhern portion of the pl'nin:-:ulu i:-: flat awl Coree buek upon Fuir Ollhs :-tation, Hlld 111(' en- 
mal':-:}l\'. with a salt tide on York ri\-er as fill' as tin' anny cro
sed, th(' eupture of Hiehmoll(l lIIight 
\\' e:-:t Point and on the ,Jun1l's he\ OJHI Citv Point. soon }lIL\-C follow('(l. \fhen the ('onfl'(ll'l"IItl':-: re- 
Xorthea:-:t of Uichmond flo,,:, tll(" Pamunk'ey. join- nc"eù their attal'k on 1 June, it wa:-: without 
ing the :\fattapony to form York rher, Betwl'en propl'r ('ollC'('rt, and they were n'p('llel1 "ith II ](I
S 
the Pamunkl'Y IIlld the upper Jllrn('
, flowing north of 4.2:I:J nwn, The Fl'lleral lo:-:s "liS ,j.-;;m, Soon 
of Hiehmond, is the ('hil'kllhominy, whieh, pas:-:ing- aftl'r\\ard the Xlltionlllllrm
 T('cO\-el'l'll its 1'0:4,.. lit 
through wooded swamps and flowing- south into FiliI' Oaks, but nlH(ll' no furthpr nttempts to Cllp- 
the ,Jalll(':-:, pr(}\'('d during- the rainy pel"ÌlIlh a turl' Hichmonfl. G(,Il, J, E, John:<ton hlld b('en 
mueh more flillieult oh4aele than hlld heen alltiei- sen'rely WOUlHh.ll, and hi:-: p]aee was takf'1l by Gf'n, 
pate(l. There are thiekets of whit(' oak intl'r- (T, W, Smith, whill' Gl'Il, Hoh('rt Eo Lee "II:' in 
sper"ed "ith pool-like e\':tell
ions, Thus, while in chief command in the citv, 
drv sea"ons it was II hrook, in wet ()ne
 it W/IS a Two e\-ents now oecuri'l'll to ('mharra:-:s 1\lcClel- 
brtll1d rivf'r with :-:wfilnpy ballh:-:, 
\fter the e\'acu- lan's further mon'ment: the fir:-:t wa:-: a d('monstm- 
ation of Yorktown, the oecupation of \Yilliams- tion that had heen made by" Stonewall" Jllek
on 
burg- was contesÍl'd on;) and 6 )lay, The appor- upon \Ya
hington, and the'oth('r a raid of (,ell, J. 
tionment of troops to the atta('k was not wi:-:ely E. n, Stuart. on 12 awllH Jun(', with l.,j()O eavalrv, 
calculnted, Hooker complaineù that for nim' around the right flank of thl' Xational army, llè- 
hours his division of thirte('n rpgiments hore the stroying stores and eapturing provision:-:, The 
hrunt of the enemy's nttaeks "ithout support, al- eourse taken by )Ie(,lellan. wha1t'\-er mll\- he the 
though there wpre :
O,OOO lIl('n in sight unengaged, opinion wheth('r a retreat \\a:-: nef'e:,:-:ary, \, as I".J<l, 
Williamshurg was abandoned hv the elwmv IInd and :-:kilfullv carri('d out, 1\lcT>owell withheld, and 
the forwnTl1' mo\-ement was reSUIIl('<l, Thè ùis- JaC'kson agåin in line before Riehmollll. he deter- 
tance to HÌ('hmonù i" about fifty milt's, _\s the milll'd to fall back to reor
aniz(' anll plan IInew, 
Conft'dl'rates fell back to cowr their eapital. fight- allll. preparatory to thi:" he would mahe a change 
ing in retreat, the Xatiollal army n(h-aneed, meet- of hllse, White lIouse could no lon
el' he 
lIfdy 
illg- "ith no 
trong r(':-:istance until it wa" e:-:tab- held: the ,J anl('S rÌ\'er "as opf'n: transports haù 
lisheù on the Chickahomim', Had )[eCleIlan Own already reaehed City Point. Thu
 tIll' lIew base 
made hi" change of hllSë, the James ri\-er b...- was còrrect for a nèw mo\-ement upon Hichmond, 
jng opell('d, he would douhtle:-:s haye heen sllect.""'
- lIt:: (l('termineù upon a ft.ank mO\-CIIII'nt to the 
fut The ('onfed('rate iron-cIad
 ran up as far a" .Tames hy 
Ilh:-:tantially a single rOlld. ol'('n on his 
Drewn'" ßluff on 15 )[ay, amI on the It!th )Ie- flank to many roads, of which IlP would ha\-e to 
ClellarÌ hud reaeheù the Chickal1lJlllim', The near- eonte:-:t e\-eIT "foot of the wa\-, The di\-i:-:ions north 
est part of this river is only fi\"C mile
 from Hich- of the l'hil'kallilminv were tv hc carefulh- and se- 
mond: Imt there are large swamps inter\"Cning', ereth' withdrawn, tlie hridg('s utilized fòr trains, 
which in rainy sea:-:ollS form a decided military ob- Large detachments thrown out to"urù Hichmond 
stacIe, )11'('lèIlan':-: adnuwe was wpIl in posÌtion "ere to re:-:ist the enemy's a
saults and ('onr the 
by:'?:{ :\la\', Franklin's di\-i:-:ion had now aseel1l1ed mo\"pment, To rli\'ert the attention of the cnemy, 
York riyêr, and the hase of operations for the arm
 :\feCleIlan "ent Gen, Stoneman with canlh'
' to 
was the White nou:-:!' on the York Rh-er railrond make a raid in their r('ar on 2:
 June, but they were 
where it crosse:-: the Pamunkey, twenty-four mile:, I not entirely dec('i\"Cd, Ignorant at first of )jd1el- 
east of f{khmond, In p'\':pectation of the junetIOn 1 lan's purpo:-:e, they swarm('d upon him, and then 
with )fd)owell, Gen, Fitz-.Tohn Porter had ad- oc('urreù that cont('st eaIle(l the S('\'en dn\-s' bat- 
yanced to I1anO\-er Court-House, north of Rieh- tle:-:, fmm 2,) June to 1 Juh-, " 
moml, where on 24 :\lay he ùefeate(l a Confl.th-rate I On 2,) June Hooker hill!" h('en uùmnceù beyond 
YOI., 1Y.-6 



82 


:\lcCLErJL
\X 


Fair Oaks toward Ri<'hmund, and after an action 
at Oak 0rO\-e had helll his 
round, and it !:;e('med 
that there mi
ht yet he a rapid march upon lUeh- 
mond: but the nl'WS of "::-itonewall .. Jack
OIÙ, re- 
turn had cau
l'd :\IcClellan to decille at lince, and 
Hooker was reeallcd, On 
fi .fune (..en, I), H, Hill 
athtl'kctl Fitz-.fohn Porter at )[echanic
\'Ïlle, 1'01'- 
t('r fou
ht valiantly as he fell hack, and, from 
wllnt of eoneert on tl1(' part of the enl'my. he re- 
Iwlll',1 ('very attaek with enormous l()s
 t(l them, 
On the 2.th wa
 foug-ht the 
e\'ere hattle of (raim's'
 
:\Iilb, tll ('over tlw 
ationalright, in which Porter 
was eonfl'OlÜ('d by .Jal'k
on allli D, [I. Hill. while 
the hrid
es were threatened by 
\, p, Hill and 
Long4rel't. 'Trains and parts of heavy guns had 
heen taken acro"'s the rh-er, and t he troops cl u
- 
tered aroullli the hrÏlIges on th(' north 
ide, waiting 
to cl'O
S, This passlI,!.::'e in presence of the enemy 
WIIS a d('licate aIlll dang-Nous ta!:;k. Falling bach. 
fl'lIlIl :\[echanie
ville, tlwv had reaehed (j.aines'
 

Iills opposite the 
ew h'ri<lge, The troops were 
to def('IHI the al'pronehe
 during the Ilay nml to 
('ro

 in the ewnin,g-, lk
troying till' bridg('s h('himl 
them, Portl'l"S foree formed an are of an ('xtend- 
ell cil'elf' on an elenttell plateRu, lIe was first nt- 
tackl'll about noon by .\, p, II ill , whom he repelled; 
hut the eIlf'my retnnH'll with such \'igol' to the at- 
tack that Porter usell nIl his resern's and a4ed 
urgently for rc-enforcenll'nts, Slocum's lli\'Ïsion 
eame awl IWHle a di\'el'
ion in his favor, but was 

()()n on'l"J10\\ereù anù outflank('ll hy Jackson amI 
E\\ell, The tll.f('nt woulll ha\'e been It fntHI rout 
but for tlw timely appl'arance of new re-f'nforce- 
ml'nts under Fn'nch awl )leag-lll'r, nnd the <-'on- 
felleratl's were alTc
t('d while (In the verge of a 
great \'ietury. Porter cros
I'11 that night und 11('- 

trllyell the hrillges h('hiwl him, The Xationallo
s 
was ahout !I,nno men, At the elose of thi
 battle 
:\[e('lellan, in an a
sembly of his 
l'nerals, pro- 
posell. l'\"pn at. that moment, tu make It ru
h upon 
l{iI'hmOTul: but thi
 wa
 oppo
('(l by his lieuten- 
ants awl ahamlOlH'd, The ('onfl'IIl'rate
, now SUI'e 
that :\Iel'lt'llan wa
 cut off from his ba
e, eX I 'l'etetl 
to Ile
troy and ('apture his whole army, twas 
only at this juncture that their eyes were fully 
op(,lll'd: but tlll'Y soon fountl that Whitl' nou
e 
had heen evacnatl'll and a new hase sccured, which 
was alrl'lul v d('fendell hv the Kational flotilla, In 
announcin
 the results 'thu
 far, on 2:4 June, to the 
seerl'tarv of war, :\lcClellan a

erted that, if t h(' 

f)\"l'rnrill'nt hluL sustained him, he coultl. with 
10,000 adllitiunal trl}Op
, luwe eapturetl RiehmoJl(1 
th" })ðt day, aIlll he elo
"d the ùe
patch to :-\ee, 

tanton with the hold a
s('l'tion: "If I !:;fi\'e this 
nt'my now, 1 tl'll you plainly that I owe no thanks 
to you, or to any other persons in \\'a
hington, 
You han' Ilone your b('st to sa('rifiee thi
 arm v:' 
On the thirll d;\\', ::-iatul'!La\', 28 June, the mo
-('- 
ment w:\s condu
te,l rapidly but in good ol'll('r 
Imnll'lliatelv after the battle of lraines's :\lill
, 
:\Ic(,lellan iHtd be('n inclinell to CI'O
S the l'hieka- 
hominy and per
evere in his ,,{forts to hold his po- 

ition: hut, after a consultation with hi:-; corps 
commawlers, he Ih'cided upon the l'hange of 
lta
e, and proeecded promptl
' to its e:\(,t'ution, Till., 

ralHl l'l.tro
nule mO\'l'nwnt was now to h" made 
through the swamp forn1l'd hy the \\1lite Oak 
ereek. a hrandl of the Chickahomim. and t}ll'n lw 
the lìuaker road prineipally to :\laivern Hill, tile 
point be
-olHl whi('h they would be Sl'('ure fl'om at- 
tal'k, hoth hy tl1<' 
tren
th of the po
iti()n arlll the 
flank fire of the fleet. Di\'erging from Riehmoml 
Rilli runnin
 to inter"ect at differl'nt inter\'als, the 
routl' of )lcl'lellan werc. eOilIlting- from the north, 
the Williamsburg tUl'Hl'ike, the l'harlc
 City roall, 


)IcCLELLAX 


the Derbvor ("entral roall. and the Xew :\larket 
road, frOl'n which the \'arina road diver
es to the 
:->01lth, Along thesc ronùs, upon the flank of the 
Xational arm\', the columns of Lee \\l're launched- 
:\Iag-ruder on'the \Villiamsburg- road, Hugpr on the 
Charles City, A, P. Hill on the Centml, while ,Jack- 
son, eros
ing- the lirape\ ine brÜIgl', moved upon 
their rear, The situation was grave in the extr('me: 
hut It holll rear-g-uul'll eheck('d ,Jack
on from time 
to time, while 
trong detuchments prote('tell the 
ri
ht flunk, fought th( lIattle:->, and plm-ed the 
mettl(' of the excl'lknt but l'"hausted truops, 
On the murning of 2D June was foug-ht the hat- 
tle of Samge's ::-itatinn, in which the fightillg wa
 

l'\-('re, Magruder, marching upon Fair Oaks and 
finding it ahandOll{'II, had hurried on to till' station, 
whieh was held hy Sumnel' awl lleintz('lmun, who 
"ere to hold it till nightfnll. Cnfortunate1y 
Heintzelman, through a mislIlIller:;;tawling-, retired 
too soon, and the hrunt of l\lagrud('r's attack h\" 
the \Villiamsburg road fl'll upon Sumner, who hel
l 
his po
t !:;o well that he was able to retir(' nt nig-ht- 
fall, though If'a\ ing his wounde(l h('hind him, Th(' 
fifth (lay of hattle was :.10 June, nnll the fi
hting 
was at Frazier's farm, wlwre the Central road 
joins th(' Quakl.r roall. Lon

treet awl "A, p, Hill, 
who luulero
sell t h(' {,hiekahominy at K ('w hritlgl', 
nUlrl'lwd to Rnd then follow('d the Central road, 
\ll'l'l('llan's lin(' wa
 now eig-ht mil('s long-J uek- 
son upon its r('ar, )Iag-rudl'r, who hall made a ùe- 
tour, mO\'in
 pamllt'L by the Xew :\[arket road, 
nIlll rJong-
tl"l'('t and Hill adnmcing upon Frazier's 
farm, The d('
tnH'tion of the Xationlll army 
"eemed sure, The Confederate nttuck was yigor- 
ous, but :\lagl'lllkr and II uger did not come up 
as expl'l'Ìl'll: thl' troops from Fort Harling were 
driwn hack b
' 
hell:s from the Xational gun-boats; 
,Jackson. who had bel'n d('ht\'('d hv t hl' destru('tion 
of tit(' Whit(' Oak bridge, foi.llld h"ïtn
l'lf ohlig-ed to 
r('con
trul'Ì it, ana was further dwck"ù b\' Frank- 
lin, :\leC'Il'llun's Rrmv fell back after' dark to 
:\lal\Tem lIill, where the lRst of the trains and all 
the reserve artillery luul RrrÍ\'cd in the aft('rnoon, 
and whel'(' the la
t' 
Tl'at battle of the penin
ula 
was to h(' fought. l\lalvern is an elevated plain, 
in some deg-ree fOl'tified by ravines radiating to- 
ward the front nml on the northw('st. It is ahout 
t1 mile find a half long hy three fonrths of a mile 
d('f'p, and not far h('hind it, d('fended by thp gnn- 
hoats froIll Turkey Point to IIa
all':s and Ilarri- 

nn's IJamling, is james riv('r, In front it i
 en\'el- 
oped by a small strl'am and thick undel'woOll. Both 
flanks of the Kational Rrmy touched the ri\'er here 
during till' ni
ht, Sykès, wIth the reg-ulars, 
guarded tlw road from ltiehmond to Ilaxall's, then 
('ame tll(' re
t of Porter's corps, IIeintzl'lman in the 
cpnt"r, then :-;umlwr, Franklin, allli Keyes, The 
al'proaclws were dl'fewled hy h('a\'y guns, while 
the lighter hatt('ries wel'l' tlispo
ed for use accord- 
ing' to ('ircnm
tances, The only roads by which 
thc Confed"rates could approlll'h were that from 
HÏ('hmoml to IIaxnlr
 and the Quak('l' road, Their 
first mO\"ement was upon th(' Kational left, The 
po
ition spemed impreg'llllhil'; the outer line hris- 
tll'd with guns, and. ('ould that 1)(' taken, there r('- 
nmined the inncr and still more dii1icult def('nces, 
hut Gf'n, l.('e onl('rel1 an ntta('k nl()n
 thl' whole 
line, Pnder the b('st circumstnnc('
. sucees:; seemed 
impo
sibl(', The moy('nwnt \\ a
 lkpcndl'nt upon 
a si
nal, which wa
 mi4ak('n. and this ga \'e ri
c to 
"ome confusion, The ('on f('derates attaekcd furi- 
ously, nnd, being hurl('d hnek, rptul"l\('(l again amI 
fI!.::'ain, 
\t It si!.::'nnl the final uttnck wus mmle bv 
)'lagnuler awl' [), 11, 11 ill, who
f' troops meltell 
II way befure the :K ational fire, and t he defeat of 



:\[CCLELL.\X 



lcCLELL.A
 


83 


the ('onfell('mt('s was fl
:-:nred, .\,.; :-:oon as th(' I on('r", TIp Wf\S thus enabled to join forces with 
confli<,t wa:-: ended, the Armv of the Potomac rp- Lee fit Antil'tam, On the 1Uth Lee haù onlv Ì\\O 
sunle(l its retl'eat upon I1arrisOlÙ; Lan(lin
. which I di\'i:-:iOl

 ael'O:o:s th
 PotOl!lI,I(', b
lt the _XaiÏonal 
it reached by noon on 2 July. atHl 'HIS then secure army d1<1 not ('ome mto posItIOn tIll the 1.th, )1('_ 
from :my further attack, The boldl"st and most Clellan phH't'(llluuker and )Iansfil'lù on the right. 
impubive :-:pirits in the army were of opinion ,that, next 
ame ::-ìumner, with Franklin as a support, 
had tt \ ilJ'()rou:-: acl nUlce been ordered as a riposte BurnslùP was on the left, and PortN' in the centre, 
after th
 attack on 
lah-ern. such Wl're the con- Ll'e had pl:lcc'd his army in the a('ut(' angle in- 
fu.don and disonler in the Cunfederate ranks, that clo:'-l'.l by the Potomac and the 
\utietam: on till' 
RichmOlHI could have u('en captur('d without fur- heights betwl'en the two stream:-:. to the ri
ht and 
ther deltty, But the condition of the men rendered left of the B
)(mshoro road. he had posted Long- 
this ulmo:.-t impo:-::-:ibl(', strel't ttnù lhll. with I100d on the ldt. In the 
When. on j' July. Pre:-:ident Lincoln dsited the centre of the po:-:ition was the l)unker church, 
arlll\', he fouml more than 
O,OOU men there, al- which :.-eemeù an objective point for both armies, 
thoIÌ,g-h (fc'n, )Ic('}ellan had reportc'd a smaller Three stone bridges cross the Antietam, and there 
numh(,l' by rea:-:on of confused rctum:-:, Ill' aske(l are al:-:o several fords, The brirlge on the l('ft \\as 
for more troops and anot her trial: hut he had lost in front of Burnside, the ceutml one in front of 
the confhlcnc(' of the President and his adviser:-:, Porter, and the right oppo:-:ite 1I00hr and l\[ans- 
and neither his r('<{uest nor his ad vice was lis- field, )lcl'lelhIlÙ: plan was for Hookc'r to ('ross an<l 
ten('d to, On 
 July (fen, Burn:-:ide brought up re- attaek the elwmy'
 left, supported if ncc(':-:sary by 
l'nforcenwnts from Hoanoke island. and some days Sumner amI Franklin, and upon the apparent suc- 
later Le(>'s army hegan to wi!hdruw for a north- ce:-:,.: of that attuek Burnside was to ero:-:s the bridg(' 
ern campaig-n, On the 11th (
en, IIallf'ck was in his front. pr('

 the enemy's rig-ht, pa:o:
ing if 
mlHle general-in-chief. and on a 
\ug, )lc(,lellan was possible to the 
outh und reur of 
harpshurg, At 
ordered to evacuate the pl'ninsula, Ill' was di- daylight on the morning of the 17th Hooker, fol- 
rccted also to repair in I)('rson fir:,;t to Fort )Ion- 10w('<1 hy )Ian
ficlcl. having crossed the 
tream, 
roe and then to Alexandl'ia. and was reliC\'ed of made so furious an attack upon HUOIlllnd Jaekson 
his command, and onll'red to selHl every an-tilahle that th('y were drivC'n baek l'('yond the Dunker 
soldier to the n('w army of \ïrginia und('r Gpn, church, He-enforeC'd by D, II, Hill. the Confed- 
John Pope, an army that had been formed by con- erates returned the attack. and drove Hooker hack 
solidation of the forces und('r Gens, Frémont, in turn, Then SUUlIll'r eame up, moveù forward, 
Banks. and )lcDowell. The:-:e thre(' ol'ganizlltions \\as driven huek, and again, with Franhlin's aid, 
were now known as th(' 1st. 2d. and 3d corps re- forced them b('
 oml the Dunk('r chureh, Sumner 
spccti\-elr, (See POPE, ,TOIIX,) The 
econd battle even attempted to mo\'e. with a l"'rtion of hi
 
of Bull Hun. 30 Aug-" l
li
, was even more disas- corps. to the left upon Sharp:,;LUl'g, Lut he could 
trou:-: than the fir:-:t, Ilnd on 2 ::-ìept. Pope re:-:igned only hold his ground, But the movements on the 
the eommand, In this emergency the gO\ernment left were less fortuuate, Burn
ide had Leen 01'- 
looked to 31cCIellan as the only man who could dered at 8 A, 31, to take the stone bridgc', and aid 
inspire cunfid('nee and bring order out of chaos, the general mo\'ements by ()ecupying- the heights 
He hims('lf says that, pending the time when a be)ond, The approach to the bridg-c being swept 
general could be selected. he had only a verhal hy the guns of the enemy, the ord('r to take it was 
order or rerlu('st to a:,;sume control; that in point not obeyed until 1 o'dock, \\h('n the Confederates 
of faet he never was fully in command, and that had so strengthened their position beyond it that 
thus, without a warrant to show, not only his repu- it was impossible to dislodge them, Thus it hap- 
tation. Lut his life depl'nded upon some measure of pened that the principal fighting was on the right, 
SUCCf'SS in a situation that seemed almost hopeless, where )Iansfield was killed, and Hooker wounded, 
Before setting out to meet the Conf('derate finny The desp('rat(' att('mpts of the c'Twmy to pierce the 
in 3laryland, he left his card with a p, p, C. for Xationalline on the right and centre w('re foiled, 
the Pre:-:illent, and departe<l without an official In spite of repeated orders, the failure of Burn- 
word from the secretary of war or the general-in- side'
 corps to take the lower stone bridge invali- 
chief. He had been in virtual command. from 2 dated )[ct'lellan':-: combinations, and to some ex- 
to 7 Sept,. in charge of the defences of the city, tent neutralized his success, Had it heen carried 
Flu
hed with his recent victories, Lee was march- early in the day, Lee might have heen drÌ\'en pell- 
ing into )Iaryland. and must be met and checked mell into the PotomaC', As it was. when we con- 
by the remnants of Pope's army and the Army of sider all the circumstances, the forcing hack of the 
the Potomac, It is touching to read of the men's Confederate line, and their inahility to make any 
joy and renewed confidence when they knew that effect upon the .Kational line. the engagement at 
.. Little )Iac" was again in command, The mag- Antietam, so often regarded as only a drawn bat- 
netism was like that ascribed to Xapoleon, 01'- tIe. must be looked upon as a decided success, 
ganizing as he proceeded, he marched into )Iary- .\hout 13,000 men fell on each side, but .:\lcClellan 
land parallel with Lee, who had advanced as far flS retained the field when the enemy, his plans entire- 
Frederick, Lee was disappointed by the coolnes:.- ly foiled, sullenly withdrew, As an off:;('t to the 
of his reception, and on the approach of )lcClellan disaster of Harper's Ferry. )[cClellan had. in this 
fell back to Turner's and Crampton's gaps in the brief campaign, taken 13 guns, 3D colors. upward 
South mountain, where he \\ as dcfeatecl and driven of 1,,"000 :-:tand of arms. and more than ü.OOU pris- 
from the former by Reno's corps, and from the lat- oners. while he had not lost a gun or a color, 1\0 
tel' by Franklin on I::J and 14 Sept. )lcClellan was swift pursuit was attempted, and Lee crosserl the 
now to encounter the full force of the enem\" on Potomac at hi
 leisure on the 1Dth, l\IcClellan then 
.\ntietam cre('k, a small tributary of the Potomac. followe(l. adYancin
 hi
 arm\" between Long-street's 
which it joins ahout seven miles north of Harper':-: corps an(l the UUd;1 body un"der Lee, and. halted at 
Ferry, By the failure of Gen, )Iiles to fortify Warrenton to recruit, while the powers at Wash- 
:\Iaryland hei,g-hts, and in spite of the entreatie:-: of ing-ton. wIthholding- all prai
e for what he and his 
:\lcClellan that IInrper's Ferry should be aban- army had actlleyed. were scolding him for his de- 
doned and its garri:-:on aelded to hlS army. ,Jackson lay, He needed supplies of all kind:-:, and with re- 
captured the po
t on 1:3 Sept, anù took 11.500 pris- gard to the arrival uf these there has sineI' been a 



84 


:\[CCLELLX
' 


l\IcCLELLA
 


long- l'ontrove1'sy, Ill' belie\'('tl that what time \Va!" health. with a long- Jife apparently hefore him, 
lo"t in inllnediatl' pur"uit of the enelllY would be heart disea"e was de\"elnpell, am1 he died sUlhh'nly 
more than (,oIllPl'nsated hy the concentratioIl, at his ('ountry resillf'nce, In l
RIi appeared a vol- 
freshne"s. Nluipments, good spirits, and recoH'rell ume entitlell .. :\lcC'lellan's 0\\ n Storv." with a 
morall: or his army, Urgellt orllf'rs \\ere sent him "hort biog-raphical introduction hy the editor, 'Vill- 
to move on, and irritating insinuations wel'l' hurled iam C, Prime, It l'ontains his own yi('ws, in his 
upon him, .At la"t an 01'1 1 I'l' from thf' Pn'"ident own words. with extmC'ts from his private corre- 
l'ame on 7 XO\.,. relic\-ing )IcClellan of the com- spondeIl('e with his wife, 
mand. and conferring it upon (
l"n, Burn"ille, who )1('( 'lellan was ahout 5 feet 8 inche
 in heig-ht, 
tlwn (ws he had before) declared hb unfitne"s for it firmly built. with hroad shoulders, Ill' was very 
awl his indisposition to accept it. )lc('lellan was solid and muscular. and nn px('ellent horseman, 
Ilire(.ted to await orllprs at Trenton, 
, ,1., and )1011e8t and retiring-, he had withal a great self- 
afh'rw:ml at Xl'W York, I respeet. a gracious dig-nity, IIi" personal magnet- 
Though he was set asidp hy the gon'I'nment, his bm has no parnlh'l in military history, except in 
hold upun the peoplc of the country was nen'r re- that of the first Xapoleon; he was literally the 
l:tXPll. The army hlolized him, and his popularity idol of his officers and men, They would oheý him 
followed him, I II 1Mö3 he vbited Boston, where he "hen all other ('ontrol had failed, If. tllP opinion 
was recpi\'l'1l enthusiastically. anll in 1
fi4 he was of many, he wa" unduly careful of his troops. so 
chn"pn to dl'liver the oration at \Vest Point on the that his power to organize was neutralized by his 
occasion of the unveiling of the monument erectpd eaution in the field, Ill' \\ as a clear writl"r and an 
to the memorvof the ol11cers anll :-;olllil'rs of the effectÌ\'e speaker, As a 
tUlknt (If military hi
torv, 
rpgular army: Ill' took no fmther part in the he hUll no f'uperior in his sy
tematic knm
.ledge òf 
war, but in his enforced inactivity prepared his \\'ar
, hattles, anll taeties, Ill' was also an aeeom- 
.. Report on the Organization and Campaigns of pli"hed engilH'I'r, His plnn
 of eampaign were just, 
the Army of the Potomac'" which wa
 publi
hell ell'ar, anll timply: but any interference with them 
by the governnwnt, He also puhli"hed an edition threw him hack upon his natural caution. and 
himself. with a preliminary al'cOlmt of the cam- causl'll him to take 1II0re tim(' to reorg-anize and rp- 
paign in Wl,,,tern Virginia, The most "uh"tnntinl east than the e,.igencie
 of the war amI the rapid 
proof of hi
 popularity was his nominlltion nt Chi- mm-ements of the enemy woulll pNmit, He he- 
eago hy the Democratic party as tlll'ir candidate lien'd himself t11P personal hutt of the aclmini,..tra- 
for the presilll'ncy of the l.lIitpd Stah',.. in August, tion, and that it did not "ish him to succePIl. He 
1
1i4, But tllP time was illl'ho"PIl, :\11'. Lincoln's was constantly pngagpd in controversies, and his 
popularity h:ul hel"n continually growing, allll the de"plltehes. reports. 111111 later papf>rs are always in 
conviction of many, nmong- whom "ere warm the tone of one yindieating himsclf from real or 
friends of l\lc.( 'If'lhm. was that a change of adminis- fancied injustice, He waS a Illall of irreproaehahle 
tration \\'oulll at he"t, in that emergency. he but a charncter, a model Christian gentleman in e\ ery 
douhtful poli('v, )IcClellan's defeat was a foregone situation of life, Ill' devised the )Id'lellnn saddle, 
cOllr'lusion, Ill' received but 21 ele('toral votes whieh has proved u
eful and popular. in 183ü, 
against 212: hut the popular vote !lUll}!' a hett('r II is writings include" A :\Ianual of Bayonet Exer- 
record-he had 1,800,000 against 2,:WO,OOÜ, .As he cise," mlnpted from the Frcn('h (1
:ï'2); .. Gm-ern- 
hrul not sought the nomination, he was not dis- nwnl. Heports of Pacific Hn.iJroad :-ìurveys" (1834): 
appointell in the result, Ill' had resignl'd his ('om- .. Rl'port on the Urganization and {'Ilmpaigns of 
mission in t he army on 8 Sl'pl.. 18fj.t, amI imllle- the Army of the Potomae" (18ü4); papers in ., llar- 
diately after the ell'ction he \Vl'ltt to .Europe, where per's )la,
azine." 1Hj4-'j, and in .. 
crihnpr's" on 
he rcmained untillHli8, Eg
'pt allli the Xile, 
On his return he took up his re"itlence in Xcw :Ul'CI.l:LL.\
, Samtwl, soldil"r. b, in "
orces- 
York ('ity, In lI:ìG8-'!I he was employell to com- ler. :\Iass,. 4 Jan,. Ij:
O: d, in Woodstock. Conn" 
plete thl' Stevens iron-dad floatin
 battpry for har- 1. Oct., 1HO., IIis parents emigrated to _\rnerica 
bor dpfence, This "as a vi
ionary caprice of the l'arly in the ll:ìth century anù seUlptl on a farm 
invcntor and owuer, for which 
[d'leJlnn \HIS in near \\
 orC'ester, The family came from Kirkcud- 
no wi"e re"ponsihle: it had heen loug in proCl'S
 of bri
ht, on the Frith of Sol,,=ay. :-ìcotillud, where in 
construction, allli unforc"cpu difliC'ultil's pre:<enteù earlier times they h:ul tukpn part iu :-ìeottish wars as 
thpmsl'lve". whkh lell to its abandonment. HI' dl- 
tanchnphohler
ofthel'auscoftheStuart
, t:ìamuel 
clined tIll' presiden('yof the eniver
ity of ('alifor- was brought up as a farmer, hut joined the army, 
uia in 18m
, allll that of rniou colleg-e in 1Rü!J, Tn anù se1'\"('d as a lieutenant in the French and Tndinn 
H
.O h(' was nutlle eng-ineer-in-chie(of tll(' Ilcpart- war, The experience thu
 gained. and the example 
IlH'nt of do('ks of the city of Xl'W York, which post of th(' Rriti"h officers with whom he sl'1'\-ed, proved 
he left in 18.2, having-. in 18i1. declined an ap- of great alh-antllg-e to him in the Heyolutionary 
pointmcnt as city comptroller, lle wa-- also invitell war, In 1 jj;3 a troop of horse was raisl'd in '" ood- 
to hecome superintendent of con
truction or the stock and nei
hhoring towns, of which he WliS 
milronLl hridge across the II lIIbon at Poughkl.ep- maùe ('aptain, On the npw
 of the battle of Lex- 

ie, In 18R1 hl' was appointf'd hy congress a mem- ing-ton the comp/my immediatel
. marched to Bos- 
her of the board of managers of the Xational home ton, Snb"Clluently he was commissiou{'(l major, 
for disabled 
oldi!'rs. which uffic(' he held until hif' lieutenant-colonel, awl í'olonl'l of t he 12th regi- 
ùeath, During- thl'
e lath.r Yl'ars his principal ment of militia, anll on 10 June. 1 j'jn. hrigaùipr of 
resillen('e \Va:: in Umn,g'f', X, ,T.. hut in the "inters the ,')th hrig/Hle of militia, I1is eommissions are 
he re"illeù in X('w York or \\'ashington, lIe was pn.,..ervell in the family resilience at \\Toodstock, 
elected gO\'l'rnor of Kew .Tersey in 18." se1'Yf>d for ('onn" all signpd by (j.ov, John Trumhull, One 
one term \\ith (,lwlit, allll (leclinell It renominntion, reads hy authority of (}porg-e TIT.. and another hy 
He made scyeml tours in Europl'. vi"itin,g the Ea--t, authority of the Continental congres", After the 
and pllhli"hl"llllls oh"ernÜions in mag-llzine articlf's, inva
ioll of Kew IJOIHlon HIllI the mas"acre at Fort 
In the sl'ril's of military papers, appearing- in the Groton he wa" placed in chargp of those post
, and 
l'urrcnt issul's, he wrote several monographs illus- continllpd in that ('ap/wity until th(' clo,..e of the 
trating his campaign
, ancI vilHlic-ating hi
 rpputH- war, \\11('n only a major in th(' militia he was in- 
tion, While he was in the enjoyment uf good yited by l
en, \\' a
hingtun to join the Continental 



Md,'LI':LL.\
 


army, \\ it h the promi
e of a rolonelcy. hut he tle- 
dined, '\"hen peace was dee1ure(1 he returned to 
\\"oo(lstock and was 
t'\"eral times Pil'ded to the 
!'tate a

emhly,-IIis 
ral)(bon, 4
('U1'!!'('. surg-l'on, 
h, in \\"oO(I
tol'k. ('O11\l.. 
;l I h
('.. 1 7!)fi; (l. in Phila- 
delphia. Pa,. U :\Iuy. 1
47, wa
 grad.uated ut Yale in 
H
 iii, 
\ f01HlnP

 for natural Sl'iplH'e. de \"ClopI'd 
Hnllf'r the influence of tIll' elder 
illiman. led him 
to adopt medieillL' a
 hi
 profe
sion. IIml he began 
hb 
tlHlies in Xew lIa,-en under Dr, Tlwmu
 II ub- 
har(1, but. was graduated at the medical departnll'nt 
of therniH'r
ity of Pellll
ylnulia in It;19, E, en be- 
fore he ohtaÏtw(1 his de
ree he "a
 elected resident 
I'hy
ician to the ho
pital of the Phihulelphia alms- 
house, During' his first year of practice he per- 
formed the m04 important operation
 in sur
ery, 
sueh as lithotomv, extral'tion of the lens for l'ata- 
met. 1\tHl extirpution of t he lower jaw, Ill' opened 
a lIis
ectin,
-room, antl 
a"e pri,-ate coursps of 
lecture
, hoth on anatomy and ::;urgery, and his 
clnt::s soon hecame so numerous ns to rcquire a 
larger room for their aCl'ommoliation, II i!' sUcce
s 
wa
 so 
reat that he conceiw(l the idea of found- 
in
 a me(lieal college. awl with ot hers he ohtained 
from the Ipgi!"lature of Penn!'ylvania, in 1

,'), a 
charter for J effer
on me(lieul colle
e, J n lR
(i he 
beg-an his puhlic lecturf's as professor of t'urgery 
in tll(> new eollege, which, notwithstanding the op- 
position of the profe!''Sion and difficulty in obtain- 
ing a faculty, 
rew 
II rapidly that in ten years the 
stwlents numberell aliI), In 11-\:
8 the facuity was 
reorg-anizel1. but without Dr, )Ie( 'lellan's lUlml" fintl 
this action led to his inllnediately procuring' the 
ineorporntion of the medieal department of Penn- 
sylvania college, lIis leeture!' in connection with 
the new institution began in XO\emj,er. 1
:m, find 
continued until the spring of 1 RIa, [Ie was the 
originator of the e'\.tendetl 
y!"te1l1 of medieal edu- 
l'ation as it now exists in this country, and the 
clinieal instruction of the colle,ge wa
 ori
inated by 
him, He aeqnir..(l one of the larg-e
t praC'tiees 
known in the lTnited State!', and his rt'putation ex- 
teIH 11'(1 to Europe,,, hill' he attraC'tt'd patient;;; from 
all parts of thi
 country, the \\- est Indies, awl 
South _\merica, 
\s a surgeon he performed almo
t 
e'-ery capital operation known, together with many 
others that were original with him
elf, He \\as 
espe('ially eminent in ophthalmic surgery and his 
operations for cataract amI other diseases of the 
pye, and he was among the first to extract the lens, 
Other op..ratiùn
, now quite common, were not u!'l'd 
in the l'"nited 
tates till performed hy him, and he 
!'hares with Valentine :\fott. of Kew York, anll 
.Tonn (', Warrpn. of Boston, the credit of e!'tabli
h- 
ing many procedures new in this country, He dill 
more than finy other surgeon by the numhcr anll 
success of his operations to estahlish completely, a
 
_ safe and feasible, thc removal of the parotid gland, 
In earlier years he was a contributor of original 
papers to medical periodicals, dnd wa
 one of the 
conductors of the" _\meriean )Ie(lical Revil'w and 
Journal." Dr, )leClellan ellited Ehl'rle's .. Theon 
find Praetice of Phy"ic" (Philallelphia. 1840), anll 
left in manuscript ,. The Principles and Practi(Oe of 
Surgery," (It\47), It has heen !'(aid of him that, "like 
Bowditch, he infuse(l his !'pirit into his pupi!s, 
There are now hUTHlrells of them scattered 0'-1'1' the 
eountrv "ho manife
t it in t heir bold and efficient 
surg-erj'. and who "ill welcome the puhlication of 
the
e pl'inC'iples which the
- once heard from his 
eloqnent lip
. and on which t heir sueces
 in prac- 
tice has so mueh (lepemled," See" )Il'moir" hv 
his son in Gro

's" Lives of Eminent Phv!'(ir'Ìan"s 
and Surgeons" (philadelphia, 1
lil),-nis hrother, 
Sam((('I, phy
icia!l, b, in \\.oodstock, Coun,,21 


l\IcCLELLX
' 


85 



ept., It'UU: d, in Philall{'lphia, Pa,. -t .Tan,. 1
5
, 

\'as grlUlllatell at the me(lical dt'partment of Yale 
III 1
:!:J, awl then entered the oJlie{' of (tI'Ol' cr e 1\lc- 
t'll'llan in PhillUlelphia, 
\fter It few H'ar
11C 5..t- 
tl..<1 in Bri
tol. Pa,. hut soon returned "to Philadel- 
phia, "here he I'l'ncwl.d his a
soeiation with his 
hrother. partieularly :11 opht halmic Slll'crerv, lIe 
"a
 likewi
e identifit'd w,th tltf' foullllincr
o(.rl'ffer- 
:,on medieal college, in "hich he was 
t'1ll0ustl'a- 
tor and afterward professor of anatomy. This 
chair Ill' rplinquishcd to aecP I 't that of oiJt'tetrics. 
Subsequently he was electel profe
"or of that 
brunch in the medical department of Pcnnsvh-ania 
college, bnt soon l'l'siglll'd to follow his 'private 
!,raetiee, in which ht' continue(l until hi!' death,- 
Oeorge's son. .John lIill Hrinton. phy
ician, h, 
ill Philadl'lphia, Pa" I:J Aug-" I
:!:J; d, ill E,lin- 
hurgh, Scotland, 
() July, 1
j4, was grluluated at 
the rni\'l'r
ih' of Penn
dnll1ia in 1
41. IlIHI at its 
medieal depm:tment in 1844, In It;,'):) he wa
 elected 
I'rofe
sor of nnatomy in the medical del'artnll'nt of 
Pl'llllsylvania. college, but held that appointment 
for a !'hort time only, Ill' wa
 surgeon at 
t, 
,Jo
('ph's ho
pital from 1
,')(I tilllt'l.i2, awl also at 
\\ïll's eye hospital for many years, During the 
('ivil war he was connedI'd with the South stI'l'et 
hO
i'ital. nnd afterward was acting assi
tant sur- 
geon at )Iower's hospital, where he perforllH,a some 
notahle operations, accounts of which mol' gin'n in 
.. The :\["dieal awl Surgical History of the War of 
the Hehdlion" (Washington, I
jO), 1>1', l\ld'lellan 
had an ð.ten
ive practiee, ùoth in ::;urgery awl in 
nWIlidne, awl WitS frequently calle(l on tô opl'rate 
in di tierent parb of the !'tate, .Among t he opera- 
tions crl'dite(l to him mOl' the r{'movul of the entire 
parotid gland. r('porte(l in hi
 father's" 
urgery," 
IltHl the fir
t an(l only removal of the cntire upper 
e
tremitr for di
f'a
e, including the shoulllN'-hlndc 
allll collar-hone, Ill' in!lPrited much of his father's 
quiekness, and his (liag-nosi
 of di
pa
c t'ecmed al- 
most intuitive, while his ('xtremf' dd iea('v of feel- 
ing {tnll genial nature nUlIle him a wP!cOlilf' visitor 
in the sick-room, Dr, l\(e('lellan edited ., Prinei- 
pies an(l Practice of Surgery" (Philadelphia. 1848), 
left in nULIHI
C'ript hy his fathe.', II is son GEORGE 
was graduah'd at the Jeffer
on medical college in 
1870, and now prneti
es in Philadelphia, - The 
se('on(l Samuel's !'(IIn, t'ul'sncll, cidl engim.er, b, 
in Phila(lelphia, Pa.. a Dec" ma,'j, was grallnated 
at 'Villiams, :\Ia!'s" in It'3:J, and on (j )Iay, 18l.i2. 
entered the B:!d Xew York regiment. was wounded 
at )lah-ern Hill. and on a .July beeame topographi- 
cal a
!"istant on the staff of Gen, .Andrew .\, I1ll1n- 
phreys, He wa
 pre
ent at Frederiekshurg, (,han- 
cellorsville, and Gettvshurg where he was wOUlHled 
again, and at the heådrjuarters of the 
\rmy of the 
Potomac until April, 1
l.i4, He was taken prisoner 
in the fight for the \\"eMon railroad on In 
\ug" 
1804, but was paroled, IG X 0\',. 1
G4. and l'e
iglled 
on that date, lie was engineer in charge of loea- 
tion and construction works upon the St. Louis, 
Vandalia and Terra Haute, X orthern Pacific, St. 
Paul and Pacific, and ot her we!'tern railroads, from 
11-i(ij till 1

1. when he heeame {T, S, civil a
si!"tmlt 
engineer, "hich po
t hp now (It;
7) holds, lie is 
the author of the" Per!'onal :\lemoirs and )Iilitarv 
H istorr of Lh-
ses S. Grant "8, the Record of tlle 
Armv of the j>otomae " (Boston, It'8'ì),-('arswpll's 
brother. "('lIr)' n..aill...rd, soldier, b, in Philadel- 
phia, Pa.. l'ì Octo, IH40, was graduated at Williams 
in IH;J8, In 18l.i2-'3 he was arljl1tant of the ad 
Yirginia r-avalry, and from I8G3 till the end of the 
war !"erved as a

i4ant adjutant-general of the 
cavalry corps of the Army of XOI'tlwrn Virginia, 
He was chief-of staff to Gens, James E, ll. Stuart 



86 


:\IcCLELLAXD 


and '\T,Hl e Hampton, and sened hy as<;ignnwnt on 
the staff of (ien, Hobert E. Lee from 14 )lav till 
11 Aug" It3fj:3, 
ince lRjO he has heen pl:inci- 
pal of Sayre female in4ituÌf', in Lexington, Ky, 
lIe is the author IIf " Life and Campaigns of :\Iajllr- 
General .J. J<:, B. Stuart. Commflluler or the C'avnlrv 
of t he 
\ rmy of Xorthern Yirginia " (Boston, 1

:;), 
JI('(,I.EtIJA
n. Ah'xancll'r. C'Iergyman, b, in 
Scheneet1111v, X, Y.. in 1 JUG: d, in Xew Rrnn
wick, 
X, .1., 19 D
c" I
G-!, lie was graduated at en ion 
in 1
f)9, and at t he age of ninl'teen was I ict'n:-:e<l 
hy the 
\:-:s()ciate Reformed presbytery of Kew 
York, awl l'lccted pastor of Rutgers strf'et Pres- 
hvteriall church, where he remained for se"en 
vèars, lie was professor of rhetoric, logiC', and 
inetaphysics in Dickinson college, Pa.. in 1


-'!}, 
of langllagt's at Hutgers in It{:'?fI-';}2, of oriental 
literature alullangua,g-es there from 1
:J3 till 1t3-!O, 
and of oriental languages and literature and hib- 
lical critici:-:m in the theolog-ical seminary of tlu' 
Heformed ('hureh from IH40 till 1t:1;:;1. After his 
resignation he travelled in Europe, and thf'n re- 
sided in Xl'W RrunswiC'k until hi:-: death, lIe re- 
ceiwd the deg-rep of f), D, from Princeton in 1811'3, 
and from lTnion and Dickinson in 1
:30, Ili
 puh- 
lications consist of oceasional Sl'rl)WnS, pamphlpts, 
and ")[anual of Sacred Jnterpretation" (XC\\ 
York, 1842: 
d ell., entitlell .. Canon and I nterpre- 
tation of Scripture," 18GO), His sermons were 
edited, with a mcmoir, amI puhlished by He,., 
Hichal'll W, Dickinson (Xew York, IHH7), 
'1t'(,JJELIJ,\
n. .fanH's 1I('IHI('rson. SUl"gl'on. 
b, in PittslJllr,g, Pa" 20 )lay, It:1-!;:;, [[is fatlll'r, 
of the same name, came to this country from Jre- 
land in 1
l(j, tonk an active part in unti-slaxcry 
movement
, 1l1ll1 was the architeet of many Intilll- 
ings in Pitt:-:bnrg, The son wus g-ra(luatell at the 
Ilahnl'mann medical colleg-l' of Phihulelphia in 
11;07, and on his return to Pittshurg was a \ ,pointed 
to the surgical stafI of the newly estahlishet Ilomæ- 
opllthic medieal and surgieal hospital, w}lleh post 
he ha:,; sinee held, Ill' organize(l the Anatomieal 
society of .Alll'ghany county, and \\as for several 
years its demonstrator amI pre:-:illent, He hecame 
i1l'ofes
or of surgl'ry in thp Ilahnemann eollege, 
Philallelphia, in l
jf), In 1

,) he was appointl'(1 
a n1l'mhel' of the State hoard of hl'alth, and he has 
heen rNtppointel1 for It Ìl'rm of sh.. years, He has 
contrihuted much to various medical journals, in- 
cluding papers on .. Hip - joint Amputations," 
.. Bone Di:-:ea
,-
," HllIl .. Exei:-:ion of the Kidnl')'," 
and wrote the nrticlf' on" Di:<easl's of the KilltH'vs" 
in the" Sv:-:tem of 
[edicine" etliled hv Dr, Hell1'\' 
.\rndt (Pilila,lelphia, 1
t:l6), . . 
lUct'JÆLLAXU, ]Iilu .\(hUUN. physician, b, in 

har(ln, BI'Il\'er co" Pa.. 21; ,J an" 1 :-;:n, Il is anc'I':-:- 
tors were among the early spttlers of Pennsylvania, 
Hl' was graduated Ilt the BelleniC hospital medical 
college, X ew York, in mOi, and settlt'll in Canton. 
Ill., hut remowd to Knoxville, where he now (IH H H) 
practises his profe:-::-:ion, For eight years he wa:-: 
county physil'ian of Knox county, lIe has con- 
trilmtt'd papers to various medical journals and to 
his local society, His" Report on )laI}Jl'at'ticp" 
(IH7
) was enlarged anll is:-:ued under the title of 
.. Ci viI )Ialpractiee, a T.reati:-:e on ::-;urgieal J uri:-:- 
prUllence" (Boston, 1
77), 
)1('(,J.}:I.I..\
n. Robt...t. state:-:man. h, in 
Grceneastle, Pa.. 1 
\ug" It:107; d, in I>etroit, )lich" 
27 Aug" I
HU, His father, John )IeClelland, was 
a physician of Philadelphia, The 
on was gmdu- 
ated at Dickin:-:on in U

f), studiell law, wus wl- 
mitted to the har in 1
:U. and practi:-:ed in Pitt:-:- 
burg for a year, In It:13
 he remO\ ed to )10nroe, 
::\Iich" and in 1
:J,j wus a memher uf the State con- 


3IcCLERX AXD 


stitutional mnwntion, lie wa,.. a memher of the 
legislature from 1
:l
 till 1
4:
, sl"l'\'ing in the latter 
year n:-: speaker', and was then elected to eongress 
It:- a Demoerat. sening- from 4 Dec.. 1
.t:
. till 3 
.:\larch, It:1.HI. He was one of the eig-hteen Demo- 
crats that joined, \\ ith David Wilmot, of Pennsyl- 
v;mia, in pa:-:sing the Wilmot proviso, which 
ahrÌlIgwl the further extension of 
Iavery into the 
territories of the Cnited States, Ill' was a delegate 
to the Xationnl Democratic conn-ntions of It:148, 
1
,i
, awl l
(j
. and a memhf'rof the Constitutional 
conventions of )Iichig-an of 1
,if) and 181i7, Ill' 
took an active part in the eunV;lss that resulted in 
the election of (jen, Pierce to the pre
ideney, l\Ir, 
.:\lc( 'lellaUll acted a
 provisional gowrnor of )lichi- 
gan in IH.j1. and wa:-: re-electl'd in 1t'.j:? for a term 
of four years, hut re..;jg-ned in 1
:;
 to aeeept the 
post of secretary of the intprior, which he held 
during- Pre:-:ident Piercp\,: admini:-:trntion, 
.J.h'(,LE

\tJL\
, tbnrles Thomson, lawver. 
b, in Wa:-:hington, D, C., 1:J 
\ pril, 1

!I, lie ,vas 
graduatPIl at Germuntown college, went to Xew 
York in 1844, and wus in,..tructor in the Institutf' 
of the hlind from 1843 till 1t130, From 18,iO till 
1
(j1 he was clerk of the hoard of councilmen of 
Xew York city, and during the civil war he was 
q uarternHl:-:Ìl'r of the 'ìt h X ew York rpg-iment. 
Suh:-:equently he studied law. and was ndmittetl 
to the Xew York har in It3(j7, lIe was 
eneral 
accountant in the street rlepllrtment, and nfter- 
ward in the department of l lUhlic works, for 
twenty-six years, lIe has puh ished "The Laws 
of the Fire Department" (X ew York, lR,j,j):" Com- 
pilation of tlu.' Opinions of Counsels to the Cor- 
pOl'lltion,.. " (l
,:;D): "X ew York Ferry Leases and 
Haill"Oml Grant" from 1'ì;)() to l
tiO" (l
(j(l): .. The 
,.\ tlan tic Tdegraph Ca hie of It',j8" (1Hü:l): "The 
Book of the 
\.ncient Accppted 
cotti:-:h lUte of 
Ii reemll.::ionry" (18(i7); amI an mhlellllum to Dr, 

\lIll'rt (i, )IaC'key's ")[asonic .Encyclopædia" 
(phil;ulelphia, l
N.t-), Ill' is now (1t'

) en,!.:'aged, 
hy appointment of the grand 1001gl'. on the" I I i:-:tory 
of Frl'en\n:-:onrv in the Stah' of Xl'\\' York:' 
Jlc(,U':R
,\
U. .John Alf'xu,"lcr, lawyer. b, 
in Breckenridge county, Ky.. ao :\1ay, HH2, On 
the death of his fat}ll'l' in It3W, his nwtherl'cmoved 
to Shuwlll'l'town, Ill., \\here the son SuIN'(]Uently 
workl'd on a farm, In It:1:.?H he began the study of 
law, aUll in It:1a:.'! was atlmitted to the bar, In the 
same veal' he volunteered in the war again
t the 
Saes ;ind Foxe
, and on his return wa.. engagell 
for a time in trade, In 1H:
:; he estahlished the 
SIUt\\ neeto\\ n "})emocrat," and nbo resumed the 
I ll'actice of hi... profes:-:ioll, In It:ljü-'40 and 1
-!
 
Ie was elected to the legii'lature, awl in 1
4.'J 
\\ as sent to represent his state as It Democrat in 
congress, where he sened till lA31. His fir:-:t 
:-:peech was u)>on the hill to remit the fine that had 
I,,'en imposed on (ten, 
\ndrew Jackson by Judge 
llall, of Loui,..iana, lIe was the ehairman of the 
committee on re
olutions of the lllinoi:-: Democratic 
('onvention of 18:;H, and in that veal' was re-eleeted 
to congre:-:s. serdng from 5 nëc" l
.i!I, until the 
hpginning of the civil war, lIe then resigned, re- 
turned home, aIlll. with .John A, Logan allll Philip 
B. Fouke, raised. the l\IcClernand hripllh', the 
IIl'l':,iclent appointing him brigadier-g-enemI of '.01- 
unteel'S, lIe accompanied Gell, tirant to Belmont, 
llid goo!l 
enice him:-:plf at Fort Dunelson, where 
he commnndell the right of the Xationalline, and 
wa
 mfille major-general of "olunteer:-:. 21l\I;u"ch, 
U3(;2, The following- mOil t h he C'onuuantled a di \'Ìs- 
ion at the battle of Shiloh, Tenn, In January, 
1
lj3, he relieved Oen, Sherman in command of the 
expetlition for the cal,ture of Yick:-:burg, lIe 



)lcCLIXTu('K 


)L\CCLIXTOCK 


87 


nften\anllt'd the forcl' that stornll'd Ilml captured I lang-uages. in which tlH' metholl of \\ imitation and 
.\rklln:-:a:-: 1'o:-:t, nnd wn:-: Ilt Port (iib:-:on. Champion repetition." now 
enemlly u:-:('Il, was fir:-:t intro- 
lIill:-:, Hi(T Black Hi\'l
r. atHl 'Yick:-:lHlr
, Ill' 11'11 duced, .In IH48 he was elcc.tl'd hy thl' gc'nt'ral ('on- 
till' 13th 
ll"Iny corps until he was relie\'l'11 in ,July. [prence e(litor of the" )Il'thOl1i:-:t (luartl'rly He- 
It:'li3,Il11tl rl':-:ignl'11 [1'0111 the army on an XO\-,. IH(i4, view." allli this place ]1(' fi]]l'd for ei
ht 
l'iH':-:, dur- 
JlctLIYfOfK, Sir Fmnds L('ulluld, British ing which time he 
a\-e that periolli('al R hi
h 
eXl'lorl'r, b, in Dunllalk, IrelatHl. in 1tiHI, Ill' cn- literary and :-:cho]arly charneter, \'''hile in hb 
tel'l'tl t]w navy at the age of t"cln.. and for his hands the \\ Rcview" rendl'l'l'(le:-:pecia] service by 
condu('t in recovering tilt' .. Gor
on." when it was its examination of the po:-:iti,-e philosophy of 

tmlllll'd near ;\lonte\'i(Ieo, was promotl'c1 to a Comte, und the detection of its l'rl'ors, These es- 
lieutenancv in 1
-t,"), Ill' accompaniell 
ir .Tame:-: say:-: attractell the attention of the Fn'nch philo:-:o- 
Ro:-:s in one of the three arctic l'\.peditions sent out pher. uncI led to corresporHlen('{' betwe('n him and 
in :-:l'al"ch of Sir ,John Franklin in the spring of 1848, their author, In 1
;;(i Dr, )[cClintock was ap- 
uncI early in the following year joined another ex- pointed, with Bi:-:hop :-\impson, a Ile]e
ate to the 
pedition under Capt. ..Au:-:tin, Jt was his fortune, \Vl':-:ll'van )[ethodist confl'n'nce of England. and 
in .\uCTu:-:t. IH.")O, to see at rape IUley the fir:-:t. wa:-: al:-:o pn'spnt in a similar caplleÏty at the Berlin 
traces 
)f the mi:-::-:inl! marilwr:-:, In .\pril, 18;)1, meetin
 of the Emng-elical alliance the same )ear, 
while till' ships were fnst in the ice in Crozier chan- Ul'turning to the 'Cnitell States, he he('ame pastor 
nel, he Leg-an a 
led
e journey of eighty days along" of St. Paul's church. Xew York city, in 1
,")ì. \\ here 
till' north shore of Parry souncl. travelling- ,fiO mile:-:. he soon Lecame known ns one of the eloquent 
awl reaching the mo:-:t we:-:terly point that had yet preachers of tIll' metropolis, His charge of the 
heen attained from the ea:-:t in the arctic re
ions, ehurch e
piring- by limitation in 18liO, he :-:ailecl for 
TIll' comparative perfection to which sledge-trav- Europe in ,June to hecome pastor of the .\merican 
elling has since been carried is rlue in great part to chapel in Paris, HIllIer the au:-:pices of thp .\mcri- 
the improvements which he effectelI. The squadron clln ancl foreign Chri:-:tiun union, lIere he J'p- 
returnell to Eng-land in the autumn of the same mainI'll during- the cÌ\-il war. and did good service 
year, anel lÄl'ut, )lcClintock was at once promoted in diffusing information regarlling the merits of 
to the rank of commander, The following :-:pring the strug
le, In the:-:e ('fforts he :-:l'curecl the aÌ!I 
saw him in charge> of the ,. Intrepid:' one o[ the of the Comte de Ga:-:parin in Fmncl' anel the Re\, 
the vessels sent out to the polar rl'
ions under :-iir \\ïllimn .Arthur in Englund, IIp also h'pt his 
Edward Belcher, In accordance with in
truction
 countrnnen informed of the fluctuations of Enro- 
from the admiralty, he saill'd, in company with pl'llIl oi)inion by lettl>l'S to thp Kew York" )Ieth- 
('apt, Kellett. toward )[el \"ille island in search of mlist:' After his return in IHIì-t he was again as- 
l\IcClnre, whom he rescued from a three years' im- signe(I to the pastorate of S1. Paul's church. but. 
pri;;onment in the ice; Lut he was suhse([llCntly owing to failing health, he wa:-: eompcllell to re:-:i
n 
compelled to alJlwdon his own ship with t hn'l' at the end of a 
 ear, In 1
(j(i he was made C'hair- 
others of Belcher's fleet, the whole expedition man of the central t'entenary committee having in 
reaching home in September, 18,")4, )lcClintock's charge the centl'nnial commemoration of the ori- 
services \\ere reeognized hy his promotion to the gin and hi:-:toryof .\meriean )Iethollbm, Daniel 
mnk o[ captain, but he did not ohtain active em- Drew. of X ew York. signifie(l his intention of 
ployment until Lady Franklin offered him in 18.3; founlling. in connection with that ewnt. a biblical 
the commanel of thc expedition that "as fitted out amI theological school, and nr, l\IcClintock was 
by her, which resulted in soh-ing the mystery of chosen its tir:-:t presitlpn1. This institution, at 
Sir John Franklin's fate, On his rl'turn in 1
.")n )[adi:-:on, X, ,Too known as Drew thl'olog-ieal semi- 
from this important voyage, Captain )IcClintoch. nary, was opened in IHGì, Dr, McClintock's style 
was received with great enthu:-:ia:-:m, The Britbh as a writer \\as characterized hy clearness, direct- 
universities confL'lTed on him their hig-hest de- ne:-:s, and preci:-:ion, lIe re('eived the de
rce of 
gree:-:, the corporation of London voted him the l),1>. from the l-niversity of Pennsylvania in 1
-lt;, 
freedom of the city, the queen granh'd him the and that of LL, D, from Rutgers in I
Gli, His 
full pay of captain in the navy for the two years chief literary work, to which a great part of the 
he "as absent, and Lady Franklin presented to last twenty years of his life was devoted, is the 
him the vessel in whieh he had made his voyage, " Cyclopil'dia of Bihlical, Theological. and Ecclesi- 
He was knighted,:'?3 Feh" It;IiO, and in the spring astical Literature" (12 vol:-:" Xew York), It was 
of the same year appointed by the government to begun hy him in IH,,)3, in conjunction with James 
survey a deep-sea route for a proposed Xorth .At- Strong. but the fil,:-:t volullw did not appear until 
Ian tic telegraph, lIe was made a rear-admiral in 18üì. Ilnd the fourth was only partially prepared at 
the fleet in Uctober, 1871, amI vice-admiral in 18;7, the tinll' of hi
 death, 1 Ie al
o puhlbhed a transla- 
From 1879 till 1


 he served as commander-in- tion of Keancler's" Life of Chri:-:t." in connection 
-chicf of the Xorth American and West Indian with Prof, Carolus E, Blumenthal (K('w York, 
station, In It;-.:-l he beeame full arlmiral. Ill' is lS-lì);".An .Analysis of' '\Vatson's Theological In- 
the author of ., The V oyuge of the . Fox' in the :-:titutes'" (1!:'!,")O); ., Sketches of Eminent Methodist 
Arctic Seas" (London, 18 I iO), which has passed )Iinister
" (18,'):.?); "The Temporal Power of the 
through five eclitions, Pope" (1
,')a); and a translation of Rungener's 
1\[ct'LI
TÜ('K, John, educator, b. in Phila- "History of thp Council of Trent" (18;),")), Since 
ùelphia, Pa,,
; Uct., 1814; II. in )Iadi:-:on, )lorris his death have been i:-:suell "Living 'Vords," a vol- 
co., 
,J" 4 )Iarch, IHiO, He \Vas gralluated at lime of his sermons (18;0), and" Lectures on The- 
the 'Lni\-er:-:ity of Pennsylvania in 183,), Before ological Encyclopædia and )Iethodology" (18;3), 
his graduation he had begun to preach in the 
ew S('e his "Life and IJetters" by Hev, George R, 
Jersey conference of the )[ethodist Episcopal I Crooks, T>. D, (Xew York, 18;ü), . 
church, In lR:l(i he was appointed professor of :U.H'(,IJIXTOCK. Snmuel, clergyman, b, m 
mathematics in Dickin:-:on colle
e, Carli:-:le, Pa" )Iedfol'll. )la:-:s" 1 )lay, 17:3:.?: d, in Greenland, 
wllPre he remained tweIvp year:" exchanging the 
,11., 27 April, 1804, lIe was gmduatell at Prince- 
mathematical chair in 1
-lO for that of GreeK ancl 1 ton in 1751. anù in 1 'j,")ü was ordaincrI pa:-:tor of a 
Latin, In 184ü he began. in connection with Congregational church at Gree-nland,
, H" where 
George R, Crooks, a :-:eries of text-books of those j he spent the remainder of his life, except the period 



during which he officiatecl as chaplain in the French bishop of X ew York, 6 )[ay, 1
fi4, and installpd on 
war allli for the Xew Hamp:-:hire troops in 1 j.5, 21 
\ug', of that year, The prm"ince then induded 
lIe wa:-: pre:-:ent at the battle of Bnnker lIiII. amI Xew Englanrl. Xe\\ York. and Xew Jer:-:ey, 1>ur- 
figures prominently in Trumhulrs pieture of that ing his administration communities of various re- 
event. a:-: the clergyman in band:-:, lIis sermons ligious orùers were introduced. many fine churches 
were charaC'teri.æd hy soundness of thought and Were built, and the Foundling usyJum, the .I w.:titute 
)lurit y of style, Ill' was given the cle.
ree of :\1. .A" for deaf-mutes at Forùham, homes for de:<titute 
hv lIarntrcl in 1 i(j1, and reeeiyed that of [), l), hoys and girl:-: in connection \\ ith St. Stephen's and 
from Yale in Ii!J1. Ill' publi:-:hl.d .. A 
l'rmon ::-;t. Ann"s (:hurche:-:, h())nes for agecl men and 
on the ,Ju:-:tice of God in the )[ortaliÌ\' of )[an" wompn, and orphan asylum
 without the l'ity were 
(Ii,)!)): "The Artifi('es of Decl'in'rs' Ðl.tl'cteù " establi:-:hl'd. Ill' was especially aeti\'e in the erec- 
(1 ;iO): "lIerodia:-:, III' Cruelt
. and He\ t'nge the tion of the C'atlwlir' protectory in Wl.:-:tchester, anù 
EI1'l'cts of Cnlawful Pll'RSUl'l'" (17i2): ".\n Epis- in the builc1ing of the new cathedral. the eurner- 
tolnry CorrespolHh'nce with He,", .John (', Ogdell" :-:tone of \\hich .\rchhisho(l Iluglll's had lairl on IJ 
on apostolic succl'ssion (1 i!J1): .. The Choiee:' a .Au,g-" 18;;8, He attended the Yati('an coun('il in 
sermon (1 i98): and".An Oration CommemoratÌ\'e 181m, and seT\"l'd on the committee on cli:-:cipline, 
of Washington " (1
O()), also \ isiting Hllme in H
 j.!, On 15 )larch, 1875. 
'!t'('I,OSKEY. ,fohn. C'arclinal. b, in Brook- tIll' pope 8l'pointl'd him a ear(linal prie:-:t. \\ith the 
lyn. 
, y,. :,?u 1\Iarch. 11410, of Irish parl'ntllge; c1. titll' of t;a]}('ta )Iaria supra )lineT\"am, and on 27 
in X ew York C'it\', 10 Oet., 1HR'). Whcn a ho\' he April of the I'ame year tlH' cpremony of invcstiture 
hall a delicate con'4itutinn, awl an aecidenf, in took place in the old cathedral. In 1
jH he \\as. 
whieh a log rolh.rl rwer him. wcah.ened his lungs, !'-ulIlIlloneù to Homc to take part in the condaye 

() that he \\as nC\"er that. \\a
 called to ell'C't a suC'('eSl'or to Pius IX, 
rohu:-:t. Ill' wa
 On 2,) )Ia\'. 1
7f1, he dec1icatcc1 the neweathedral. 
spnt to )Iount 
t. On 12 Juil,. 1

-t then' wus a celehration of the 
-'Ian"'s eolll'
l', Em- gnldl'n juhill'e of his ordiuation us a pril'4, and the 
mptishurg, SId,. awl 1Uldre
s pn.sented tu him by the elerg
' said; 
after a 
l'\'en Yl'ar:-:' .. Fifty ypars ago there Wl're in this C'ity hut six 
preparatory arid cnl- churehes: now there are E'Ï'\.ty, There \\ ere then 
legiate course. en- hut twenty priesti' in the diocese: now there are 
tprpd thetheolo.ril'al :

O, At that timp there were in tlH' \\'holf' L'uited 
(!l'partml'nt of the States only nine hishops: now there flI'l' fifty-nine, 
in4itution to pre- Then there \\'a:-: hut one arehbishop : now then' are 
I mre for the priel't- elen.n, one of whom ha:< heen rai:<l'd to t lIP great 
\(I(lcl. .\fter e01n- Sl'nute of the unin'r:<al ('hureh:' During the hlst 
pleting a sl'minar
 ten year:< of hi:-: life his strength failed gradually, 
('our:-:p of fi \"(' \ l'ars and a:-: early a:< 1 O(,t",1

O, 
\r('hhishop ('orrigllll \\ as 
he was onlain"ecl ß macle cOI\!ljutnr at his re(lul':-:t. Cardinal )Ie( 'Ios- 
priest hy Bishop kpv was tall and sl('neIer. Lut of e1'('C't awl ela
ti(' 
DuLois. 12 Jan.. be;lring', His forehmd \\as Lroad and his features 
1834. in the old pleasant. his eyes bping hright Llue uml del'ply :-:et. 
C'atlwc'lral in Xew anrl his mouth mohile, His maIll1Pr was quict, hut 
York, heing thl' impr,'ssÌ\e, He WIIS It profmwcl seholnr Ilwl an 
eighteenth }lrie:-:t that was ordaim'll in tlIP diocese, eITeetiw prcllellPr, It ha:-: Ll'en slIicl thllt tllP his- 
Ill' was sent to Homp tn continue hi
 :-:tudie:-:. with tory of his life i:-: the hi:-:tory of the progre:-:s of the 
till' design of placing him at the head of a propu:-:ed Homan Catholic chureh in Kl'\\' York, but it. 
('olleg'p awl seminary, Early in IX:;,) he enterc(l the woulcl he a mistale to attrilll1tf' that progTf'sS alto- 
Url'g'nril1n collf'gl'. wlwre Ill' "pent two 
par:-:. and gl,ther to him, or e\ en to him 1II00"ê tl
an to any 
on his retum he vi:-:ited thl' nlrious countries of other lIIan, IIe was fortunate. in sueeeeding .\r('h- 
Europ/', Ill' \Va::; appnilltecl. 1 XO\ '. 1k:n, pa:-:tor of hishop IIughl':-:, for he \\lIS enabled to enÌl'r into 
St.. .To:-:eph's clulrC'h, Xe\V York city, On 24 JUlIe. the rcsult
 of that pl'elate's enntw\-ersics without 
lx-H. Bishop lIugh(.s openerl St. ,John's college. inlwriting any of the animosities that tlH'yengpn- 
Frmlham. awl IIppointerl him pre
Ì<knt: but he derell. awl his el'iscllpate WII.. like a calm ufter a- 
helel thp po:-:t onlya year, IIml then returned to storm, ([is rcmains were c1pposited, 1;) 0C't.. l

,ï, 
his parish work, On 10 )Iarch, 1
44, hc \\as ('On- in the yault uncler the I>anctuarv of 
t, Patrick's 
secmt.ed hi
hop of .\xieren ill partibu,o;, anel made cathedral. Xl''' York, . 
co
\(ljutor of the dioee:-:e of Xew York, with thl' 'I('(,I.OSKE\', John. dergyman, It, in ('nrlow. 
ri O'ht of succl'ssion, In IX-I ì t he new 
f'es of Ireland. in 1H 1 i: d, in Emmett:-:burg, )1<1., 24 Del'" 
.AlhanV' HIlII Buffalo were create(l. IInd he was 1
8U, 1I(> eame to this counÍlT lit un elll'lv R
e. 
tmn:-:fèrred to the former. 21 )Iay, 1'<47, During- ancl entering- St. )Iary's college. Ì<
mml'tt
huri, )Icl.. 
the seventeen veal'S of his Rrlmini
tmtion the in V
:J(). \\"a:-: graduatl'cl there and at till'seminary, 
growth of the cÌ1url'h in thc ne" dio("t>:-:e \HlS ,-eQ' lie \Va
 orclaim'rl hy Bi:-:hop Iluglll'
, of Xl'" York, 
rapi,l. lie introducerl yariou:-: relig-ious org-ani7.n- in 1840, \\ho, at the soliC'Ìtation of tllP colleg-e 
tions. inelur1ing Llulies of the :-ìllC'I'cd III'mt, Si4pr... Huthoritil's, a 110\\ cd him to Httach him
elf to the 
c)f Clurity. Si:-:ters of )[l'r('y, Si:-:ters of St. .T o:-:l'ph, faculty of 
t. )lary's, Ile \Va:-: eleetecl viee-prl':-:i- 
tho..e IIf the third orl1l'r of 
t. Franeis, und IIospital- dent IInd treasurer in 1H4-!, anel hcC'ame pre
ic1ent 
ers. Je
uib, Ohlate:-:. .\ ugu:-:tinian:-:, FmnC'i:-:C'an:-:. in 1
71. He re:<ig-lll'cl in 1H7i, hut \VIIS ag-nin 
and Capuehins, unrl he lmilt the catlll'ciral of tIll' l eallcd to the pre
icleney in 1Hi9, which offi.l'e he 
Immaeulatf' ('oncl'ption allli flluncll'll till' theolo
i- held until his dl'ath, IIe wa,.,; unflagging in his 
eal scminal"\' at Troy, In 1
")O, \\ hill' on hiI' wav 7.l'111 for the welfnre of the ('ollege, and dl'\"oted 
to attellll a pro\'Ìncilil council in Xl'\\" York. he w
i:-: himsl'lf to its intere:<ts throng-hoilt hi
 lif(',-I1is 
injurec1 in It raill'OHcl eollision near T;lrrytown. hi" hl'Othl'r, WilliulII f
pol'gl'. It (', bi:-:hop, L, in 
ri
ht foot bein,g- hacHy cru:<I1I'I1. In 1
,)1 he \'i
itell I Brooklyn. X, Y" 10 Xov,. It\::?:;' also pur
lH'd his 
Itome. whl'n' Ill' wa:-: J"l'("eÌ\'cd \\ ith fa\'or, On the clas
i('al ancl theologiC'al studies at St. :\Iary's. mHl 
ùeHth of ..Arl'hbishop Hughcs he was made arch- I was ordained by 
-\.rl'hbishop Hughl's in XC\V York 


88 


McCLOSKEY 


t l . 
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. ........:.. 
..... f' 

 



 


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"t 
I 


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!
- 
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l\lcCLOSKEY 



1\[c('LeXEY 


l\kCLrnE 


89 


in l
,i
, After spenlling one year on the mi:-:sion I soIa the" Sentinel" in U
,iO, purchased nn intere"t 
in Xew YOI'k /1:-: a...:-:i:-:tant to hi:-: hrothel" .John, ht' in the "('hamher:-:hurg Repository." hel'uml' it:,; 
wa" appointed to It elmir at St, :\Iary's colle
e, and editor, antI made it one of the mo:-:t llOtell nnti- 
bet-a me profc:-:sor o[ moral theolog-y and :-:aerl'd :-:lnVt'ry journals in tllP 
tate, In 1
.J:3 he was the 
sC'ripturp in H:tij, In l>et'em1ler. l
.ifl. Pope Pius Whig candidate [or mulitor-g-pneral. }ll'in,g- the 
IX, nl/ule him the fir:-:t pre:-:idl'nt of the ,\nll'riean 
'oun
e:-:t nutll ewr nominatetl for a stntt' of1ice in 
college in Rome. whieh luul ju:-:t hCl'n foundl'd by PellIl:-:yl HUlia, In 1
,i,) he was It mem hl'l' of the 
that pontiff, lIere he pre:-:illell with g-reat sucC'es:-: conwntion that met at Pitt:-:hurg-, Pa,. Hlltl org-an- 
for se\'erul years, until hi' was appointeù to tJH' SCI' izeù the Hepu h}jean party, 111111 jlJ the followillg 
of Louisville, Ky,. in l
li
, Ill' has given mueh year was a lIt'legate to the Xationul com-ent ion thnt 
attention to the luham'l'nll'nt of edueation in his nominated Fn:n\Ont for the pre:-:idt.ney, In Utili 
dioce:-:e. /tllli has heen in:-:trumpntal in establishing hl' 
old the" I{ppo:-:itory:' quitted joul'l1uli:-:m, a1ll1 
various convents and parochial sl'hollb;, shortly thcreafter was admitted to the Lar, In 
)[cCJ.L:XEY, WilliillU .J.. nanll ot1ieer, h. nLont J:-
,ij-'8 he was f'ho:-:en to thp legblature, nnd in 
1 .!llj: d, in Brooklvn. X, Y.. 11 Feb,. 1:-\li4, He wa:-: I
,ifl to the sl'mlte of PellnSdYllllia. {)\'er a I>t'1I10- 
appointed mitbhiI;man in till' r, S, navy, 1 Jan.. ('ratie opponent from a stl'olìg- ])emoC'ratif' Ili
tri('t, 
1
1
, und was in till' action hl'tween the" "'a:-:p" lit' was a Ileleg-Hte to th" Xational Uepubli('an con- 
and the" FroliC''' on 1
 Oct. of that year, Hl' was vent ions of 18fiOaII(I1
li.!. antI in thp former played 
eommi

ioned lieutenant. 1 .\pril. 1
1
, comnumtl- a con:-:pieuous part in iwlUf'ing the df'legntion from 
cr. 9 ])ec., 1
;:!I, alltl C'aptain, 1:1 ()C't.. l
,il. and his :-:tnte to di:-:n'g:ml their in:-:tl'uetions for Simon 
placetl on the J'l.tired li
t. 21 ])(,C'.. 1
li1. I1l,took Cameron /lntl \'ote fol' .\hraham Lincoln, lip was 
part in the :\[l'xican war, alltl in 1
,i;3 wa
 ordl'l"l'll eho
l'n ehnirman of the Hepublican state cOlllmittee. 
to command the" Puwhahm:' of ('om, Pel"l'Y's ,1a- nnd ol'g:u1Ïzl'd anti kd hi:-: party in tJIl' cannlS
 of 
pan "xpec1ition, He rl'turnt'd to the enitpil States that 
pur, In l
li
 he rpplll"chnsf'd tJlI' "('ham- 
in February. l
.ili, and after a bril'f re:-:pite wa:-: 01'- hel':-:Imrg nepository:' hut in the hurning of ('ham- 
dcrell to Xew York on duty as genel'lll supl'rvi:-:or ber
hurg. in l
(j-t, IIlmo
t his entin' propl'l"ty wns 
of the con:-:trnetion of the Stevens hattery, In de:-:troyetl, I n l
(iH he spt1led in Ph ilalll'lphia, 
U;,itì he was placl'd in comnHLwl of the Atl:mt1t' wlll're Il(' resumed the prlll.tiee of the law, In 1
i2 
squadron, which oí1ice hp held until 1\1ay, 1
lin, he Wa
 elmirman of the Pl'nnsylvauia de}Pgntion 
He was commÜ:sionl'd eommodol't', Hi ,Julv, 181i2, to HII' Xational C'onvl'ntion that nOlllinatpd I10race 
)[c'rL(T
H. .Jollll .Ah'''Ulldc'I'. clergyÚulll. h, in (
n'pley for the I're
itIl'nC'y. wns ehosl'n chuinnan 
'Va
hin,
ton, .:\Iason co" Ky" 2,) Sept.. IH04; d, in of the 
tate committee that supportt'11 his "Ie(,tion, 
Xiagam rÏ\'er. 7 \ug,. l
,j!), Ill' wa
 a spn of and wa, ('leeted a:-: un Illtlepl'ndt'nt HI'puhliean to 
Judge "-illiam )[c('lung. amI a Ill'pllt'w of ('hief- the stntf' 
t'llfite, Iu the following- Yt'ar hc was an 
Justiee )Iar
hall, In 1
2;
 he t'ntl'n'd PrinC'e- illtIt'pendent elllll1idah' for the muyoralty of Phila- 
ton theological seminary. \\ here he rf'lIIainetI he- tlelphia. alltl eallle within nine hUlHln.d \'otes t,f 
1\\('('n one antI two year
, Ill. was li('l'n:-:ed to hein.
 eler'tf'tl. During this year, \\ ith Frank )11'- 
I'reaeh in 1


. but he abandoned the pulpit, stud- Laughlin, he estahlished the "Tinlt's," a daily 
ietllaw, allli wns admitted to t hI' bar in IH;J,j, prac- Iwwspaper. and sinC'e its foulltilltion he has been 
ti:>ing- until IH-t!I, Ill' was 1I,
ain lieeusetl to preadl its etIitor-in-C'hief, lIt' has oppo
("lllu\('hine power 
in 1
,)1. mill was pastor of /l Pre:-:hyterian churt'h in in party 1II:lIlag-elllr'nt and official inclllnpl.teuey 
Indianapolis in IH,il-'i, ntHl then of one in )Ia
 s- and di:-:hone
ty in Phillllielphin, 
ville. Ky" until his dl'ath hy tIrowning-, During- his )[('('1.1' U E. .\l('xnlld{'l' W iI !!oO 11. elerg-ymnn, b, 
career at the bar he frequentl,v r'ontrihuted to the in Bo
ton, :\lass.. 8 1\1ay. I
O
; d. in l'auon:-:nurg. 
pre:-:s, ntHI wrote "Sketehe
"f \Yt'stl'rn .\dventun',," Pa" 
() Sept.. 1
(j,i. III' wns gl'llùuatl'd I\t Amher:-:t 
(Philmlelphia, 1

2), See" Additional ::-;ketehes of in lR2.. and nt 
\IHI(}\'('r thl'olog-ical seminary in 
Adwntur(',l'ompiled by the Publisher:-:. alltl a Bi- IH30, allli after l'reaehing at .:\Inltlen, )Ias:-:" two 
ography of )lC'C'lung-, by Henry Waller" (C'o\'ing- 
-eurs. he \\as ordained there in 1
;I
, Ill' sllb
l'- 
ton. Ky" IH72),-Ilis brother. \l{'x;md('1' K.. law- lJuently 'Was stationed at 
t. Augustine, .Fla.. wllf're 

'er, h, in )ru
on county, Ky,. ahout lRl:J: d, in he Juhored suece
sfully among the soldiers thut 
,Jackson, )Ii:-:s,. 23 :\Inrt'h, 18;),). enli4l'd in thl \\ere on dutv there, In U;-tli he returned to Bos- 
mt\-y as mitbhipman, 1 April, 18
8, nut resigned. 2f, ton, and so
n after hegan the publicatIOn of the 
Aug-,,1829, Ill' then studif'tllaw. wa
 admitted to "Christian Oh:-:el'\"atory," whieh he etlit"d more 
the nnr, anti practised in 
lis
i

ippi, Ill' sub:-:e- than three Yf'ars, Ill' al
o a
:-:i:-:ted VI', Parsons 
quently sel'\-ed as a volunteC'r in t he army durinp- Cooke in conducting the" Puritan Hecorder." In 
the :\Iexican war, attaining the rank of lieutenunt- 1R.i;) he became secretary of the American and for- 
C'olonel. and being dangl'rou:-:ly wOUlHled nt :\Iontc- eig-n ('hri
tiall union. and labored for some time 
re
', Ill' was appointed chargé t1'affuires in Bolivia abroad, In 18:j!l he was di:-:aùled by illne:-:
, VI', 
hy President Taylor, hut resig-nell ahout two yeltrs .:\IcClurp wus a prolific writl'r for the religious 
hefore hi
 death, Col. )lC'C'lung- left behind him a press. amI published, among othf'r \\Orks, a tract 
brilliant reputation as nn orator, but none of hi
 ealled till' .. Lif,,- Boat:' which had a wiùe cireula- 
nddre:-::-:es were puhli:-:hed save a eulogy on Henry tion; unotJwl" pntitled .. Four Lcetures on eltra 
l'la
', dpli,-ered at .Jack
()n. )Ii
s.. in 1
.J2, l'niver:-:alism"; .. A Series of Letters upon the Bible 
)[('(,LrR}
. .\l{'
nnd('l' K('lIy, journalist. b, in the PuhliC' Schools," written in controversy with 
in Sherman's Yalley, Perry co.. Pa" !I ,Jan,. 1H2R a nomun Catholic prie
t in Jer:-:ey City; two vol- 
In the earlier veal's of his life he di,-idetl his time ullles of the" Li\'es of the Chief Fathers of Xew 
between his fllther's farm and the village sehool. England:' in the series published hy the ì\lassa- 
and at the ag-e of fonrÌl'en he was apprentieed to l'huseUs Sunday-school soC"iety; and .. Translators 
the tanner's trade, I n 1
-t6, on the urgent ntl vice Heviewetl." gi \ ing a hio,
raphieal sketch of each 
of hi
 fl"ipllt1. the ellitor of the ,. Perry Freemnn." translntor COlH'prnetl in King ,James's version (New 
to whose paper lIP hnll contributed. hp beglm the York. 1
53), Thi
 has been adopted by the board 
puhlil'utinn of a \Yhig journal. thp "Sentinel:' at of pl1hlit'ation of the Rdormecl Dutr'h C"hureh, 
)[jfflin. Pa. \.t the close of tllf' fir
t ypar hI' 
et )ld_'J,('UE. U;n-i.l. clergyman, h, in Xewport. 
up the t
'pe, and did the pre:-:s-work, he:-:ides e,liting R. I.. 18 Xm-,. 1 .-t
: d, in East 'Vinll
or. Conn,. 
the paper, with the aid of a single apprentice, Ill' J ;!,) June, 1
20, lIe was graduated at Yale in liG9, 



90 


)kCLlTRE 


)[cCLCRG 


and, after some time spf'nt in tf'aehing-, was 01'- I cavalry an(l a bO(ly of well- mounted loyalists, 
ùainf'd at Dartmouth coll('g-e, 20 )Iay, 1 jÎ
, and .\fter lIuch hatl committe(l various depredations, 
1'pent sixte('n months Il
 a mis:-;ionary to the Dela- I ll(' encampetl in a lane on the plantation of Jau1('s 
ware [Jl(lian:-;, Iwar Pittshurg-, Pa, On 13 Xov" Williamson, now Brattonville, where he passed the 
17ifi, he wa
 in,4alletl pa:-;tor of thp ('on,gT('g-ational night of 11 J nly, Early on the follo\\ in,go morn- 
chureh at Xorth Hampton, X, II., when' he re- I ing they wer(' surpri:-;ed hy )lcClure and Bratton, 
maiIwtl antiL August, 1 7
;j, when he was (1ismis:-;ed whose force:-;. only 13:3 in numbf'r, entf'l'ed eaeh 
at his own re<lu(':-;t, The following- year he was end of the lane, 
\fter a fierce strug-gle, lasting an 
calletl to the ('hurch at Ea:-;t \Villlbor, Conn" amI hour, TIuch Rwl ("01. Ferguson. of the Tory militia, 
continu('<l in that relation until his death, a period were killed amI the forees under them \\ere dis- 
of thirty-four years, UP was trust('e of Dartmouth per
ed, ('apt, )lroClure leading the pursuit. On () 
college from 17i7 till IHOO, and rf'ceiwd the df'- \ug, that officer was prf'sent at the hattle of 
grf'e of D, f), from the same institution in 1803, Hanging- Rock, antl fell at the fir
t fire pierced hy 
Dr, )[c('lure IHlhlished, in addition to eleven occa- two hull('ts, '\\11en his frientls came tv his aid he 
sional tliscourses, an "Omtion at. the Opening of urged tl1('m to leave him and IHH'sue the enemy, 
Exeter Phillips Acatlemy" (1783); ., Sf'rmons on 
\fter the battl(' he was taken to \Y axhaw church, 
the :Moral Law" (lî
I,): new ed, in 1818): .. Om- amI them'e to Charlotte. K C" wh('re he died in 
tion on the D('ath of Gen, Washington" (1
()0); Iliherty hall. Gen, 'Villimn It Dade saitl of him: 
una, in connf'ction with Rev, Dr, Parish. .. )Ie- "Of the manv hrave men with" hom it was mv 
moil's of the Re\', Eleazer 'Yheelock, [), D." (lHHI), fortune to h('come acquainted in the army, JOhÌl 
McCLrUH. Gf'or
{'. !'Ooillier, h, nf'ar London- )[cChU"e was on(' of the braw
t." 
derry, Ir('lltllll, in 1'ì71: <1, in El
in, Ill" Hi .Aug" JI(.rIX n E, Sir Uol){'rt John T.(' 
n(,sll..i{').. 
1
:)1. 1I(' emigrated to Baltimore in 1 î!H, and British arctic ('xplorf'l'. b, in ". exford, Ireland. 28 
suhsequently Spttll'd in Bath, N, y" where he ,Tan.. 1807; d, in IJondon, Eng-Iand, 14 Oct., l
î3, 
sturlied law, and was successively a memhf'r of the 11(' was th(' posthumous child of a British oflicer 
legislature, sheriff, surrogate, and judge of Steuhcn that was killell at the battle of .Ahoukir, lIe was 
county, Ill' volunteered in the war of 1812, and adopte(l by Gen, Le 
[esurier, and through his in- 
in 18t:J cornman(led a urigmle on the Buffalo fron- fluence edueat('d at Eton !lnd Sandhurst. hut, being 
tier, being hrought prominently into notice hy 01'- awrse to a military career, ohtllined nn appoint- 
ùering- till' hurning of 
ewark (afterwanl Xiaga- nll'nt as milbhipman in the navy, Aft('r serving- 
ra). Canada \Vest. \Vhen he had det('rmine<1 l'arl
 for tf'n years on various stations, he accompanie(l 
in Decpmher to ahandon }1'orL Geor
e, after ('uùeav- Sir George Bach to the arctic regions as mate of 
()ring to destroy the former \\ork by blowing it the" Tel"l"Or," and for his services WIIS re\Hlrded 
up while its garrison was crossing- the river to with a lil'ut('nancy, In 18-tR he jOÍ1l1'<l the Frank- 
Fort Xia
ara, he s('t fire to the ndghboring villag-e Iin sl'areh expedition of Sir ,Tohn Ross, and was 
()f Newark, The w('ather wa
 intensely cold, and promoted comnulIl<ler, In 18::;0 he be;an the voy- 
the inhahitanb, who hall only he('n g-iven a few agc whieh securcd him lasting fame n
 the <lis- 
hours' notice, inchuling a large numher of women cov('rer of the Xorth\\est passage, IIl'left Plym- 
nml chililren, wcre driven from their homes into outh in command of the "Investigatur;' which was 
the <leep snow, with but little food and clothilll;, provisioned for tlll'l'e years aud had a creW of sixty- 
Only one dwelling out of one humlre,l amI fifty ...:ix men, under ordl.rs to pass through Bcring 
was left stan<liug, When the British took posses- straits, amI tlwnce, if practieable, to l'roeeed to 
[el- 
sion of the ahamloned fortification they <leeide(l on ville island, an achievellwnt which had not then 
swift retaliation, and soon six villages. and JIlany 1)('('n accomplished by any wssel, Capt, :\lcClure 
isolated houses on the .American hank of the Xillga- l'lltered a strait, which he named the Prince of 
m river, together with sl'v('ml vessels, were set on \\'ales stmit, and, after his ship was frozen fast, 
fire, an(l scores of innocent pl'rsons lost thcir liH'
, he continued t he exploration by 
Il'dges until he 
'h.rIJr n H. .J 011 II. rat riot, h, in ('\ll'stpr district, l"l'aclll'<l )Ielville, or Barrow's, st mits in the winter 
S, C" about 17iJO; d, in Charlotte, 
, (',. 1H 
\ug.. of l
,ì()-ï, This was cuned the first discowryof 
17
O, 
\fter the fall of Charleston, 
, ('" 12 )[ay. the Korthwc
t passage, The n('xt season he dis- 
1780, the ::;outh Carolinn patriots Wl'r(' greatly dis- cO\'('l"l'd a second route on the north side of Baring 
heartened, and in the following month 
ir Henr
 island, In 1
::;3 he wa,.. extricated from a perilous 
Clintnn wrote to the Bl'itish ministry: "I may situation hy Capt. Kellett, who arrÍ\-ed at :\Ielville 
venture to as:';l'rt that there are few men in 
onth island from tIll' east. )[c('lurc l'l'llmined in the arc- 
Carolina who are not either our prisoners, or in tic regions until lR:>4. ntHl his whole party reached 
anns with us," :\[any patriots Imd fbund rpfuge England on 2H 
epternber of that year, .:\(el'lure 
in Korth Carolina, while others had g-one up to received the t,j,(IOÜ thnt had 1I('en offered for thp 
the mountains und were gathering thl'ir countr
'- discover
 of the !\orthw('
t pa
sa,
e, and a similar 
men into han<ls to avenge the insults of thl'Ìr "mn was distributed among his offi('('rs and crew, 
oppressors, Early in July, G('n, Thomll
 Sumter Ill' wa
 also knight('d anù suhsequently mad(' vice- 
returned to South ('arolina with a fl'w follower
, admiral. From hi
 journals Capt. S!wrard Osborn 
lIe foun<l dl1lt the Whig
, led by John 1\I('Clure, puhlish('d" The Dbcovery of the Korthwest Pas- 
l{ichanl \Yinn, amI others, had already attacked sage" (London, 1
,j6), 
the elll'my at <lit]'('rent points, To cru
h these ß[('{,IJrUH. AI('xnlulcr fnhhH'll, puhlisher. 
patriot
, an<l bind the loyalists together, the Hrit- b, in Philadelphia. Pa.. ahout 1H:
:;, Ile was grUllu- 
i
h authoritie:,; sent out marauding partÌf'
, chiefly nte<l at l\Iiami university, ()xfol"l1. Ohio. in 18.');3, 
Tories, At :\[Chh'y's meeting--house, on till' hanks He left thl' house of S. C, Gri.
gs and Co.. book- 
of 11ittle riwr, Fairfield district. ('apt, )Icl'lure sellers of Chicago, to enter the 
ational army as a 
and ('apt. Bratton fell upon a party of loyalbts private, Vi Aug" 1H62, anù was suh
e(luently com- 
and (lisper:;ell them, This dj,.;a
ter, following closely missioned captain in the 
Hth Illinois volunteers, 
upon that at Be('kamvilll', where )lcClure, at the lie was promoted to lieutenant-colonel in tllf' 
heal1 of thirty-thl"l'e nll'n. }Hul routcd a party of a(ljutant-gl'Ill'rars depal'tnwnt, and chid of staff 
Tori('s and British soldiers the previous month, of the 14th army corps, an<l hrp\'etted colonel and 
caused the comnHtnder at l{o('ky :\[ount. Chl'ster hrigadier-general. lIe s('r\'e(l to the ('wI of the 
co" to send out L'apt, Christian II uch "ith 400 I war in the Army of the ('umberland, and aCCOlll- 



.:\IcCLrRG 


paniell (;en, Sherman in his march to the sea, 
After the war he returrwd to the book business 
in t'hicng-o, hecoming a partner in the firm of Jan- 
Sl'n, :\1('( 'Iurg- anei <"0" anli the house is now widely 
kJllm n undl'r the name of A, C, )lcClurg and Co" 
book:,wllers and publishers, Gen, )lcClurg has been 
a f.'equent contrihutor to pcriodicalliterature, 
]\[('fl,rnr., .J:IIUPS, physician, b, in Hampton, 
Ya" in t, 47: d, in Richmond, Ya., fI ,J ulv, t
2;), 
Ill' was a fellow-student with Thomas Jeffèrson at 
"ïlliam and )Iary college, at which institution he 
Was graduated in 1 ,(Ì
, lIe took his degree in 
medicine at Edinhurgh in 1,,0, and suhsequently 
pursued his shulics in London and Paris, On l"l'- 
turning- to thi
 country in 1";1 he settled in Will- 
iamsburg, Ya" where he soon took high rank as a 
r hysician, hut in 1 ,
:
 he remon'd to Riehmonll. 
Ie sat for many years in the Yirginia council, and 
wa" II. memher of the convention that framed the 
constitution of the rnited States, During his resi- 
ù<,nce ahroall he puhlished an" Essay on the IIuman 
Bile" (London), which was translatell into severnl 
languages, Ill' is also the author of a paper on 
"Hensoning in )[edicine" in the Philadelphia 
"Journal of the )[cdical Physical Sciences," He 
hall con"iderable skill ns a writer of 'l'ers de soci
tp, 
anel his" Belles of 'Williamshurg" (1..7), a few 
stanzas of which were written by ,Judge St, George 
Tucker. is puhlishcd in ,John E:-ten Cooke's "Yir- 
ginia ('omellians" (Xcw York. IH,)4), 
Mr('Ll"IU;', Joseph Wa...hin1;'ton, legislator, 
b, in ::;t, Louis county, )10,. 22 Feb"181H, lIe was 
cllucated at O\.lord college, Ohio, and taught in 
Loubiana :md Mississippi in H,3.3-'fi. lie then 
went to Texas, where he studielllaw, was admitted 
to the har, allll made clerk of t he circuit court in 
1::;40, In 1
+t he rcturned to :\[Í:-;souri and en- 
gaged in mercantile pursuits, In 1861 he ::,.uffered 
from Confederate depredations on his property, 
became colonel of the Osnge regiment, and subse- 
quently of a regiment of Xational c,amlry, Jle 
was a memher of the state conventions of )[issouri 
in I
Gl-'2-'3. and was elected and re-l'leeted to 
congress while residing in Linn Creek. Camden co" 
first as an Emancipation and afterward as a Re- 
publican candidate, serving from 7 Dec,. IH(j:
, till 
lKlÌ8. when he resigned, In the latter year he was 
elected gO\'ernor and served the full term, 
J!nc('O LIJ' }
\ nn. Canadian poet. b, in Kenmore. 
Argyleshire, Scotland, 21 S<,pt" 180t:i, He received 
a good education, and in IH
, became a contributor 
to the .. Gaelic :\[ag-azine" published in Glasgow, 
In It:i31 )IaeColl's family emigrated to Canada, but 
he remained behind, and in 18
, was appointed a 
clerk in the Liverpool custom-house, In 18.:50 he 
removed to <. 'anada. and ,.00n afterwarll obtained 
a situation in the Kingston custom-house, where 
he remained till he was retired in 1880, During 
his residence in Canada he has written numerous 
poems, chiefly of a lyrical character, the most noted 
of which is .0)[ v Rowan Tree," lIe has been for 
manv Years the bard of the St Andrew's societv of 
King
ion, lIe has publif'hed in book-form .. èlar- 
sach Xan Beann, or Poems and Songs in Gaelic" 
(Glasg-ow. IS:
,: new edition, 1H
fi), and "The 
:\Iountain )linstrel, or Poems and Songs in Eng- 
lish": third Canadian edition of his works (Toron- 
to, 18t:i,), See \\ïlson's " Poets and Poetrvof Scot- 
land" (Xew York, 1
7G),-His daughtèr, Jlnry 
J pmimn, h, in IJiverpool. England. 7 l\lay, 1
4 ,. 
was educated in Kingston. Ont.. taught for several 
years, and in 18Rl married Prof, Otto Henry 
Schulte, of Hashrouck institute, Jersey City, X, J, 
She is the author of "Bide a "
ee. and other 
Poems" (Buffalo, 18,9; 4th ed" Toronto), 



Uc(,OI,I.F:STRE. 
ul1inl1l Holman. clergy- 
man, b, in l\[arlhorough, X, II,. 1
 Dee.. 1t'
(), He 
was graduatell at Xor" ich, Vt., university in 18.')1, 
and studied theolog-yat Cmnbridg-e dÌ\ inity-school. 
He be
an prpaehin
 to a l
niversalist cong-rpg-ntion 
at ::;wanzey, X, 11.. in II-1:;a. and subsequently held 
a pastorate at "'estmorelmul. Ill' wa" then ehosen 
president of the State boaI'll of commissioners, antI 
fifter teaching and preaehing in \Vesthrook (now 
Deering-). 
Ie" he ohtained in 18ß4. from the )Iaine 
l<'g-islature, a charter for II. female colleg-e, In 
1
,2-'() he was IH'l'sident of Buchtel college. Akron, 
Ohio, nIul h<, ha", since estahlished C'hurches at Bel- 
lows Falls, Yt,. and DOYer. X, 11,. from whieh la
t 
pastorate he resi
ned in 1

5, He received the de- 
gree of f), 1), from 
t, Lawrence universih in 18,4, 
Besides heing' It frequent contrilmtor to" religiou
 
and educational journals. he has published" After- 
Thoug-hts of Foreign Tnl\-el .. (Roston. If180), 
Jlc('()XA r(
 H r. Ihn hI, clerg
 man. lJ, in '[en- 
allen, York co, (now AtImns). Pa,. 29 Sept,. 1,ï5; 
d, in \Yashing'ton, Pa,. 2n ,Jan., 11-1,')2, He was 
g-raduated at Dickinson in 1,9.:5. and nfter 
tudying 
theology was licensed to preach as a Presbyterian 
in 1,97, In It'OO he accepted a call from the rnited 
Christians of l
pper :\[arsh creek awl Conewag-o. re- 
maining tlll're until tHa2, From IH
2 till 184f1 he 
was president of \Vashington college, He receÌyetI 
the degree of D, D, from Jefferson in 18:3
, and 
that of LL, D, from Wa!'hington in 184f1, Dr, 
)[eConaughy puhlished sermons amI addresses. 
tracts on the "Doctrine of the Trinitv" and on 
"Infllnt Baptism." "A Brief Summar
' and Out- 
line of l\Ioral Science " (1838), and .. Discourses, 
chiefly Biographical, of Persons Eminent in ::;acred 
History" (Washington, Pa.. IH;)O), 
)(('fOX
f:L, ,Julan l,mllum. author. b, in Jack- 
80m"me, Ill.. 11 XOY.. It:i2ö; d, there. 17 Jan" 18G2, 
His father. Murray )[cConnel, fought in the Black 
Hawk war, wa<: in both branches of the legislature, 
and in 18:;,;-'9 was 
fifth auditor of the 
treasury, The son 
studied" law under 
his father, and was 
graduatcd at the 
law-school of Tran- 
svlvania university. 
Le'\:ington, Ky, Ìn 
1
4() he enlisted as 
a prÌ\'ate for the 
:\Iexican war. be- 
came 1st lieutenant 
of his company. and 
was promoted to 
captain after the 
battle of Buena Vis- 
ta. where he was 
twice wounded, Af- 
ter the war he re- 
turned to ,J ackson- 
yille and practi
ed 
law there till his death, which wa..; caused bv an 
illne
s that he had contracted in :\Iexico, "His 
books, which illustrate western life and character, 
include "Tal hot and Y ernon" (X ew York, 18:;0): 
.. Grahame. or Youth and :\[nnhood " (1850); .. The 
Glenns " (1831): and ""'estern Characters, or 
Types of Border Life" (Boston. 113.53), At the 
time of his death he was eng'aged in a work to be 
entitled" History of Early Explorations in Amer- 
ica." with special reference to the labors of the 
early Roman Catholic missionaries, 
)Ì('(,OOK, J):1UiflI. soldier. b, in Canonshurg, 
Pa" 20 June, 1 ,Ú:-";: d, near Buffington's island, 


i\lcCOOK 


91 


::- 


'I( 


f 
\-, 

 


c 


----.... '--""""'" 
'- .
\ 
" "i

.
 
> _ ,,"-\ 
. ï -
, 

\ 

 



92 


:\!cCOOK 


Ohio, 21 July. 18ü3, Ill' was the son of Georg-e 
:\1(,Cook, an Iri:,hman of Scoteh df'
('eTlt, who wa.;; 
coneernell in movements of the .. e nit('(l T ri:,h- 
IIll'n ., ahout 17HO. anll on their fnilure fled to the 
enited 
tate
, Daniel was educated at Jef!er
on 
eollf'ge and remo\l.d to Xew IJi
hon, anll tllf'n to 
Carrollton. Ohio, .\t thí' heg-inning of the cÏ\-il 
war, although sixty-thrce years of age. he ûf!pred 
hi
 sen-ices to the Q'o\'(
rnment, wa
 eommi:,
ionell 
major. amI fell mortally wounded while leading- an 
adntnce party to oppose amI intereept Gen, John 
.:\Iorgan in his raill. lIis wife, )lARTHA LATDIF.R, 
h, in Washington. Pa" 
 )[arch. 1t;O:.'!: d, in Xl'W 
Li
hon, Ohio, 10 So,"" 18ì9. was Ill1lrriell in 181
, 
lIeI' courage amI intelligence greatly influence. 1 
their ten suns who were in the Xatiunal armv,- 
Daniel's hrother. .J olt n, physieian. b, in Can;I/I
- 
hurg. Pa,. 21 Feh., IH()li: d, in Washington, 1), C.. 
11 Oet" lRIi::i, wa
 ellncated at Jefferson college 
IInd grmluated in the Medical sehool of Cincinnati, 
He praetised medieine for mnny year
 in Xew Li
- 
bon, and afterward in Stellvendlle, Ohio, and dur- 
ing the cï\-il war sPf\'ed for a time as a volunteer 
snrgeon, lie \lied at the headquarters of his son. 
Gen, Anson G, )lcCook, in \\
ashing-ton, D, C" dur- 
ing a visit, Bis wife, C-\THERIXE ,JrLI\ SIIELUOX, 
v, in Ua rt ford, Conn" 21 )r a v, IH07: d. in Stl'U- 
bem-ille, Ohio, 11 :March, !t;ü:;: was notel! for her 
gift of song, His fixe sons enli
tell in the Xa- 
tional arm\', These two families have bpen called 
the "fighting )[('('ooks," and are familiarlv dis- 
tingui
hed as the .. trihe of Dan" fiml the "tribe 
of Jolm:' - Daniel's son, (;('o.'g'(' ".) HIP, law- 
yer. b, in Canon
vurg. Pa" 21 
o\'.. 1t!21: d, in 
Steuven dIle, Ohio, 2tj Dec., 18ìi, "as g-fluluated 
at Ohio university, stlldil'l! law ,\ ith Edwin )L 
Stanton, allll afte'rward bel'mne hi
 I'artm'r, Ill' 
ser\'('ll as an officer in the 3d Ohio regiment 
throughout the :\[exican war, and returned us its 
comnuu1l1er, lIe was one of the first four briga- 
dier-generals selected by the gOH't"nOr of t'hio to 
comm/lIId the troops from that state in the cÍ\-il 
war, but, 0" ing to iml'airell health from his :\fL'xi- 
can service, was pl'{'venteù from ul'cepting that 
po
t, He organiz('ù anù commandl',l for short pe- 
rio.ls several Ohio regillients, In ltjjl he was thl' 
Democratic candidate for goycrnc,r of the statl', 
] Ie was at one time attorney-g-cneml of the 
tate 
und ellitl'll the fir"t yolume uf "Ohio State He- 
ports:'-Another son, Hobert. I,I\tillll'r, suldier, 
b, in Xew Li
hon, Ohio, :!8 Dec" IH
7; d, near :--:;1- 
lem, 
\Ia" (j .\ug" 1t'1i
, stwliell law amI l'l'mowd 
to Cincinnati, "hel e he 
ecured a lar
e practice_ 
He organized the Hth Ohio reg-inll'nt in HJlil, he- 
came its l'olond, and commltllllcd It brig-ade in the 
'Vest Yirg-inia campaign under )lcCldlan, Iri
 
\Iri
adí' was then tran
fl'rr('d to the Army of the 
Ohio, and took an active part. in the hattll: of ,:\lill 
Spring, Ky" Ifl .Jan" 18ü2, where he was se\'erely 
wounded, The Confederate forces were driven 
from their lines bya bayonet churge of :\[c('ook's 
brig-Iult" and so clw
l'ly pursued that their org:mi- 
zation was de
troyed, lIe was promoted hri,
a- 
(lier-general of yoluntef'l"s, 21 :\[arch, 1
(ì
. rejoin(,11 
his command before his "Olwd had healed. awl 
"as shot by Confederate guerilla" while lying help- 
le
s in an amhulaIH'c,-AnotlH'r son. _\ 1.'xand.'1' 
)1('))ow('1I, :,oldier, h, in Columhiuna eount\'. Ohio, 
22 
\l'ril. l
at, was g-rluhmted at the U, S, Jililitary 
lll';ulemy in 11-.:;2. and aShignl'd to the ;3d infantry, 
.Aft('r a hrief 
f'f\.ice in garri
on he was l'ngag-l'd 
against the .Apaches in Xew Mexico until 1 t-;.'j i, 
and from 12 }\.v., 183
, till 24 April. lfo((il. was as- 
r,;istant in4ruf'Ìor of inf/llltr\' ta(,tic's at "
est Point, 
On 6 Dcc" Itj;Jt!, he heC':une "Ist lieutenan t. . \t the 


McCOOK 


beginning- of the civil Wfir he was appointed colo- 
nel of the 1st Ohio regimf'nt, and ill April, 18m, 
he WII
 mustering- and di
hursing officer at ('ohnn- 
hus. Ohio, lie eOllunanùeù his regÏ1llcnt at the 
first batt If' of Bull 
Hun, amI for hi:, 
sen-iees there" as 
hrevettel! major, 
Ill' wa
 appointed 
brigadier-general 
of \'olunteers on a 
Sept" 1!-1li 1. alHI 
commandcd a di- 
vision of the 
\ rmv 
of the Ohio in 
the Tenne

ee and 
)[ i
si

i I'Pi cmn- 
paign, lIe was 
brevetted lienten- 
ant-colonel at the 
eapture of Xash- 
c.fo,......,...l'{ 
"ille, 3 :\Iarch, 
IHG2. and colonel 
on 7 .A pril, 1
li2, for 
eHices at Shiloh, On 17 
J uly, IHli
, he 11l'came major-gpneral of volunteer:, 
IUlll was l'lacell in c0nlmuIHl of the 20th army 
corps, with whieh I\(' serwil during the campai
ns 
of Perrnilk Stone '(h-er. Tullahoma, and t'hieh.a- 
mauga: lIe engugpd in the defpnce of Washing- 
ton on 11 awl I:.'! J uly, l
lÌ-t was in the middlo 
military di\ i
ion from X ovember, 1!-'li4, tilt Fehru- 
ur\', 1t;Ü,). amI in command of eastern Arkansa... from 
Fèbruary till 1\[ayof the latter ymr, lie recei\'ecl 
the brewt of vrigIH1Ïer-generul, r, S. army, on 1:3 

[arch, IHli:ï. for gallant find meritorious 
eHiees 
at Pern"s\-ille, Kv.. amI also on the sume date that 
of majiw-g-l'nemi. U, S, army, for senÏces in the 
field during the "fir, lIe inycstigated Indian af- 
fair::; with ß joint committee of congn'ss from 
[ay 
till O<'1over, 1
{j,'i, and at the e]()
l' of the "ur wus 
mlHle lielltenant-eolonel of the 2(it h infantrv, On 
1.3 j)e(',. 1&>0. he "el'anll' colonel of the lith Infant- 
ry. and Ill' is now (1

t!) stationed at Fort Leav- 
cnworth, IÙlll" as commaJl(lunt of the school of 
in4ruC't ion for infantry and ea vulry,-A not Iwr 

on, ])a II it.l, soldier, h: in C'arrolltòn. Ohio, 22 
July, t
a-t; d, near KeneslIw )[ountuin, Oa.. 21 
July, It>ü4, wu
 graduated at 
\lahama uniwrsity, 
Floren('p, Ala.. in 1
,j8, !'tlH1Ïed law in 
tl'uhen- 
villl" Ohio, and, nfter tulmi

ion to the 1I1lr.re- 
lIlo\'ed to Lellvenwnrth, Kan" "hen' he formed 
L 
parÌlll'rship "ith "-illiam '1', Sherman and Thomas 
E" ing, 'nH'n the civil Will' hl'gun the of1ice "fiS 
do
ed, ancl Ill! of the pfirtneJ's soon heeame gcn- 
eral of1ìeers, )11', )leCook wa
 l'uptuin of Il local 
company, "ith whil'h he yoluntt'el"Cll, amI as purt 
of the bl Kansas rq,
'iment l'en-ed under (ien, 
Xathaniel Lyon ut \\ïlson's Cn'ek, Sllh
equently 
he WfiS chief of 
tal'f of tlH' ht di\'i
ion of the 
Armvof the Ohio in the 
hiloh cuml'aign. amI 
heearne eolonel of the 52d Ohio infantry in the 
f:ummer of 1tjG2, lIe was at once a
sign
d to the 
eomllHtlld of II brigade nnder Gen, William '1', 
Sherman, allli eontitllH'd to serve with the _\rmv 
of the ('um herlanll. Uf' wus selel'Ìed h\' (ieñ. 
'-'herman to Ie/HI tIll' a

uult that was milde on 
Kenesaw :\Iountain in Juh-, IHIH, al1l1 took his hri- 

atle directly up to the l'onfederate work
, Ju
t 
before the n

ault he cahnly recitl'II to his men the 
stanza from :\Iucaulay's poeÌn of .. Horatiu
" hegin- 
ning- .. Then how lIlay man die vetter than fadng 
fe-trflll mIlls 
.. Ile hlul reul'hed the top ()f the 
enemy's works, and was encourag-ing hi
 lllen to 
follow him. when he wa
 fatally wounded, For the 
l'OlIl'/lge that he di
l'luyed in. this as
ault he \\as 





 


:: 


.\
 



: 



 
...:---116 



 


I 



)kl'OOK 


promote!l to the full rank of brigadipr-g'('neral. to 
date from U; ,Iulv, l!,li-t hnt 
urviwtl only a fl'W 
dlL,
,-Another ;on, t-:dnin stanton, solilicr, b, 
in 'Carrollton, Ohio, 
Ii 1\[l1reh, U
j.: d, in Yank- 
ton, I>ak.. 11 
l'l't" H,.3, \\as edlH'ated at the e, H, 
HIt' al aea!lcmy, but wlll'n the ei viI war lll'gan 
rai
ed a company for the :H
t lIlinoi
 regiment. of 
which hi
 fl'i!'ll!l ,John .\, Logan '\a
 colonel. lIe 

erH'd with this rl'giml'Ilt at Fort Henry and Fort 
l>onel
l)n. whl.re he was SI.','erelv woundl'lI. In 
his promotion he succel.'!!t'd Oen: Lo
an RIlll fol- 
lowed him in the command of his rl'giml'nt, bri- 
gadl.', awl di,-i
ion, throu,dlOut the \ïckshurg and 
other campaig-ns tlIlder (ìrant, and in the Chatta- 
nooga and .Atlanta campuign:", ami the marl'h to 
the Sl'a under Sherman, Ill' was hrewttetl briga- 
dicr-gPll!.ral and major-general of volunteers on 
1a )Iareh. l
Ii;), for his senices in thl'
e campaign
, 
(ien, )1('( 'onk waS three times sevel'f'ly WOUndl'll. 
hut sllf\'iVP!1 the war, \Vhile acting .
ov('rnor of 
Dukota awl presilling over a public nweting, hI.' 
wa
 :-:hot and killed hv a man in the audienee,- 
.\nother son, fhaI'll's' JIOI'I'is. h, in ('urrollton, 
Ohio, 1:J XO\'" U,-tj; d, in \ïrginia, 
1 July, 1!-1lil, 
was a m('mher of the fre
hman class at Kenvon 
college when tIll' war bl.'gan, and volunteered its a 
private in the :?tl ohio regiment, Ill' was h.illl.a 
at the hattle of Bull Hun, in sight of his father, 
who had volunteer!'d as a nnr
e,-Another son. 
.1 ohn J 
lm('s. suldier, b, in Carroll ton, Ohio, 

 )[av, 
18-1,3, was also a student at Kcnvon when the wl
r 
hegan, ann after completing his freshmun Yl'ar en- 
li
tl'd in the nth Uhio cavalry, Ill' served through 
the \\ar, attaining the rank of captain and ai<le-de- 
cump in S!>ptcmber, 11-<1i:t [II.' wa:" brevctted ma- 
jor for gallant amI meritorious sl'rviceR in action 
nt ..;hady Grove, \
 a" \\ here he was dangerously 
wOUlHled, and lieutenant-colonel and culonel for 
his 
enices durin
 the war, ('01. l\!eCook i:-: now 
(1
8ì) practising law in Xl'w York city,-John's 
son, Edw
ll'd 
Iood)', soldil.'r, b, in Steuben villI', 
Uhio, 1;:) J une, U;;J
, rceei\'ed a common-school 
education, !lnd was one of the earlie
t settlers in 
the Pike's Peak re
ion, where he went to practise 
law, lle rl.'presented that district in the legi
la- 
ture of Kan:-as before the di vbion of t he terri- 
tories, 'I r, )leCook was temporarily in \\T a:-:hin
- 
ton just before the civil war, and, by a daring feat 
.as a volunteer secret agent for the government, 
won 
uch approbation that he was appointed in 
the regular army as 
Il lieutenant of the 1st cav- 
alry, 
 'lay. 1
(i1. He became l:-:t lieutenant, 17 
July, lRG2, His brevets in the regular army were 
1st lieutenant, 7 April, 1
ü
, for Shiloh, Tenn,; 
captain,8 (h.:t" 1
1i
, for Perrysville, Ky,; major, 

O Sept" l
lj;J, for ('hickamauga, Ga,; lieutenant- 
colonel, 21 Jan" 18G4, for service during the cav- 
alry operation
 in east Tennes.<;ee; culonel, 1::J 
l\larch, 18ü.3, for the capture of Selma, Ala" and 
also on that date brigadier-general for gallant and 
meritorious service in the field, III' also was com- 
mi
:-:ioned brigadier-general of volunteer:" on 27 

\pril, l
fi4. alHI bre'-etted major-general. 13 :\Iarch, 
1
ü.3, Gen, )[cCook's mo:"t difficult and danger- 
ous service was in penetrating the enemy's lines by 
way of di,'er
ion previons to Sherman's march to 
the !'l'a, he rl'
igned his commission in 1
(jG to ac- 
cept the appointment of U, S, minister to the Sand- 
wich islan(l:", which he heM nntil 11-<1i!), HL was 
twice appointed governor of Colorado territory by 
Pre
ident Gmnt,-Another son of the fir
t .John, 
Anson G('org(', soldier, b, in Steuhenville, Ohio, 10 
Oct., lR:
5, reeei,e<1 a common-school e<1ucation at 
Xew Li:-:bon, Ohio. and went while :-:till a youth to 
California in an overland train, Ill' remåined on 


:\!I'COOI{ 


93 


t he Pacific coast :-:ewral year
, rf'turned, and stud- 
il'llluw at Steuheltville üi the ofli('e of Stanton find 
:\ld'ook, awl had ju:-t been 
lIlmitt('d to the bar at 
the hl'ginning of the ci\i1 "aI', Oil the first call 
for troops hI.' entered the senic!' as captain in the 
2d Ohio infantry, and as slll'h 
erveù in the fir:"t 
battle of Bull linn, At the reor
ani7.ation of his 
regiment for three years, he was lIulII!' major. and he 
subsl'fJnently hecame its lieutenant - colonel and 
colmH'1. !'erving in the Army of the Cumherland 
under Budl, Ho
(>crans, and Thomas, lIe was ubo 
with Sherman in the A.tlanta campaign, command- 
ing a brigadl' pa;t of the time. ('specially at the 
hattle of Peach free C'ree1< nl'ar Atlanta, \Vhen 
the regillH'nt wa
 mu
tf'n'd out at the expiration 
of its 
e1"\'ice he was malle ('olonel of the 1Ð4th 
Ohio, onlere(l to the valley of \ïrginiu, anc1 as- 
signed to comnuuHI a lll'igade, At the elo
e of the 
"ar he was hrevettl'd brigadier-
I.'neral of volun- 
teers for g-allant and mel'itori()u
 
el'\ ice:", From 
18ü;) till It.,.:! he rl'sÌ<h..1 in St('ul)(,ll\-illl.', t )hio, as 
tT,:::;, aSSPf.;
or of internul re,'cnue. mul then 1'1'- 
mown to X('w York city, Ill' WitS el<'eted to con- 
gre
s from X ew York It
 a }{I.'publican, holding his 
8eat from 1
.Î till l

a, and 
l'rving on thc mili- 
tary committee, He i:" now (l


) secrf'tary of the 
U, 
, Sl.'nate, - Another !'on of ,John, Hf'III'\' 
(,hrbtolth('I', clergyman, b, in Kl'w Li
hon, Ohiõ, 
3 July, 1
a7. utter leul'lling the printer'
 tnule, un(l 
tl'ltching- for 
everal )l'a
. was graduated at Jeffer- 
son college, Pa" in 1
.3U. He studied theology 
privatdy and in \\. estern tllf'ological :"eminary at 
\lleghlln
, Pa" and after scrving for ninc mOllÌ h:" 
itS bt lieutenant awl chaplain in the army, held 
pa
toratl.'s at ('linton. Ill.. and :;t, Louis, :\10, Dur- 
ing thi
 period he was acti \ f' as a leader in Sllll- 
day-school mOVf'lI1ents, In 11-<:m he became pa:,tor 
of the :;ewnth Pref'l)\,terian ehureh of Philadel- 
phia, lIOW known as fhe Tabernacle Presbyterian 
chureh, Dr, :\lcCook is vice-pre:-:ident of the 
\meri- 
('an entomological :-:ociety, and of the Academy of 
Datuml scien<,ps in Philadelphia, in whose procef'd- 
ing:" he ha:-: publishe<l numprous papers upon the 
habits and illdu
try of American ants and spiders, 
The de
ree of D, J), \\ as conferred on him hy La- 
fayette in 18
O, Ill' i,;; the author of .. Object and 
Outline Tpal'hing" (:;t, Loui:", 1871); .. The La:"t 
Year of (,hri
t's )Iini
try" (Philadelphia, 1f171); 
,. The La
t Days of Je
us" (1872); ., The Tercente- 
nar
' Book," edited (18ì3); ,. The :\[ound-l\lal\.ing 
Ants of the Alleghanies" (18ì7): "II istoric El'de- 
sÜl
tical Emblem
 of Pan-Pre
hyterianisll1" (18
O); 
.. The Katural History of the Agricultural .Ant of 
Texas" (1880); .. J lonèy and Occident Ants "(IH
2): 
"Tenants of an Old Farm" (K ew Y ork, 1S
4); 
.. The \\'omen Friends of Je:-:us" (11-<
4); "The Gos- 
pel in Xature " (Philadelphia, 18
ì); and" Amer- 
ican Spiders and their Spinning- W orh.. .. (188S),- 
Another son, Rod..rick Sheldon, naval offieer, b, 
in Xew Lisbon, Ohio, 10 1\Iarch, 1
:J!I: d, in Vine- 
land, K. J" 13 Feb" 1881i, was graduated at the 
U, S, naval aca<lemy in 1859, He "as appointed 
lieutenant, 31 Aug" 1f1ü1, lieutenant-commander, 
25 Dec., 186;), aIllI commander, 25 Sept" 18ì3, 
During the cidl war he took part in various en- 
gagements on the James river, in the sounds of 
Korth Carolina, and in both Fort Fisher fights, 
and commanded a battery of na,.al howitzers at 
Kew Berne, 14 March, 18Û2, where he was highly 
commended in the official de:"patehes, In this 
conflict he recpi wd the 
urrender of a Confederate 
regiment of infantry, prohahly the only surrender 
of thi
 character that occurred in the civil war, 
During his service on the monitors at Fort Fisher 
he seriously injured his health, His last service 



94 


)lcCOHD 


was in light-hou
e' duty on Ohio river, Failing in 
health. he was retired from aetiye sel"\'ice. 2:3 Feb" 
1
H:;,-..Another sun, Juhn Jume!". clergyman. b, 
in Xew Lbbon, Ohio,:3 Feb" l
-:l:ð. was g-raduated 
Rt TI'inity college, Ilartford, Conn.. in l
ü:J, Ill' 
began the study of medicine, hut abandoned it 
to enter the Protestant Episcopal ministry, Ill' 
ser\'l'd durin
 It short caml'ai
n in We:>t \ïrginia 
as lieutenant in the l:.:t Virginia \'olunteers, a regi- 
ment reeruited almo:--t exdw.:in'h r from Ohio, Ht' 
has held pastomtes in Detroit,' )li('h" awl East 
Hartford, ('unn" and sincp IHH;
 has been professor 
of modern lan
uages in Trinity colle
e, He was 
editor of the "l'hureh \\reekly." is R frc(luent con- 
trihutor to perimlicllls, allli is the author of "Pllt 
and the ('ouncil " (Xl'w York, 1t1,O), 
)It'CO It n, Uu, icl J a IHC
, lawyer, h, in Fort 
)[otte, S, ('.. in ,Tumult"', l,Hi; d, in Columbia, 
S, C" 1:3 'lay, 1 H.),), Ill" was grmluated at 
Ollt h 
Carolilm collcge in l1-;lCi, studicd law, I1tHl wa!- ad- 
mitted to the bar in IHIH, Fl'Om 11"
.'j till 1t)2, he 
was state reportel', amI in 1t12:, he was ma(Ie in- 
tendant, or m:t\ or, of ('olumbia,::-;, C, Between 
1t12t! :tIlIl 1
::0 'he tran'llpd in Europe, and wit- 
np"''''
'll the J'l',-olution in Paris, He returned to 
Carolina 11urin
 the nullification excitemf'nt, en- 
tered the leg-isI.'tturp, and was actÌ\'c as an mh'oeate 
of e\.treme state rights, For many years :\Ir, Mc- 
{'oni was elutÏrman of the important committee on 
Federal relatiolls, and exerted himself effieientlv 
for the improvement of the judiciary systpm, As 
R tl'Ustee of South Carolina college, he beeame in- 
timate with HI', Thomas Cooper, of whom he left 
interesting reminiseLnces, In 1:-;:
(i he retircII from 
the hal', hel'<tme preshlent. of the state hank in Co- 
lumhia, awl aitled in estahli
hing the " 
outh Caro- 
lina Law ,Journal," which was not long continued, 
In 1
:
!I he was appointed compiler and editor of 
the .. Statutes at Large of South Carolina," ß 
work whieh h:uI heen hl'gun hy Dr, Thoma:.: Cooper, 
After l
-:l:O he den>ted him:--elf to B!.:"riculturc us R 
cotton-planter, awl contributed maìlY papers uvon 
politieal economy to the" Southern Heview" RJl(l 
to" De Bow's I{e\-iew," Ill' publi:.:lH'd "Ht'ports 
of l 'a:.:es Ileterminell in the Constitutional Con n'n- 
lion of 
outh Carolina" (4 vols" 1t121-'8), and 
"Chancery Ca,.;es in the Court of Appeals of South 
Carolina " (2 vols" Philadelphia, 1:-;
,-'9),-((is wife, 
Loui
tt Sn
annuh. poet, b, in Columhia, S, C" a 
Dec., 1810; d, in Charleston, :-;, ('" 2, Xo\'., 1 HSO, 
was the daughter of [Jangdon Chen's. awl was 
edue:ìÌed . in Philadelphia, In It1-:1:0 
he married 

[r, 
Ic< 'onl, and scttlell on "Langsyne" planta- 
tion nl Fort :\Iottl', on Cong-Rrel' rin'r, She con- 
ducted the ho:.:pital on hCI' plantation, attending 
to the negroe:.:, and once set a fracÌllreli arm, Hel' 
publications Rre .. Sophisms of the Proteeti\'e 
Policv," a tmn:.:lation from the French of F, Bas- 
tiat (
ew York, IH-tS): It volume of poems en- 
titled "
[y Dreams" (philadelphia, 18-l
); "l'aiw
 
Gmcchu,.:' a tragedy (Xew YOl'k, IS.)I); and nu- 
lllel'OUs contributions to currl'nt literature, 
JlctOUD, Ht'ol'gp Hf'l'hcrt, arti
t, b. in 
ew 
York city. 1 .\ug" 1:-;4'), III' wa<.; a pupil of )[oses 

Iorse in I1';IHi, and fir:.:t e'\:hibited in the Aeadem v 
of desi<Tn in 1S()t), In 1880 he was elected an as:.:(;- 
ciate, .{;ul in 18t':
 he recei ,-ed a sil Vel' medal at the 

Iassachusetts eharitahle mechanie:.:' in:.:titute ex- 
hibition, and in It'
.t a hronze medal and diploma 
at the World':.: fair. Xew Orleans, During 1
-:,)-'H 
he travelled in Xew .England, Canaùa, Florill:!, awl 
the west, wlll'rc he made many sketches, .:\Ir, ::\le- 
Cord i" a mpmher of the .\merican water-color 
o- 
cietv, the 
ahlHl!.:"1IJHli cluh, and the Artists' flllul 
soci'ety, of whieh la:.:t he was sccretary during 18-:8- I 


:\[cCOR)IICK 


'
O, His prineipal work" are" Sunnyside, Home of 
Washington 11"\ ing" (lH,li): "C:t\-e of the Winds, 
Xiagam:' awl .. \nntry Xight, Fitth .-\.\'enue" 
(18,1'1); "Xt'ar I3iddeford, )Iaine," and" Xapanock 
)lills" (l
jB): "Hunting Day:.:" (P
sO); "Winter 
E,-ening on the Hudson " (1
Hl); .. )Iarket Place, 
)Iontreal" (1:-;t);?); "V ('
per Hour" amI .. Whel'e 
Swallows Skim" (It:H:n: "
Iemory of ,J une, " " Ice 
Hun-est," and" Cross-Hoad Bridge" (It!tI.t): .. Old 
)[ill-J{ace on Whipp,my 1{h-er, Xew Jersey" (IS
':;); 
Rnd .. Long Pond, Xl'W Ilump:..:hire" (It'sü), 
)[('('onn, .Juhn, Canadian pioneer. b, in 
\r- 
mag-h, Ireland, in 1,11: Ù, in )[ontreaì, Canada, in 
1.U;j, III' was of :::;cotch-Irish dl':.:ccnt, and aUlong 
the first settlers in Xew France after the con(lul':.:t, 
III' was a strong advocate of the rights of the peo- 
ple, and was one of the leaders in the UlOH'ment 
in 1;;ð to claim from Great Britain t he fulfil- 
ment of its prumbe, made ten years before, to es- 
tablish in the province of 
uebec a legislature 
similar to those in thp other British co]onips, lIe 
was chairman of the first mel'ting that wa:.: called 
for thi
 purpose in 
ul'bec, )11', :\leCord opposed 
the measures that resulted in the 
ul'hec ad of 
1 ;;.t, which gave muC'h offence to the Bdtish co]o- 
nil's in .America, and \\ hich WfiS an important factor 
in the caUSl'S of the He'-olution,-II is gralHlson, 
John SamlH'l, Canadian juri:.:t. b, near Dublin, Ir'c- 
lanù, lS ,June, It\OI: d, in )Iontreal. 
S June, 1t\ü':;, 
came to Can ad:! in l
Oti, studied law, and was ad- 
mitted to thl' har in It'!:?;J, lIe engaged in practice 
until the fl'bellion in 1
3" when he entered the 
volunt<.'er sen'ice, raised R ca yalry corps, com- 
malHled a brigade, and was for a time in eOIllllland 
of the whole military force of 
lontreal. .\fter 
the restoration of peRce he WRS appointed com- 
mi
sioner of public works, and Rl:.:o a commis- 
sioner for the abolition of the feudal system in 
Canada, On the reorganization of the èourt" by 
the speeial council, he became a distriet judge and 
judge of thp court of reque
ts, ulHl afterward 
judg-e of the circuit court. On the reorganization 
of the judiciary in 1t\.j, he was apl'ointl'11 It judge 
of the superior court, lIe was an ardent student 
of nnturRl history and meteorology, wrote impor- 
tant artie-les on the latter science, and wn
 one of 
the foundprs of the )Iontrenl natural hi:.:tory so- 
ciety and of the Art assoeiation of that eit\", Ill' 
was' successively yice-cllRnceliur anù chancèllor of 
the I:nÍ\'ersity of Ui:.:hop's college, Lmnox\'ille, 
and aided in introducing synolls into the l'hurch 
of Englund in Cawula, 
)[(-('OU Kl.}
. Samuel Emwhiu
, clergyman, b, 
near lIarris's Fern-, LancRster co.. Pa., 2H .Aug" 
l,4li; d, in Xorth' Carolina, 21 Jan" IS11. In 
l,':;li his family removed to ThYlltira, X, (",. and 
sl'ttled on thè hUHls of the E
\rl of Umndlle, 
Samuel a:.:sisted his father in cll'aring and culti- 
\-ating the farm, and was afterward gmduated at 
Prineeton in 17,:?, He studied theology, was 
licensed by the presbytery of X ew York in 1;;.t, 
IUUI. after spmuling t\\ 0 years in \
irginia, aecepted 
11 call from Thyatira, X. C, About] ,S':; he opened 
a elassical school. which he called Ziun-Parnassus, 
Ilwi whieh continued for ten or twel\-e veal'S, In 
I,B2 ]1(' receiwd the degree of D,I>, froin Dickin- 
son, DI', :\IcCorkle imhli:.:hed sermons, .. Dis- 
courses on the Terms of Christian Communion," 
and" Diseour:.:es on the great First Principles of 
Deism atHI He,-eIRtion contrasted" (1 ,9 i), 
)[('('OIO[(('K, C,...us Hull. in\'Cntor, b, in 
Walnut 0'1'0 "c, Va.. I:; .Feb., 1 till!) : d, in Chicago, 
lll,. 1:3 .:\Ia\', 1t!t!4, Ill' was educated at cummon 
sc hools, anil t hen worked for his fa t her on the 
farm and in workshops, .\1 the age of twenty- 



nne he inH'nted two nt'\\' R1111 nduable pillugh
, but I latter institution he was a pupil of Dr, Thomas 
his ehief invention \\U:- in 11'\:.$1, when with his own ('hahners, lIuvin
 \Hittl'n an e

av on the :-;toic 
hand
 he huilt till' fir
t pl'Hl'til'ul reuping--muehine I'hilo
(Jphy, the honorary deg-ref' of A, )1. wus can- 
that \\ as e\-er mude, As earh- as It1W hi
 fat hpr fl'l'l"pd upon him on motilln of Sir \\ïlliam llamil- 
. had nttplIIl'tpd to tlln, Ill' was ordaillf'tl a minister of the Church of 
con
truet n. reapPl', Seothl.lld at Arbl'oath in It':
.I, hut remoH'd in H
:W 
but it \\ a
 u total to Breehin, where he ministered to 1,-11111 commu- 
failun', The son I nicanb' In 11';-1:3 he took an aeti\-e part in the 
worked in an entire- org-anization of the Free church of S('otland, 
ly dilft'rent chan- While pa
tor at Breehin he published a work enti- 
nel, Ill' patented tied" )[l,thotl of the DÏ\'ine GO\'erIHlwnt, Physic-al 
hi
 reaper in 1
:
-l' 1 and )[oral" (Edinhurgh, lS;;O; ;;th ed" revi
('u, 
and imp["()\"ement
 London, l
,')ü), in whieh he entlf'avor
 to interro- 
on it in It1-t.3-'j' ami g-ate nature by till' induetÏ\-e method, inlJlririn
 
It;,')t;, In IH-17 he I what is the method of the divine 
o\'l'rnment, 
rem()\'ell to l 'hica- primarily in the physieal worM. and se'eontlarily in 
go, where' he built providence as related to the chameter of man and 
large works for the tending to his re
toration, Thi
 work discusses 
con
t['Uetion of his the lu\\ s of substance and plwnomenon and of 
invcntions, }[r, )lc- eau
e anll ('tIel't in physical nature and in the 11U- 
Cormickwasnward- man mind, lIe 
ub
cquently continUl'd the argu- 
C ' J..I I ")-, 
 
 
 ed nllmerou
 prizes ment in "The Supernatural in Hehltion to the 
,/7, I (.. 

[ nnd medals for his Xatural" (Belfa4, 18ü
), which was intendf'd as the 
reapl'r, and in 18ìH fir
t part of a work on .. The .i\lf'thod IIf the })Ï\-ine 
receiwd for the third time, for his reaping and (;overnment. Supernatural aIlll Spiritual." The 
..;elf-hinding muehine, n grand prize of the Freneh puhlication of the" Method ,. nttl"Hctl'll puhlic nt- 
e'\:po
ition, and the rank of ol1il'er of the Legion of tent ion to ib author Loth in On'at Britain ami the 
honor was conferred apon him, lie was al
o, at rnitt'd 
tates, Some one ha\'ing 
ent a copy of it 
that time, f'lel'led a corresponding- member of tll(' to Earl Clarendon, then lord-liputt'nant of lre- 
FI'l'nl'h aellilemy of sciences, "as having done more land. that nohkman hegan to rend it lwfore divine 
fo!' the cause of agriculture than any other Ih-ing- sel"\'ice on a 
abhath morning, find Ll'came so in- 
man," Heverdy Johnson said, in l
.j!l: .. The }Ic- tere
ted in it that he forgot to attend church, He 
Cormiek reaper has already contributed an annual imnll'diatl'ly afterward appointell .Mr, )[cCo
h pro- 
income to the whole country of $,'),j,OOO.OOO at Ipast, fl'

or of logic and metaphy
il'
 in Queen's college, 
which mu
t increase throu
h all time," About Belfast, Ilere he remainefl for sixteen years, draw- 
this time \\ïllhun 11, Seward saill: "Owing to :\11', ing to the institution a Iflrg(' body of stmlents, and 
!\1cC'ormiek's invention, the line of c'ivilií'ation taking n dl'l'p intere
t in defending the national 
moves we4wanl thirty miles eltch \pal'," In 18,1!I sv
tem of ellueation in Irelallfl. \Yhile there he 
:\[r, )lcCormiek gave $100,000 to Iomlll the Prl's- \\ rote his" Intuitions of the .i\lind lnlluctiwly 1n- 
byterian seminary of the northwe
t in Chicago, ve
tigated" (London, 1
{;0), which estahlished his 
H.nd he abo endO\\ed a professorshi(1 in \Ya"hing- reputation as a meta- 
ton and Lee university. Virginia, See" :\lemoir" phy
ical writer, It 
(printed privatl'ly, Ro
ton, IH
-1), explains what intui- 
)It'fOIO[[('K, Hidlul'tI ('lInnill
lulIlI,author, tions lu'olwrly are, 
b, in X ew lork city, 2:3 .:\lny, 1$32, Ill' recei \'ed fi which of them are 
clas
ical education find \,ecame a hroker in l
,jO, moml conviction
, 
In 18.18-'9 he editetl the" loung .i\len's :\Iagazine," and how they are 
find in It'lj(J entered the editorial Ilepartment of I related to the sei- 
the Xew York "Enning 1>04," lIe was a war- ences, particularly 
eorrespondent of several Xew ï ork newspapers, I to metaphysics and 
and became chief clerk of the U, S, department of theology, In 1
(j8 
agriculture in 1
(i
, Ill' was seeretar
 of Arizona he remo\'ed to the 
tprritory in 18ü:3-'û, and governor in If1üü-'ü, was Cnitell States, hav- 
eleeted a delegate to congress from that terri- ing been elected 
tor
' for three consecutÌ\'e terms, and sen-ed in president of the C01- 
It;üf}-'j,j, lIe estahli
hed "The _\rizona )lincr" lege of X ew ,} er
ey, 
in l
ü-1, and" The Arizona Citizen" in 18ìO, and I at Princeton, where 
,was a delegate to the Xational Republican eonven- his administration 
tion
 of It;ì2, 18jü, find 1880, lIe was a conUUis- 1 has been remarkahly 
sioner to the Centennial exhibition in It!jl-'(), as- successful. The staff 
sistaut seeretary of the trea
ury in l
ìì-'8. and of professors has 
commissioner-genernl to the Pnri
 expo!'oition in the been increased from se\-I'nteen to forty-one, and 
latter year, wa:, made a commandf'r of the Legion the awrage attendanee of students from 2ü-t to 
of honor hy the Freueh gO\-ernment, and was tencl- I ÜO:3, Having been thus successful in his ndminis- 
ered the mis"ion to :\lexico on his return, which I tration, and de
iring to he relieved on account of 
he declined, lIe published a" Yi
it to the Camp advanl'Ïng years, Dr, )IcCo:-.h offered his resign a- 
before Seha
topol" (Xl'\\' York, l
:ï,
)); .. St, Paul's tion in 
O\'ember, It;
7, which took effect in June, 
to St, Sophia" (IR(iO): and .. Arizona, its He- lS..,t;, Ill' was voted a salary as pre
ident emeri- 
sources " (18ü;:)), The rf'ports of the G, S, commi
- tus, and retained the chair of philo
ophy, lie re- 
sïoners to the Paris exposition (,I '\'ols,) were pre- cf'i\'ed the degree of LL, D, from ..Aberdeen in 
pared and puhlished under his direction, 1 1
'10. and from Harvard in 18(i8, while Queen's 
)h'(,OSH, .J 
IJII('S. edueator. b, in Carskeoch, unÏ\'ersity, Ireland, has given him that of l), Lit, 
Ayrshire, Scotland, 1 
\pril, 1811. He studied at Dr, .i\lcCosh has been a voluminous writer, and he- 
the CnÏ\-ersity of Glasgow from 182-1 til1182H, and sidl's the works already mentioned, and many im- 
at that of Edinburgh from It;
!1 till 18M, In the l'ortant aùdrcs
es and contributions to mrious pe- 


:\Il'COIDlIf'K 


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.. 



 


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96 


l\IcCOSKRY 


riOllicals, he has puhlished .. Typical Form
 and 
Special End
 in ('rcation," with Vr, (.ieol'g-e Viekie 
(Edin Lmrgh. 1 s.").)): .. Examination of )[ill":.; Philo:-;o- 
phy. hpin
 a Defenc(' of Fundamental Truth" (
ew 
York, IHlili); "Laws of l>i:-;l'ursÎ\ e Thoug-ht, being- 
a Tn'at i:-;e on Formal Logic" (X ew Y ork. 1
(j!J): 
"Chri,.;tianity and Po,.;iti\-i
m " (11).1): .. The Scot- 
tish Philo:-;ophy, Biographical. Expository. Critical. 
from lIutehe,,;oll to llamilton '. (1H.4): .. 
\ Ht'l'ly 
to Prof, T\'Ullall's Uelfa..:t .Address" (ItJ7,")): .. The 
Developmènt Hypothesis" (1
.ü) : and " The Emo- 
tions ., (lS
O), Ill' completed in l

fi the" Philo- 
sophical S('ries" whieh he h1l11 beg-un in 1


. and 
which inclwles .. Criteria of Din'rs Kinds of Truth 
a
 oppo
ed to .\g-no:-;ticism "(18tJ2); .. Energ-y, Effi- 
cient and Pinal Cause." " DI"'elopm('nt: \\'hat it 
Can Do and What it Cannot Do;' aUlI "Certitude, 
Provhlenee, and Pmyer" (I
X3) ; " Loeke's Theory 
of Knowlecl
e. with Xotice of Berkeley:'" .\,gno
- 
tic'ism of lIunll' aUlI I[uxlc\", with Notice of the 
Scotti,.;h School," and .. l'ritif'i:-;m of the Critical 
Philosophy" (H:!H-t); "Herhert SpenC'er':-; Philo,.;o- 
phyas Culminating in hi
 Ethies" ancl .. The Xew 
ncparture in ('ollegl' Eclucation "(lHH:)); and" P:-;y- 
{'holog-y. the Cogniti\-e Powers " (IH
(j), In I
H. 
1>1'. )Ic( 'osh comhinell the philosophiC' series in 
., I{ealistic Philosophy" (2 \"ok) and .. Ps
 chology 
of the 
Ioti\'e Po\\er
." his aim being to furmulate 
an .\merican philo:-;ophy of reali:-;m, 
)[('f'OSKR \'. S
'IIl'H'1 .\lI('n, 1', E, hi:-;llOp, L, 
in Carlisle. Pa,.!J Xov" 1
04: d, in Xew York city, 
1 
\u/.{.. IHH(j, lIe enterell the U, S, military acach,. 
my in IH20, hut after two year
 ]'('
ig-ned and en- 
terell I )iddn:-;on college, \\ here he wa
 graduated 
in IH2.), Ill' then stmlied law, was atlmitted to 
the hal', anll praetised for six years in his native 
place. In IH:n he began the stwly of theology 
preparatorV' to order
 in the Prote:-;tant Epi:-;copal 
chul't'h, He was orduilll'll deal'on in ('hri4 
church, l{e
uling-. Pa.. 
t; :\lal'l'h, II):J:J. by Bishop 
Ilemy V, Oudl'nlonk, and rrie
t, in the same 
ehurl'h. 1:J Dec" I
J:3, hy the 
ame hishop, .\ 
year later he aeceptell the reetorship of S1. Puu}'s 
chureh, Philaclelphia, where he rl'mainl'll for two 
)"l'IU'S, Ill' was then elect ell tu be the first bi:-;hop 
of l\Iiehi
all. and wa-.; con
eeratetl in St. Paul':, 
church, Phihult'lphia, 7 .July, 1
;J(j, He took up his 
residence in Detroit, .:\1 il 'h" beeltme redor of :;1. 
Paul's l'hureh ill that dty, awl held the po:.t for 
twenty-:-;evf'n year:-;, I II' recei\ I'd tIll' tll'g-ree of D, D, 
from Columhia Itwi from the Cniversitv of Pl'llIl
vl- 
vania in 1
:
7. uwl the degree of [), C: L, from the 
Fni\-er
ity of Oxfortl, 8n
land. in v
:):!, Bi,.;hop 
.:\lcl'o:-;kry rl':-:ignl'tI his juristlietion in :\larcÌ1, ltì71), 
on the plea of feeble henlth and the infirmities of 
age, and a:c-:ked the hishups to release him, :::;oon 
afterwaJ'11 grave allegations touehing hi
 moral 
chamder bccame puhlic; whereupon he ahundoned 
his dioce:-;e alHl left the (Tnited States, thus pl'e- 
vl'nting any ill\-e,.;tig-ation of the I'harges ag-ainst 
him, The house uf Lishop
, under the circ'um- 
,...hllll'l.:-;, acting as a court. at It meeting lll'ld in 
Xew York eit\', 
 l>ec,. 1
71:.'1, Ileeming hi:-; cour,.;1' 
an a('kllOwh'cl
uH'nt of his g-uilt, formally depo
pd 
him from the s;lc'red minÏstn and all the functions 
thereof. See" ,Joul"l1al of (;eneml ConH'ntion of 
the Protpstan t Episcopal ('h ureh for IH
O," 
!lel'OW:S. .John Porft'." sflltlier, b, in TeJ1llf's- 
see ahout IH:!(I, Ill' wao; graduated at the C S. 
military al'ademv in 1
40. awl appointed 2tl lieu- 
tenant "in the 4t'h artillerc Ill' hecame l:-;t lieu- 
tenant, :m Sppt., 1
4:
, '\'as regimental qual'ter- 
ma:-;ter in tH4.-'I;, and was brew'Uell captain for 
Lra\"erY at CPl"l'O (Tonlo. 18 
\pril. 11)47, He rl'- 
signeti' from the C, S, army, 1. .:\[ay, 1861, and, 


)IcCHEA 


entering the f'onfederate senÌ<'e, became a bri
a- 
dier-general. He cOllllllamled at 1\ ew :\I<Hll'id, 
110., in )Iarch. 1Hlì2, hut evacuated that town af- 
tl'r it
 in vestnll'n t hy lien, Pope, 
lUc( '0 l, Isaae. clerg-yman. h, in Fayette county, 
Pa.. 1:
 June, 1 .
4; d, in Loui:-;\ ille, Ky" 21 June. 
1
4(i, In 17!IO he remowd with hi:-; father to 
:::;helhv count\', Kv" and reeeind a limited educa- 
tion, . He ,n;;ut to Yincennes, Ind" in It'04. in 
1t;0.) to Clark county in that state, and in that 
Yt'ar Was licen
ed to preaeh as a Bapti,.;t, On 1:3 
()et., It: to. he was ordainctl pastor of the chureh at 
)Iaria Creek, Clark co,. Ind,. where he remained 
eight year:i. making, meantime, occasional mis- 

ionary tours in the surrounding- country, In 1
1. 
he wa
 appointeù a mi
sionnry, and lahored in the 
we:-;tern states and territories, In It:!-!:
 he hecame 
the fir:st corre:-;powling secretary and gl'neml agent 
of the Aml'riean Indian mi:-;sion a
sociation at 
IJollisdlle, Ky, lIe published" History of Bapti
t 
Indian )Iis
ions" (Washington, D, C" 1
4()), 
'1('CH,\E, William, l'alHulian 
enator, b, in 
Burritt's I{apid:i, Ontario. 10 
o\',. l
tn, Ill' stud- 
ied law and b('came a harri:-;ter in 11)30. wa:-; mayor 
of Chatham, ()ntario, in 11),)!), member of the legis- 
lati"e couneil in lSli
. mul Dominion :-:enator in 
1
li7, Ill' \\ as appointl'd distl'Ì<,t judge of 
\lgollm 
in 1 
70, awl rHi:-;ing-oflicl'r in 1 !ooitJ,), 
.J[cfl
.\nL (;('CH'
(' Washimrton. state:sman, 
b, in Emn:-;yille. Ind,: :W Aug-,. I
J,), In 1
3ü he 
was taken by hi
 parent
 to that part of \\
i:icon
in 
tl'l'l"itorv that atterward became the state of Iowa, 
lie "as educated in a puhlic :ichool and in an 
aewlemy, und :-;tudied law in Keokuk, Iowa. where 
he W1\:-; admitted to the har in It:56, lIe was plect- 
ed to the leg-islature in 18.;7, amI sln"ed in the :-;tate 
senate from l
lil till 11:'(;;), hdng ehairman of the 
eommittpe on military uffair:-;, In 18(jS he 'H1S 
elected to congress as It Hepublican. and sprved by 
:-;uccessh-c re-clel'tions until 3 )[arch. 1
7., On 7 
Dec" 18.ü, .:\Ir, .:\Ic( 'rary introllueed into congress 
the hill that was the tir
t step in the lcgi:-;lation for 
crpating thl' electoral commi:-;
ion, He was one of 
thl' fir:-;t to support thc Republican position in the 
FlorÍtla case. and spoke before the commission 
against the right of eongre
:' to go behind the re- 
turns, \\lll'n Pre:-;idl'nt Hayes formed his eaLinet, 
)Ir. )leC'mry wa:-; eho:.en :-;ecretarv of war, 12 
:\lafl'h. 11:'7.: but resigned in order to accept a 
judg-e:-;l1Ïp of the U, S, eircuit court, to whieh he 
wa:-; appointed in December, ltì.f), He also re- 
:-;ign('d this office in l\lareh. I
H4, 'lIld n'lIlO\ed 
from Keokuk. IO\\a, to Kan,.;a" Citv, )10.. where he 
has since practi:-;e,l law, allli is geileral con
ulting 
coun:-;el of the 
\tehi:-;on, Topeka, and ::;anta Fé 
railroad company, Ill' is the author of "The 
.AnlPrienn Law of Eledions" (Chicago, 187,")), 
J[(,('IU:..\, Junt'. b, in Bedminstl'r (now Lam- 
ing-ton), 
,,1.. in 1.,"j:J; d, nCllr Fort Edward, S, y" 
27 July. 17.., She was the second daughter of 
Hev, .James :\IcCrea, a PI'e:-;h
.terian clergyman of 
Seoteh descent, whose father. \\
illiam, was an eldpr 
in \Yhite Clav Creek church. near Xe\\"<lrk, Del. 
After hi:-; death she made her home with a brother 
at Fort Edward, 1\0 event. either in ancient or 
lIlodern warf1lre. ha,> recei \'l'd more versions than 
that of her death, It has been commemorated in 
stOl'\' and in son
. and narmt{'d in gnt\'e histories 
in a
 many diffeÌ'ent wa
-s as there have been 'Hit- 
er:,; on the suhject, The fact
 appeur to be as fol- 
low:-;: Dadd JOIle
, her 100'er. an officer in Bur- 
gonlp's arm v, then h'ing four miles from Fort Ed- 

\'linl. sent a' part." of [n7IiaIl
 under Dulnt h, a ha]f- 
hret'(l. to escort his Letl'Othed to t hp Brit i,.;h ('amp, 
where they \\ ere to be at once married by Chaplain 



)[cCREERY 


l\[cCUL LOr' II 


97 


TIrudclwll, L:1I1y I1arril't awl l\latlame Rietlp:'>1'1 I mnong tlw !'o-('alled "bark-pl'e1er
" of Sullivan 
h:l\-ing good-naturedly l'un
ented to gml'e thl' nup- I county. Xew York. then in :;outhel"ll Illinoi:;;, Ilnd 
tial
 h
 their pre
ence, Duluth, ha\ ing arri\'ed after l
;jU in Ilend!'r
on, Ky, In II-1-tO hI' "nt!'red 
"ithin a I[uurter of a mill' or the hOIl
e of a )Ir
, I regularly into till' sl'rvicl' of the 
unday-
d\Ool 
)leX!'il (where ,Jane was wuiting). huItl'l1 in the I union. and during the ne'\.t twelve ) ears IH' or"iUl- 
"oods until he should hl' joilH:'lllIy Ill'r by precon- iZl'd s{'hools in seventy-fhe counties of Kent,;;"[..v, 
cl'lted arrang'ement, 1\[eall\\!lile another b()(ly of In 18;)
 he was relil'ved of IlctÏ\l' missionary work, 
Indians fwm the Engli:sh ('amp. under Le Loup, a and made superintendent of lIlis
ions in thë south, 
fierce \\'yandutte t:hief. retul"llillg fl'um a maraud- whil'h P()
t he resigne.1 in 11-1
-t, 
illg l'xpl'llition. drO\-e in a seout of Americans, and 11('(,[, "LOr II, Hl'll, soldier. h, in Ruthl'rford 
stupping on t hdr return at )[r;o;, 1\[cX eirs. took her county, Tl'nll,. ] [ 
 0\ '. ]
 11 : d, Ileal' Pea Hidg-e, 
,allli Jane capti\'e, with the intention of bringing Ark,. 7 l\lareh, 18G2, He wus a 
on of Lieut. .Alex- 
them into the lkiti;o;h {'amp, On their way back ander )ll'l'ulloch. who fought under Ven, Alltlrew 
tlll'Y elwountl'l'l'd I>uluth's part
', when thp half- JUl'k
on in the 
hrecd claimed .Jane as lwing under his protection, ('l'l'l'k war, I [is l'd- 
Le Loup hl'Ìllg unwilling to deliver his pri;o;oner- ucation was slight. 
\\ ishing the hunor of being her e:,>('ort-hh
'h wOl'lls but travel and ex- 

nsued between the two Il'aders, when Le Loup. en- ten!'ive rea,lin
 
ragl-d at hping OprO
l'tl, in it tit of violl'llt p:ls;o;ion supplied the laek 
shot her through the hl'art, ,[,lll'n, hn\-ing ;o;ealppd of l'ltrly ;o;tudy, 
his vietim, he carrie<<l the reeking seal I' into the Leaving' !'chool at 
llriti
h camp, where it was immediatl'ly re('o,
nized the age of four- 
by its long and beautiful hair hy :\[rs, :\lcXeil, teen, he heC'llme an 
who, haying hl"en 
epnrated from ,Jane before the ð.pl'rt hUlltl'r and 
cata;o;trophe, had arrived at Burg'Oyne's he1111- hoatman, In 11-1:
:;, 
quartl'rs a little in admnee, The nl'xt <lay her whcnahout to join 
manglell body was cOII\yeyed hy her brother, Co1. a party of trappers 
John :\11'('1'1':1" tüthe eamp-ground of the fort, and on a trip to the 
there buried, On :!:1 _\pril, 1


, the remains were Roeky mountain!;:, 
remo\l'd to thp burial-
round at the lower end of he heard of the ex- n 
the ,iUage of Fort Edward, and in 1
,;
 tlll'Y were pl'dition of his V
 
 ctp
 
ag-ain removed to the l
nion cemetery. heÌ\\'l'en neighhor, J)a\-ill 
.Fort Edward and Sandy Hill, where they now lie, Crockett, and uther fril'nd!'. in aid of the Tl'xan 
l\li:,;s )Iel're:t is de
eribed Ly tho
e who knl'w her rl'volutioni:-t,.;, and hu!'tl'ned to unite with them, 
personally as a young woman of rare aceompli
h- but arrived too late ut Xacogdoel}('
, the pla('e of 
menls, great per>'Onal attractions, and remarkahle meeting, alHll'tarted 
t1one for Brazos ri \'('1', where 
.sweetne:,g of disposition, She was of mcdium he was takl'n ill, and did not re('OH'r until uftcr 
.stature. tim-Iv f01"Illl'd. and of a delicate hlonde com- the fall of the Alamo, \Vhen }I('alth returned, he 
plexiori, Il
'r hair was of a golden-hrown and joinecl (fen, 
nmuel Houston's army. and dill good 
silken lustre, and. when unhound, tmilell upon the service at 
an Jacinto, in command of a g-un, 
ground, lIeI' father was devoted to literary pur- After the army was di
banded he sl'ttletl in Gon- 
suits, and she had acquired a taste for reading un- zales, where he cng-aged in sun e
 ing and locating 
usual in one of hl'r age in those early times, Her lanels on the frontier. mul \\as eledl'd to the con- 
tragic lleath was to the people of Xew York what grel's of Te'ì:as in H.::m, In It:40-'1 he \\asengaged 
the battle of Le
ington \\as to the Xew England in repelling Indian raid!;:, notahly at the sanguinary 
colonies, In each case the effect was to con
olidate fight at Plum ('reek, Ill' f.,uh
equpntly hml many 
the inhabitants more firmly against the inyaders, encounters \\ith ('omanehes and other Indian 
The blood of the unfortunatemaillpn.HLsnntshedtribes.amlwith :\Ie
il'an raiders, Whl'n Texas 
in yailJ, A:, has been justly said. her name "as '\as achnittell to the l'nion,2!J Dee" 184,ï. he was 
pas
cd as a note of alarm along the hanks of the elected to the fir:-:t legi!'lature. and wa!;: appointed 
Hudson, and was a rallying-cry among the Green major-genera! of the 
tate militia for the we
tern 
mountai:1s of \- ermont, It thus contributed in di
trict. comprbing the entire region wcs1 of the 
no slight degree to Burgoyne's defeat, which be- Colorado river, At the beginning of the l\lexican 
.c<ime a precursor and principal cnu
e of American war he mi
ed a picked company of Texhs fangers, 
indepl'ndence, Descendants of the )[eCrea family who provided their 0\\ n horse
 Hnd arms, I I is Sf'r- 
are still living at Ballston and in other parts of ,-ices as a 
cout werf> highly valued hy Gen, Zach- 
the statf' of XI'W Yark, ary Taylor, and at :\Ionterey his company, which 
JI(,rUJ:ERY. Tholl1n
 ('hI,. senator, h, in Ken- was sent forward to feel the streng-th amI position 
tuc'ky in 1
1 7: <I, in Owpnsh()I"O'. 10 .July. l
!lO. lIe of the )[cxican forces, opened the fight, lie was 
stutlil'd law, wus a pre
idf'ntiHl f'leetor in 1Rï2 and a made quartermaster, ,\ ith the rank of major, 16 
visitor of the U, S, military acaùemy in 18,;8, and Julv, IH-tü. led his !'couts on a during I"l'connois- 
in 181j
 was elected a l), S, senator in the place of sanèe at Buena Yista, and fought with hravery 
J"ames Guthrie, who haù resigned, aIlll sen"cd from throughout the da
', Ill' \\as afterward attaehe,J 
27 Feh" 18ü8, till ;3 :\larch, It;71. Ill' was again to the army of Gen, \\ïnfil'ltl Scott, rp!'ignell IlIs 
dedell in the place of Willis B. )Iachen, and servcd staff appointnwnt on (j Sept,. 11'-!47, and \\ ith his 
from 4 3larch. ]87:3, till 3 :\Iarch, 1879, company of sI'il'
 performed u
eful scnil'l's at the 
JldTLL.\(:H, John, mi:'>sionary, b, in Edin- taking of the city of :i\Iexieo. In 1R49 he ''l'nt 
hurgh, :-;eothuHl. in 1t!11. When a mcmher of the to California, !'ettle(l at Sacramento. Hnd was 
chure
 of He\". Thomas Chalmer
, in Glasgow. he elected sheriff of the county, He retumed to 
organIzed ;-;undav-schools among the fishermpn Texas in !t;,ï2, and in the following year was ap- 
and coul-miners 'of S.'()tlan(l, a
l(l suhseeluently pointed hy Presidf'nt Pierce r, S, marshal. in whi(.h 
among the Roman Catholics of ('onnaught, 1re- office he was eontinued by Preshlent Buchanan, 
land, In 18:H he emi
rated to the ["nitI'd States, I He spent mUl'h time in \Ya
hington. where he in- 
connected him
elf with the .\nH'rican Sundav- 1 tercsted hilI1
elf in !'tUllying imI'ru\'Cments in ord- 
school union it:' a ,-olunteer, and labored at fir
t , nance and small arms, In 18.34 he was appointed, 
VOL, Iv,-7 


-' 



 


!' 
f 


,'\ 



98 


)[cCCLLOCII 


with Lazarus \V, Powell, a commi:-:
ioner to adjust 
diffi('ulties with the :\[ormons of Ctah, awl. after 
the Ile
patch of troop'" to that countlT, was com- 
mi",sioned to report on the condition of 
\rizona, 
[n l!-1(il he wa
 in Wa"hington. engaged on his 
final r('port
, and when he had conchllied his hu
i- 
ne

 with the government he ha:-tf'ned uaek to 
'I\'xas, and wa
 appointed to rai",1' a temporar
 
foree to take pos
es:-ioll of the IT, S, arsenal :It 
:::;an Antonio and other p04
, 
\fter declining the 
command of a r('giment, Il(' \\as c(lllllnis
iolled 
hrig-aflier-gen('l'al in the ('on {edemte 
I'I"\'iee nn 14 
:\[av, IHGl, anù ordered to take comlluulll of In- 
diail territory, Ill' }"l'achc(l Fort Smith. .\rk" 
ahout the elHI of :\[ay, organi
ed an :lrmy in haste, 
aIHI mareh('(l to the sueeor of t
O\., l'laihol'lll' J ack- 
SOli, of )[i

ouri. Formiug- a junctioll with Gen, 
St('rling Price'
 )li

ouri state guard
, he ellf'O\lIl- 
tere(l the troops of Gens, Xathaniel Lyon awl 
Fmnz Si,
d in the battle of \nbon's ('reek, otll('r- 
wi
e ealll'll Oak Hills. 
\ftl'r the (lefeat of the Xa- 
tioua] forces, )[l'Culloch, ha\ ing no orders to ('n- 
tel' )[i
souri, rf'fu
l'd to pursup them. and surren- 
dered the command to (ìen. Priee, Ill' took part 
in (ten, Earl Van lJom's inl'fTpctlml attempt to 
,mr- 
l"OUlHI Gen. Sigl'l's force at Benton villl', . \t the 
hattle of Pea 1{i(]ge, or Elkhorn, Ii{' eOllllllamll'd a 
corps of .\rkan
a
, Loui
iana, and Te..as troop". 
and, while riding forward to reeonnoit!'e, wa
 killed 
hy the hullet of a sharp-
hooter, (il'n. J aull'S )[c- 
Into
h, the 
econd in commanù. fell almo",t 
imu]- 
tancou
] \", and the Confederates, left without a 
leader, s()on fiell in di
()f(ler, See" :::;couting- Ex- 
peditioll
 of :\Iel'lllloch's Itangl'l's:' uy 
amuP} C, 
Heid (phihulelphia, l
,)O), awl .. Life afl(l Sl'r- 
vicl'
 of Hen, nl'n 1[l'C'ulloch," hv \'idol' :\1. Hn
e, 
)[c'(TI.I.()('f(. HII
h, 
l'crebtl:v of thl' treasurv, 
h, in Kennehunk, :\le,. 7 Dec,. IHUS, Ill' ente1'l:d 
Bowdoin in lH
4, hut leaving-, on aC'l'Ollnt of iH- 
nes
, in l

fi, taught until It':!U, and tlwn stullied 
law in Kennl'uunk anù Boston, In IH:
:
 Ill' wI'nt 
to the we",t, and 
I'pttled in Fort 
\Va\ Ill', I wI. [1\ 
It'::,
 he\\a
l'Ipd- 
ell l'a
hier aw] 
manager of the 
hranch at Fort 
\\Tavne of the 

tate hank of In- 
diana, anll at the 
e'\.piration of its 
t'harter in ISJH 
he heeRme the 
l'rl'
ident of the 
Ba nk of t Ill' 
tate 
of I wliana, \\ hich 
post he held un- 
t il :\1 a \', I Sfi::, 
I [e t Iwn' l'e
iglll'll 
to aeeept the office of comptroller of the eurr;'w'
, 
whieh wa
 tend('l'l'd to him uy 
ec. :::;a]mon P,l'ha
e, 
uwll'rtaking the organization of the l1l'wly creatl'll 
hun'au and the puttin
 into operation of thl' nation- 
al banking sy
tl'm, II i
 0\\ n reputation for con
en- 
ati:-111 influenced the ml\llager
 of the large 
t:ttl' 
hank
, awl promotell the eOIl\-er
ion of tIll' leading- 
l'l'l'dit institution
 of tIll' ('omml'reia] cities into na- 
tiona] hank:" In :\lareh, lSfi.),on the rc
igll1lti()n of 
William p, Fp
seJl(len, :\11', )[e('ulloeh was appoint- 
('d hv Prpsident IJineoln seeretarv of the treH
\lIT, 
at wÌlil'h tinH' the goon'rnment wli
 in g-rl'at finail- 
cia] I'mharra

meIÜ, I t wa
 
till incurring- f'nor- 
mous e"pen:,es, awl hf'a\"y dpinawls were pre

ing- 
upon a nearly l'mpty treasury, His fir
t and most 


\ 
:
 


--
 
- 
, 
r 
, 

 


\ -- 
'" 
\ I 
/I


i@

 


l\IcCCLLorr 


important duty, th('refoLe, was to mise by further 
loans what was needed to pay the large amount 
ùue to .'iOU,OOO s()]dil'r
 and :,:ailors, \\ ho"'e 
e1'\ ices 
the gm"ernment \\a
 in a eondition tu di
pense 
with, afl(lmeet other (ll'malll!s, This \\as sucees::;- 
fully accompIÜ:hed. and in le
s than six months 
f!'Om the tinw of his appointment all thl' matured 
oh]igations of the gnvel'llment \\ere pai(l. awl the 
reduction of the deht wa
 begun, The next most 
important work wa
 the con versioll oj' mure than 
$1.UOU,UOU,OOO of short-tillu' ohligatioll
 into a 
funded deut. This was quietly effeetf'd, and in a 
little lllOrl' than two years the W]llIle deht of the 
country was put into it 
atbfactor) shape, [n his 
annualleport
 he mlvo(;uted a steall,\' reduction of 
the national ùeut. the retirement of the leg-a]-tend- 
er note
, and a ",peedy return tll 
pe('ie pa
 nll'n ts, 
urging that a permanent public dl'Lt might Le 
dangel"Ou
 to Hl'publit'lln in4itutillll
, He ueliend, 
a]
o, that it \Hl
 not the uusinl'::.-s of thl' I-ro\'ern- 
ment to furnish the people with It paper cUlTency. 
that it had llO power under the con:-:titution to 
make its own notes 111\\ fu] mone\", uIHI that the 
paper currency of the country :",]uHlld he fur- 
ni
hed by the hank
, IIis \it'ws upon the !;:llh- 
jel't of the dd)t \\ ere sustained by cong-ress, as 
\\el'(' abo for a short time tho
e in rpg-al'll to the 
lega]-tendpr l1ote
. Spc, :\k-( 'ulloeh 1ll'IIL oflil'e till 
4 :\[a l't''' , l
fi!), From It;jl till l
jH he was en- 
gagl'll in banking in London, In ()doher, It;t34, 
on till' I'e
igllatioll of \\'alter <}, Gre:;ham. hI' was 
ag-ain appointed secretary of the treasury, and 
cOlltinued in ot1ice until the pxpimtion of Pre
i- 
dent 
\rthur's term, 4 )[areh, 1";
,-), Leing the only 
man that hl1
 heM that oflit'p twiee, 
in(le his re- 
ti1't'nll'nt he ha:- resided in Wa
hington, D, C.. find 
on hi
 fl1rm ill )Iarduml. )[1', )[cCuIloeh has con- 
trihuted urtieles oÚ' finaucial and ecunomical ques- 
tions to the II!agazilll's mill publi(' journa]
, A 

t')'ie
 of ll'tter
 written uv him in London for the 
X ew York .. TI'ihune" ï"n It3j;j werp extensÏ\ e]y 
copied. nnd were u
l'd by the HepuLHcl111::; in Uhio 
in ISj,:; for political purl'o:"e
, 
l\lc'(TI,I.(HI, .J
LIIH's lIuillC'S, author, h, in 
)I;u"yland nhout l'ì
I:t lie '\I1S l'(lucated us a phy- 
::.-ician. recei \'ing- hi
 deg-I'ee froll! the e niversity of 
Pelln:-:d \'<tnia in 1814, uut dè\"Uted him
elf main Iv 
to arcÌHcological stlldie:-:, after 
L'J"\'ing- as garri
oil 
:-urgeon ulltil the clo",c of the Will' of ItH2-'IJ, lie 
uecamp curatol' of the )L1I'v]l1nd aCIUIl'lllV of 
cience 
ulHl \ iee-prl'sident of thë 13ultinwJ"t' lÎpprentices' 
HLran. in IS

, In ItJ;3ü he succeede(l his father. 
James II, )Ld'lllloh, as collector of thp port of Bal- 
timore, Ill' wa
 also pre
idcnt of tllf' Xationa] hank 
of Baltilllorl', bllt dl'elilll'd It re-elec,tion in It;J:t 
I Ie pllhli
hl'tl "Hl'
el1rphe
 on America, heing an 
..\ttellll't to :-ettle some Points re]ati\e to the 
Auorig-illes of Alllerielt" (Bn Itilllorp, It: 16): .. He- 
searc he
, Ph ilo",ophil'a] awl. \ nt iq uarian, conCl'rn- 
ing- the 
\horigina] lIi:,tory of Amerit'a" (11'<
9): 
.. 
\Ilal
 tical IIl\"estig:ltions concerning- the ('rp(li- 
hilityof the :::;criptures and of the Heligious Sy
- 
tpm 1 nell]c-ateù in t helll, togpt her wit h a IIi40ricai 
E ..hihitlOn of n unmn ('onduct during- tIll' sm era] 
[)i
p('!l5atioTls under which :\[ankilld hll\"e heen 
placed hy theil' ('!"eator ,. (18,)
); ".\n Important 
E\:po
ition of the E\iclcnees nnd Dodrines of the 
('hri
tilln Itpligion, a(ldre

l'tl to the Hl't tpr E(ln- 
eatl'd l'las
e
 of 
oeipty" (1
-)(i): and .. On the 
('redihility of the Seripturp"" a Heea
t and En- 
]al'g-ed \ïew of 11 Former \\'ork on the> Suhjeet, 
tog-ether \\ ith It Copious 
\ na]y
i
 of t he Systems. 
proJllulg-atpd during the PatJ"illrehal. J('\\i
h, and 
(,hri
tian Di
])('n
atioll
. and of Human Ven'lop- 
ments uwler them .. (l
(j7), 



l\lcl' l' I. 1.0 1 ' (( II 


)I.('(TI.LO[(;II, ,J..hn J:dwnrcl. ador, b, in 
Colerailll'. Irel1Ll1l1, 
 
o\... It'::j: d, in I'hilwlelphia, 
Pa" tj ;\OV" 11"
.), Ilis pan'nb, who wen' small 
fm'lIll'l's. hl'ou
ht him to this countn' in ItJ,)a allli 
settled in PhÙadelphia, whl'n' the lail was apprcn- 
ti('
(l to learn the tnHle of It ehail'-maker, 111 H<,).) 
.:\Iel'll11oug-h mmle his tir:-t appearanee in It minot' 
charactel' in .. TIll' Belle's 
tmtag-l'm," at the .\l'eh 
street theatre in Phillult'lphia, and soon afterward 
chose the stage as a regular profcs:-ion, For several 
years he udell in small parts in Boston, Philadel- 
phia, awl other cities, Fl'Om 1H(i(i until IHliS )Ie- 
Cullough tr:l\'elled with Edwin Forrest, tilling the 
sccowl parts in the latter's plays, In 1
lif}, and fOl' 
some years afterward, in ellnne(,tion \\ ith Lawn'nce 
Barr<,tt, hc manag-<,d the Bnsh street tlll'atre in 
an 
Francisco, \\- here his fm-l'Ìhle, rohust st
"le of aeting- 
had manvadmÏl'ers, In l
j:?, when Forrest died, 
that ador left his manuscript plavs in :\lcCulloug-h's 
possession,looking- upon him as his legitimate :-.ll('- 
ce,.sor, From IS;;3 until Itjl"a the tragedian played, 
with IIwre or less SU('l'eSS, throughout the Unitell 
States. in till' IlI'roic rlÎles of .John I1owlU'11 PIl\ ne's 
.. Brntlls," .. .Jack ('ade," "The nladiator," .: Yir- 
ginius:' and ,. Damon and Pythias," with ol'ct.sion- 
al performances of .. Ot 1ll'1l0," ,. ('oriolanus," and 
.. King' Leal':' In IH
4 he becallll' prostl'lltell, hoth 
mentally allli physically, hut mlliell for a time 
and tilled an engag-ement in :\lih\-aukl'e, Thence 
he \H'nt to l'hicag-o. where his nl1UHlg-ers indlweu 
him to pla
' in" The <fladiator," hut he broke down, 
anll was lei I fl'om till' slag<, in the midst of his 1'<'1'- 
forma net', Ill' endl'd his dan. in a lunatil' as\ hun, 
In I
SI ;\lcC'ullough appear-ell in London in a round 
of his favorite parts, hut made no JIlarl
ed im- 
pression on English audien('('s, II is shOl,teomings 
were a lack of originality and lh.tieien('y in liter- 
al"\' culture, III' was inferior to his model. Forrest, 
in 'natural endowments. awl \\ hl'n Ill' uppeal'ell in 
the pilrts that di4inguishe,1 his ma:-tl'r he dis- 
played all his uefl.(,ts, and too elo:"ol'ly remlerl'rI the 
faulty rC'll1lings that were ba"l'd on the judgm(.nt 
of his predl'l'essor, Unlike hi m, howe,'er, he en- 
riehed the stag-e with no new dmmai:', ami ereated 
no ori
inal charaders, 
Jle(:lJl.LY. Jonathan. ('alladian jurist, h, in 
Amherst, XonL Scotia, 2
 .J uly, 1
0!': d, in II ali fa '-, 
Nova Scotia, 2 .Tan" 1
j7, Ile was admittc<l to the 
hal' in 18:
j. l'stahlished himself in {Jl'1L<'tice at lIali- 
fax in 1
4!'. and in 1l)ÜÜ wa
 apJloillte<l solicitor- 
g-eneral of the province, Ill' was a frequent writer 
in the pr!'ss of Halifax and an earnest luh-ocatc of 
eolonial union, :nul wa., a delcgltte to the confer- 
enees on the Intercolonial milroall and the con- 
federation of the provinces at Qm'heC' in ItJGl and 
1Hli
, 11(' wac;; nn active member of the lcgislati\'e 
council from l
-t. j till 1
lij, and sprn'll as ehairman 
of tl1l' hOlml ot railwavs, In ISH. he C'nterell the 
Dominion senate. but' resignell in 18iO, being ap- 
point!',1 .iud
t' of the supreme court of X ova Scotia, 
Jle(:CRHr. ('harh's .Johnson. jurist, b, in 
IJyme, Con II,. 7 Dee" 1.Uj, Ill' was g-racluated at 
Yale in 1tH;, studied law with Zl'phaniah Swift, 
beeame eminent as It counsellor, and was for many 
years a member of either the upper or lower honsè 
of the leg-islature, and for three !'C'ssions !'peaher, 
1I(' wa., lieutenant-govel'l1or in 1H47-'8, and origi- 
nated the law allowing- parties to testify in their 
o\vn suits, He WitS charg-(. d'affaires at Vil'nna fi'om 
1
,)O till 18,32, He was appointell a judge of tht' 
supel'ior court of Connecticut in 1H,')li, and was suh- 
sf'quentl
- a judg-e on the supreme court hl'twh un- 
til his retin,ment in 18ûj, JUllge )I('('urd
' WHS an 
active memher of the peal'e ('ongr!'''s in It-;lí1. Ill' 
was given the degree of LL, D, by Yale in Itjü8, 


:\ldHLIJ 


Hf> 


}lc'frU))\,. JnnH's ,Prc'dcl'it'k. orientalist, h, 
in Chatham, Xew Bl'unswiek, Itj I-\'b" IH47, lie 
was gr:Llluatellat. till' l-ni \'el'sit.y of K ew Bnlllswiek 
in 11"lilj, and in l:-1j1 at Pl'incdon theologieal 
emi- 
nary, \\ hel'e he was instruetor in orientalillng-uugl's 
in ISj:3-'H2, _\fter studying in Witting-I'n Hnd Ll'ip- 
sil' in lR

-'4, he lectured on the Stone foundation 
in Prinl'eton in 1
t<,)-'Ü, anu in the latt('r war be- 
canll' prufessor of orientallang-uag-es in l'lli\er
ity 
eolll'g<', Toronto, l'a nit ria, In the Lang'e-Schaff 
eomlllt'ntarv un thl' Bihle he Ìl'ltnshttl'd awll'dited 
the Psalms: I"U"t ii" /Lilli t hp Book of 1I0seH. awl 
\\'1'otl' the comml'ntary on lIag-g-ai (New Yorl
, 
I Rj2-'t3), ami hl' has l'ublishell "Aryo-Semitic 
..;peeeh" (Awlo\'l'r awl Lowlnn, IRSl); allll a paper 
on" Thl' Sl'mitil' Prl'fpl't ill .r\ss\Tia" in thl'" 'l'rans- 
nctions of the Congress of UrÌl'ntalists" (Lenll'll, 
1883); and is prf'JI1Lring- for publieation (lHH7) his 
Prineeton Ipetures on .. The 
bsyrian Inscril'tion1::i 
aud till' Old Testa ment," 
lldH
n:L. J:dnurd H:ni{'s. physieian, h, in 
l'hest('r distriet. S, ('" 7 .J uly, 1
22, Ill' \\ as gnulu- 
atl'd nt Erskine eolll'gl" S, (," in I
H, and began 
the stlllly of ml'llieim" but rl'lin<) uishe<l it to bc- 
Clime principal of the nClulemy at Pille (;1'0\'(', S, C" 
in l
-t.,), .Aftl'r teaching- for ten years, hp was 
g-raduatl'<I in 1
.H at till' :\[I'<li<'al colll'ge of Sout h 
l'ltrolina, allli settled at ('amdl'n, Ala, In 18R7 
he became profl'ssor of materia u\('dielL anù tIu'm- 
pl'uties in the :\Il'(lieal colleg-e of .Alahama at Mo- 
bill', Ill' \\as chosen prl'sidl'rlt of till' Alahanm 
state nw<lil'al society in IHj(i, Dr, 
[e-Dalliel is the 
itnentor of a new li1l'thod of artiti('ial n'sl'imtion, 
and hus ad \ anced thc theory that urinitil'at ion and 
dig-est ion nre depl'ndent on 'respiration, Ill' is the 
aut hor of It report on ha.morrhagic malarial fl'ver in 
Alahama (tHi.t) and 01' various professional papers, 
Jh'H,\XIEL. HC'IlI'} Hit'kC'I'SOIl. 
I)\ernor of 
Georg-ia, h, in 
lonrOl:, "'alton co" (;tt.. 4 Sept., 
11'<:n, Ill' was g-nulunteù at 
Iercpr Ulli\ersity, 
"hl're his father, Ira U" was a professor. in U<,,)fi, 
stUllil'<llaw, Ilnu pradi"l',l in .:\Ionroe, Ill' was the 
young-est ml'lllber of tl1l' Georg-ilL sl'cession con \'en- 
tion in 1
(j1, anu at first opposed disunion, uut 
finally \-ote<l for till' measure, Ill' joined the Con- 
federate army as a lieutenant, rose to the mnk of 
major in IHlii, commallIled a brigade at Gettysburg-, 
was se\-erely \Vonndell at lIagel'stO\\ n in the retreat 
from Gettysburg', anu was in thc hospital at ('hes- 
ter, Pa.. and subselluently It prisoner at .Johnson's 
island, Ohio, until the close of hostilities, lIe re- 
"umeu practice at .:\[onroe, ((a" in 1
(i"). and was n 
mt'mher of the State constitutional cOll\'entioll in 
that \ par, On thl' rl'montl of his civil disabilities 
in 1
Î
 he was e1ecteu to the legislature, and, as 
chairman of the finance committee of the house, 
proposl'll a law for the tuxation of railr01uls that 
has bepn followed in other states, .After tlw adop- 
tion of the constitution of 1 tj77. as dmirman of the 
judiciary committee, he had charg-e of th
' 1c
isla- 
tion that was nuule necessary by cunstltutlOnal 
chang-es, Un the death of GO\., .\le).andcl' II, 
Stf'l'l\('ns he was elee-ted gO\-ernor, 
.. A I'ril, 18
a, 
for the unexpired tl'rm, and in lSH4 was re-eleeted 
without upposition fill' the succeeding term, which 
ended in 
owmher, 11'<I"(í, , 
l[dHT.L, Ah'x:lIHI('I' Sfuu..., physician, b, in 
C'rawfonl l'ount\', Pa" 18 1\larch, It;

; d, near 
:\[adison, \\'i,..:" ì2 XO\-" 1Ri.), Ill' \HIS l'llucateù 
at ,.Alleg-hany college and Cleveland mellie-al col- 
lege. wherl' he was g-rluhmted in IH4H. awl eng-agl'd 
in "enerall'ractiee in Pl'nns\'lnmia till H;,)(j. when 
he è'reIllO\"ecl to 1'IO\"er, PortlLge co,. \Vii:', Ill' was 
elpetpd to the state house of representat i \'('s in 
1:-)(jl, anu to the !'l'natc in It:;(j:3, \HIS a presillential 



100 


::\fcDILTJ 


elc('tor in p.
f)-t.. fincl a nwmIwr of the boaI'll or 
1IIlll1ilgel's ot the Stll1 é hospital for the in
ane from 
11'<li
 till I
ß8, w}ll'n ht' was chosen me<1ical :"uper- 
illtt'wlpnt of that in
titution, \\.hen ekctell a
 a 
UepuhliclIlI to ('ong-res
 hI' resignell that po
t, and 
took hi
 SPill on 1 Dee" IH,:t [Ie was rlefeaterl nt 
tJ)(' lll'xt cll'l'tion hyan IIHlepl'mlent Reform can- 
didate. mill w}lI'n hi
 tl'rlH l'm1l'd. 4 ::\larch, 187,), 
resulJlel1 I'hlll',!.:'e of the )[adi
l)n in
ane ho
pital. 
lUdH LL, ,J ilJlH'S Wilson. :"P1ULtor. b, in )lunroe, 
Butlpr eo" Ohio,4 ::\Iardl. IH:a. lIi
 father. HI'\'. 
.John ::\IcDill. was a e1ergyman, of Scotth-h extrac- 
tion, ,[,h(' 
on wa
 hroug-ht up in Indiana and 
Ohio. g'l':Icluah'11 at :\liami uni\'l'r
ity in 11;,):), Hlll1 
arlmittpd to t}\I' har in l'ohnnhus, Ohio, in l
.)li, 
In that vpar he renH
,.('d to Burling-ton, Towa, mlll 
in 1
;)7 'to .Anon, t'nion co.. where he pnll,tisel1 
his profes
ion, [It' wa
 ('ho
l'n j\ll1ge of lTnion 
('m1ll1 v in t:'
(i(), and in 1
ßl-':; wao; It elerk in the 
trpasliry department at \\Tashington, I Ie herame 
a ein'uit jllllgp in Iowa in 1Hli
, a di
triet jl1l1gp in 
1H,(), 111111 in IH72 was electe(l to cong-n'ss as a I{e- 
puhliean, s(,r\'ing till 1877, I Ie wa
 appoinll.d one 
of the first hoanl of railroad ('ommi

io)lI'rs of 
10\, a in IH,H, 111111 Sl'l'\ p<1 till l
Hl "hen he was 
appoinh'd to tlH' U, S, SPlwt(', on the' rl'
ignation of 
SalJluel .J. Kirkwood to hpcoml' secrptarv of till' 
interior, The 
\1l'c(,(,llin,
 legislature ple(:te,l him 
to the :"eat, anù he sene<1 till 1H
:t In 1
84 he 
was a,gain IIppointell railrolul comlHbsioner, 
1U(' UO
 A ")), AI('
and('r, 5('nator, h, in Clinton 
('ounty, Pa" 10 April, 1
:
2, III' wa
 l'lllleat(,ll at 
Lewi
llUrg unin'rsity, allli l'mig-rntl'd to K:ll1
as in 
lR;-)7. wherl' he l'ng-a,!.:'ed in mereantile 1"lr
uit:", 
Hilring the ch il \\ ar he tnok an aeti \I' part in rais- 
ing tronps fOl' the Xational army, awl for It tim(' 
SIlJ>I"II'tl'11 t hn'e reginH'llts, III' 
l'ttll'd in Arhan:-a
 
a
 :t merchant in U;ü:t estahli
hl'd atHl hl'e:unl' 
11I'('
illent of a national hank at Fort Smith, 111111 
wa
 al
o prp:-il!l'nt of the )I('reh:mt:,,' national hank 
of LillII' Hoek, On the l"l'a"mi:,,
ion of .Arkan:,as 
into thl' Cnion, II(' WitS eleeted U, 
, 
l'nator as a 
HI'J>llhliean, 
crvin,
 from 2:-J .J UUl" 18(i
, till 3 
:\Ian'h, 1
71. Ill' was It dph'g-ate to the Chiell!{o 
Ih'puhlil'an con\'ention in 1
liH, - 
lU.\CUO
.\Ln. Amh'f'" An'hihald, ('anadi:m 
statt':"man, L, in Thl"l'l' HiH'N, Prilll'c Elh\III'd i
l- 
and, 14 l<\.h" 1

H, II i
 gra.ndt'at IH'r. <\ ndn.w, emi- 
grated frum :-;eotlalll! with his retainers in Il;lIfi, and 
setth,tl at Thn'(' Hi"ers, The gralllbon was edu- 
('atell privaJl'ly aTH! at the C'ount
 grnmmar-sdhloJ. 
III' was eon
ular Hg-l'nt for the Cnil('(} 
tatps at 
'fhret' ltivers from IH-!!) tilllH7(), al1l1 rpJ>l"e
enh'll 
Geor,!.:'etown in t he house of as:-:"mhl
 from 1
,j-t 
till 1
.(), Wh{'n the legislati,re eouncil hecame 
elCl,ti,-e in IHli:
, :\11', 
\[a('llonald wa:, (.IN'Ìl'1l to it 
for till' 211 di
tl"iet of King's county, l"e-elect('(l 
in l
(i., allli rl'mained a memhl'l" of that hod\r till 
June, 1
,a, wh('n he was Hp(lointl'll postmli
ter- 
gl'neral of th(' IIl'O\'ince, lIe was It (lI'lcgnte to the 
('hariotteto\' n eont'l'rNlee 011 the union of thl' 
lo,\er provÎlH't's in It;IH. :ulIl in 
t'ptl'mher of t}lIIt 

par to the (lut'hl'e union confpl'enc(', whil'h :U'- 
ranged till' hasis of the union of all the British 
North .\merican colonics, and he was also a dl'le- 
gate to the Intl'rnational ('onn'ntinn at Portlmld, 
)11'" in 11"1i
, 11(' Wll
 a meml)('r of thp l'xe('uti,"e 
counl'il from H,üj' till 1
,
, and again from 1
 
April, 18.:!, until confl'dl'mtion, IIIlIl was leadl'r of 
the go,-ernnwnt party in the le,!.:'islati \ I' ('nurwil for 
sen
ral "'ars, II (' \\ HS fir:-:t cll'C,tl'd as Il Li},pJ'llI, 
hilt ,\ h(:n the Con
el'\"lltÏ\'e section of tlw party 
joinl'tl the Liheral hmnch of thl' l'onsPrYath'e 
party he unitl.d "ith them in }>l'rfl'cting the free 
elhwat iou, lallll-purchase, rail way, amI l'ollfellern- 


)If'DOXALD 


tion aets, TIe was uppointl'll lieutenant-governor 
of Prine{' Ellward island, 1 Aug" IH
-!, which 
offiee he now (1


) fills, 
JldÞOX.\L)), {'Il;lI'J<.S .J:lIIH's. juri:-:t, h, in 
('harleston. S, ('" H J ul ", 1 ,U:J: Ii, in :\1 a l"Ìe tta, 
(
a.. IIi I)PI'" lH(ill, He ",:is hrought up in IIancock 
county, Ga., wa
 gradnat{'(l at thl' Collpg'c of 
outh 
Carolina in IHW, admitted to tIll' har in l
lj, Imd, 
:-:l,ttling in 1\Iilledgeville, "as solicitor-geJll'J'nl in 
IH

. and a jud,!.:'e of the cÎl'l'uit ('ourt in It;2,j, lIe 
was in thp [('g-i
latnre in 1 
:H, a mcmber of the 
state senatp in IH:n. and \\a:- elecÚ;1! governor of 
Georgia in 18an, amI rl'-eleetcd in IH-t1. The be- 
ginning of his admini
trati(lll found the gO\"ern- 
ment in a state of much finanl'ial emharras;o;ment, 
0\\ ing to the pani(' (If 1
:J" and to tht' Jegi;o;l:1ti\-e 
act of that year authori/ing the counties to retnin 
the g('nerul ta'\. to he Hpplit'll hy the inferior courts 
to cuunty purpo
e
, Ill' reCOlllml'IH!t'11 a resump- 
tion of the entil'c amount of state tIlX(':', vetoed 
the hill thnt had pa
se(l thf' legi
lature redul'ing 
the ta'\.{':, OJI(' J>('r ('l'nt., amI on his own authority 

usp('mh'(lllll pa
 ml'nts from tilt' tl'l'U
uQ, e
c('pt 
upon approprial ion
 uetually lHwle uml warrants 
legally dra\\ n thercon, This e
treme mea
ure 
p11nhll'cl him to pay th(' ordinary ('xp('nses of the 
gO'"l'I'nll1l'nt and the inten'4 011 till' puhlic debt. 
Ill' "as defmt('d liS Democmtic canrlÜlntp for gO\-- 
emor In- 1l00H'll ('obb in l
;;O, alHl tIll' sallie ,"l'ar 
was a .ilCmhl'r of the XII:"hvillc C'onwntion, 'a
 a 
r('pre
entati\'e of the I'xtreme stllte-rights party, 
Fl"Om It1,i7 until hi;o; (ll'lIlh hI' was a jmlge of the 
.,,;upreme eourt of (
porgia, (jov, :\le Donnld wus a 
man of gr('at prohity and influl'n('(', 
)((,)ÞO\_\I,)). U:lllit'l. ('muulian cl('rgyman,h, 
in St, .\ndl'l'w':-:, PriJ]('(' Erhnml i
]and, In Feh" 
1 H22: d, in ('harlottl'town, 4 .1:1 n" 1 HH,), II P l'ntl'r('ll 
St. \wll'(,w's ('olll'ge in 1
-t1. mill aftpl' a three 
vear
' 1'0ll1'Se of stilt1\- \\ ent to Home, where he 
f'p('nt the Slll'cec'l1ing 
e'.en years in the stud
- of 
rhptorie, philosophy, hi
tory, canon law, allli the- 
olo1!Y' II e rp('('Ì\-('(1 t hI' dpgrl'e of J>, I>.. was 01'- 
dainel! lit HOllie in 1
;;1. HllIl in 11-1,), rl'tnrlwd to 
Prince Edwlml i
laml. In 11"1H Dr, )I('[)onald was 
appoint('d \'il'lIr-,!.:'eneml awl s('lIior r.riest of St, 
I>unstllll'S enthp(lml. In 18,
 he he('ume a pro- 
fe
sor in St. Dunl'tan';o; eol!l'ge, aBll sub
('qu(,lIt- 
Iy engage(l ill mi",
ionary lahor, Ill' was \\idply 
knO\\ n fOJ" his Ilbilit
- Us a puhlie speaher, 
lL\('nU
 \I,n. nOllnld,lovali
t. 1J, in Seotland 
in 1j1
: d, in Lllnllon fifter'l'jH4, Ill' rai
pd a 
hOll
' of loyal Scots aJHl Begulators in January, 
l'jjli, \\"lIS commis;o;iOlll'd a:' their gpneml In- Go,', 
,Josiah ::\IIII"Ìin, and marehed upòn \Vilmíngtoll, 
The militia Wl'rp ('a11('d out in ha
te, and routl'd 
the lomli
t
 nt ::\lo01"e's Crl'l'k, ((pn, 1\la('l1onuIl1 
\\'a
 nlnong the pri
one!"s cupturel1. and wus con- 
finPI} in Halifax jail. ana afterw:ml in Philadel- 
phia, until he was'px('hnnged, 
Jlf'JÞOX.\ ),n. nounltl, Canadian 
enntor, L, in 
('nIpIlonia, 1\, Y.. in IH1Ij; (1. in Toronto, ('a nuda. 
21 .Jlm" 1
7!1, I1i
 father, .\l(')..ander 
IcVonahl, 
a IHlti\-p of InH'rn('
s-shirp, ScotluJH1. parI\' in the 
HJth centu!"\' settled in 
l.\VYork 
tHÌl" "ilCnC'e he 
removed to '('anada with his fumil\' in 1
2:t His 
son rl'c('iwd hi:, edu('ation ehiefty ill Cpper Canada 
eollegp, mill aftprwnnl followed for many year:' the 
proft'
:-:ioll of a surwyor and cl\"il engin('('r, in 
whil'h eaJ>aeit
. he id('utifipd him
plf with th(' de- 
ypIopment of tll(' wcstern part of l'pppr Canalln, 
11any of the early 
talHlard maps of tIll' Huron and 
neighhoring di
tri('ts '\"l'!"e Ilrawn by him 01' under 
his supen"i
ion, .ì\lr, :\It.f)onnld was elpcÌl,tl h
. the 
Liberal party to thl' leg-islnti\"e ('oundlof Cunada 
in 1
:)8, amI hl'ld that pu
t till the confl'del'ation 



of till' prm;nces in 1
G7, In :\Iay of that Yf'fir he I her a few years, Five of their 
ons serwa their 
was called to the 
enate of the {)ominion, While king in a military capacity, The ac('ompanyin,g 
in the 1('g'Ì:-.;lalin' council Ill' 1111(1 hl'en inten>
t('(l in pil.ture is from a portrait that wa
 in till' po

e
sioll 
till' formation of" the sl'pamte 
c'hool 
y
ll>m:' Ill' of ht'r last 
urvivin,g son, Lieut,-Col. John :\Ie{)on- 
was for 
t'\'('ral 
 ear
 It tl"ll
tet' of Quet'n's uniH'r::,ity, aM, of the British al'lny, 
Jh' ..O
_\ 1.1). nul'n. S('ottish heroim'. b, in l\lad)O
.\ Ln. H n
b. Canadian jurist. b, in 
:\[ilton. i:-.:land of South lÏst. Ift.hrides. in 1 j20: d, .\ntigIJllish. Xovu Seotia, 4 :\Iay, IH
j, III' was 
th('re,4 :\Iareh. IjflO, SIll' \\as the danghter of edueat('(l al his native pla('e. studied law. and was 
Ronahl )ll'DlIllalcl. of )Iilton who ht'longed to admitted to thp bar of Xo\'a Scotia in 1R,-),ï. anti 
the :\Icf)onalclsof became Queen's coun:,:el in 1Hj2, Ill' \\as Ildeated 
('lanranald, IIl'r when first a calHlidate for the pro\'in<'ial parlia- 
father died whl'n lIll'nt. hut \\as ('Il.etell fOl' TIlH'I'nt'
s in It-:.ï!l. anù 
sht' was all infant. repI'psl'ntt'd it till IH(;;!, in \\ hich 
 ear hI' ùeclÌlw<l 
and. her lIloth- t he solicitor-generalship, In 1t-:!ifi ht' \\ as a mem- 
er ha \'ing III ar- her of a delegation that went to Lon(lon to oppose 
riell :\fe{)ollalll of the conft'lieration of the British Xorth .\ulf'ricau 
,\ rmaclale, Skye. pro\'ine('s. and in 1 R(jj' was eleeted to t he Dominion 
Flo!'a \\as re- parlianll'nt for A ntig(\nish. IInll rt'prest'ntea that 
mO\"('11 to that constit uene\' till X o\'emlll'r, 1Hj;J, :\11', :\Ia(' Donald 
island, In,} une, hl'c<llne a IÌlemher of the privy counl'il. 14 ,June, 
1 j4fi, while on a U';j::, :nHI was president of that hody until 1 ,} uly, 
visit to South when Ill' '\as appointl.a minish'r of militia and cle- 
lïst,shl'metC'apt, f('ncp, On 5 Xo\'" 1::;7H. Ill' was appointea fOl' life 
()'Xeil. one of the It jllllge of the superior court of Xova Scotia, 
companions of )I(,()()
_\I.O, Jnuws. ph
sici:lII. h, in White 
<'harles EIl\\:lI'll Plain
, X, y" IH July, l:-.;n:
; <1, in Flushing, L. 1., 
Stuart. then on fj :\Iay. HWI, Ill' \\as gnuluatl'll at the Xew York 
hi, wamll'rings colleg'l' of physicians and sUJ'geons in IH:!,ï, awl ap- 
aftl'r his defpat poinh'll the still(' year rl'sidl'nt physician of the 

/ d 
 at Culloden, and I ßloomingllale insane asylum, In IH:n he was St'llt 
J
 m G/øZI
 O'Xeil proposl'cl hy the gO\Oel'nOrs of the Xl'W York hospital to visit 
that Flora should the insane nsylums of Europe, with the under- 
take Charles with lwr to Skye, dis,
uised as a \\ OIlIlUl, I standing that on his return he :-.:hould lU1\"e entire 
She rpfused. uut, after an intl'l'\ il'w "ith the prince, ('harge of the Blooming-dall' asylum for fi \OP )"pars, 
l'ntered "armlr into the scheme, 4\fter encounter- I Ill' beeaJne a visiting physician to the Xl'\\' York 
ing serious dan,gcrs, Flora, the prince, :nul an at- hospital in H
:lj, and in 1::;41 openeù a I'rintte in- 
tendant reache(l Sk\"e, wherl' thp\, \\el'e assisÌl'd hv :-.::UlP a
vlum at 
Iurrav hill, whil'h he afterwal'll re- 
Lady :\11' Donald, ,,'110 cono.;i,!-:'ne(i t he prince to the moved'to Flushing, L, 1. III' hpgall a course of 
earl' of h('r husband's factor, Soon after his ar- l(.(,tltn's on nll'ntal c1is('a
e
. at the 
('w York eol- 
ri ml in Sk
 l'. the prince h<Hle fare" ('11 to Flora at leg'l' of physieians and sUI',geons in IH42, that werp 
Portree, and :-.:ailed for Frnnee, The part she probal,ly the first of that ('hHfUeter that were ever 
had takl'n SOOIl hel'ame kno\\n. and she \\as im- deli\'erell in the l
nite(l States, Ill' puhlishe(l 
prisoned until the act of iwlenUlity, in 1747, "Construction Hnd 
Ianag('ment of Insalle lIo
pi- 
In 1 j,)(1 she married Allan :\ld)oLlHhl the young- taIs:'" 
\ Ueview of Ferrprs on Insanity,"" Puer- 
er, of Kingsuurgh. and emigrating with him and peral Insanity," ., Hl'l'orts on the Condition of 
their familv to Xorth Carolina, in 1774, the\' set- Blackwell Island .As, hun:' and eontrihute!l to the 
tIed in Fa)=etteville, They had been precedl:d by" .\merit'lm .Journal òf Insanity," 
many of their countrymen, aftpr the hattle of 'I<'UOX.H.U, .'UItH's. 'C:maclian jurist, b, in 
Cullodpn, to this re!-:,ion, where at one time Gaelic Ea::,t Ri\'Cr, Pietou. Xont Scotia. 1 Juh', 1H2R, His 
was spoken in six 'counties of the state, 
\fter- .lncestors ('ame from Scotland, and seÎtJed in Pic- 
ward they removed to Cameron hill. and again ton in the 1Hth century, lIe was pducatecl at Xew 
to a difI
rent part of the stafp, Un i3 ,July. 177.j, Glasgo\\. allmitted to the har of X ova S('otia in 
her hush:uHl. "ho, though a,!-:,l'd. was a man of lH,ï7. :tlId ('rl't!t('d Queen's counsel in 1
(i7, IIl'rpp- 
enl'rgy and influence, met :\Iartin, and concerted re:-<ented Pictou in the legislature of Xont 
('otia 
\\ ith him a rising of the IIighlandel's, He serwd from l
:;H till 18öj', an(l from H3j1 tiJI .J uly, It372, 
with the loyalists as captain, awl was captured at when he resigned, lIe was an unsuccl'ssful eandi- 

Ioore's Creek. and continell at Halifax, She then date for the same constituency in the l'Hnmlian 
oùtainecl a passport from a Whig otlieer, and, at till' parliament in 1
(j7, was ele('ted in 1R74-. :tncl 
en"ed ' 
request of her husband, sail('d from Char!e:-:ton to until )Inv, 11'<Hl. 
Ir, :\IeDonald was ehief rail- 
her nati\e land in a Briti:,t sloop-of-war, Un the \\ay com-miso.;ioner for Xont Sl'otiu from .June, 
voyag-e home they were atta('ketl hy a French frig- l:-<li:;, till Deeemher, IHfi4. \\ hPll he was appointel1 
ate of supprior foree, and, \\ hen capture seem I'll in- financial seeretary. and held that office till the 
evitaule, Flora left her cabin, and stimulatel1 the union, Ill' wa,..; a member of the commission that 
crew to renewed f'xertion b.\O her acts and couragl', Wl,lS appointed to opefi trade relations betwpen the 
lIeI' arm was hroken during thp conflict, She \Yest Indies, 
I...'\.ico, anc1 Brazil. and the British- 
landed safely in Scot lallll, awl ne"er again Icf1 American prodnces (Hm,3-'ö), In Uctoupr, 1
7R. 
that country, On her death-bed she requested tha1 he wa
 appointed minister of justice, and on :W 
her uody shoul(l be wrapppd in one of the sllPets in :\Iay, 1RR1, chil'f justice of XO\"a 
eotia, 
which the princp hall slept at thl' hou
e of King-s- JhcUO:\"AI,O. Jillllf'S Jluclbou. elerg'
'man, h, 
hurgþ in 1 j4(i, SllP was remarkahle for her lwauty, in Limerick. :\Ip.. 22 
Iay, 1
1
; <1, in Princeton, 
for the ease and dignity of her mannl'r, and her 
,J.. IfJ 4\pril, 1t<7(i, His father. ,Tohn, was a ma- 
loyalty to " Princp Charlie .- has hepn thp themp of jor-genpral of militia, and sened in the war of 
score
 of Scottish poets, "Flora :\IcDona!d's La- tR12, The son was gra<1uated at Cnion collpge in 
ment" is one of the Ettriek Shephercl's finest and 11:;:::!, allli at Yale theolo,
ical seminary in It<::,ï, and 
most popular productions, Her husband suniwd I was ordained pa5tor of the 3d Congregational 


:\lcDOX4\LD 


,,\ 

 


"', 


-. 
... 


" 


t) 



 
..... 


, 
 ", 
R \\ "\. 
..\, \
\ '\ 


 


" 


"...j 
\
:J 



IAcD()
 \LD 


101 



10:2 



lACDOXALD 


1\IACDüX.\LD 


church of Berlin, Conn" the same year, lIe was I unh'ersity, where Ilf' was graduated in H
:i!), He 
suece:<si vely .I'a:<t
r 
)f 
hurc!le::- in, 1\ eW LOJ
don, then ::-tudied l
tW, \\ as 
ldlll,ittl'd to the bar in 18m3, 
('onn" JamaiCa, );, \", );e
 lork cIty, and Prlllce- and engaged III practlce III Brock\-ille, In IHü7 
ton, 
, ,T., continuing in the latter charge from :\[1', :\Iacdonald \\as appointell (leputy judg-e of the 
It:!33 until his death, He deliH'red a course of I counties of Leeds and Grenville, which appoint- 
lectures on homiletics in Bo
ton uni\'ersit
 in I ment \\ as ren)ked in 11'fi!I, 
 \ t the general election 
11':)..1. Dr, MacDonald was a constant writer for of IH.l he was sent in the ('onsl'n-ative intt'rest 
the religious press. and contributed an able defence to the leg-i:<lathe a:<!'embly of Ontario, but resigned 
of the historian (rihbon to the" Hibliotheca 
a- in autumn, IH,:3, on being- appointed a junior judcre, 
era:' His other publieatiolls include" ('redulity In IH.t' he was appointpd a senior jwlge. and
in 
as illustratefl by ::-:;uecessful Impo:<tures in 
dence, Octoher, IHH."í, he hecame revi
ing-omcl'r for sev- 
:-;uperstition, and Fanaticism ,. (Xe\\ York, It-\-liJ): eral electoral districts, In It:!.3 he had char<Te of 
".A Key to the Book uf Hevelation "(1t'4G); "lIis- the Orang-e incorporation bills, which pas:<eJ the 
tory of till' Preshyterian Chureh of Jamaica. Long- leg-islature, but \\ l're re\-ersed by the lieutenant- 
I:,.:land" (IH4.); .. ,My Father's 1I0use, or the IImt\'en governor and ne\ er became law, and the same year 
of the Bihle" (1
;j,')): ., Hook of Ecclesiastes Ex- went on a leeturing tour throug-h Ireland, ' 
plained" (18:ïG): and" The Life and Writings ot :U.\('UOXAI.U. .John. l'analliall merchant, b, 

t, John:' published after his death (1t-\.9),-lIis in Perth. 
cotland, :!. Dee.. 18:!4, \V hen it mere 
brother, }Ios('
, congressman, b, in Limerick. ,i\Ie" youth he C/lme to Canada, nnd \\:1S educated first 

 April, It:! 14: II. in ::;aco, :\le.. IH Oct" lti(jU. was at Dalhousie college. lIalifax, and then in Toronto, 
ellucatl'll nt Hm\lloin, studied law. and in u
a. was 11(' "e1'\'ed mercantile hou
l's in ('mullia and in Ja- 
admitted to the bar, He \\ a!'; in the '[aine legisla- maica, W, I., and in It:!49 eng-ngcd in busine

 on 
ture in 1841-'5, was speaker the lath'r year, anù in hi:< own accoullt in Toronto, heeoming- one of tl1(' 
184;-'9 state treasurer, lIe was elected k> con- \\ealthipst merchanb in the countrr, lie entered 
grpss as a Democrat in lH30, sen-ed till 18:)3, was public life us a n1('lI1her for west 'Toronto in the 
collectoJ' of customs at Portland in 1
3;-'Gl, and ll'
.dslati\ e assl'mhlv of ('lInmla, \HIS n'-elected in 
after the lat t('r date returned to his profl'ssion, 1 
ti,3, and sl'l'\'ed t iÌl 1
(j;, \\ hen hl' \\ a
 defeated as 
whi('h he continUl'l1 to practisl' until his dl'ath, a candidate for the l>ominion parliament. In IH.,') 
')laU'UO
.\LU. JnllH's "ïlson Ah'
nll.Il'r, Ill' was ell'eted for centrp Toronto b\' acclamation, 
sculptor, b, in 
teuben\'iI1e. Ohio, 2.') Aug,. 18:!4, I but WitS dl'fl'atell in 1
.8, i'll', :\lacùonalll has 
In lH40 he SIlW for the fir:<t time a pla
ter hust of I heen an indl'f}('Jl(h'nt Liheral in politics, Ill' op- 
Washin,
ton. which. tog-ether with his natural npti- posed the coalition of It:!(j4, allli \-oted ug-ainst eon- 
tlule for drawing, decidel! him to stIHly sculpture, federation, Ill' is a direetor in seyeral busine
:, 
Ill' went to 
t, Louis in lR44, where he \\as elll- companies, ehairman of the hospital board. a mem- 
ploYI'd in a husiness-house during the day, and at berof the senate of the Pro\'ineial unh-ersity, To- 
night studiel!lIrt, II is earlil':-:t production in mar- rOllto, IIIllI a \ isitor of Yietoria uni versity, Cobourg-, 
ble was a hust of Thomas I L Benton (1t',,)4), the lie has long been a memher of the general eonfer- 
first of the kind produce,l \\est of tilt' Mississippi. enee of the :\lcthOllist Episcopal chureh, anll has 
LaÌl'r he made his earlil'st illeal work, a bust of been aeti\'ely connected \\ ith the E\ angelical alli- 
Joan of .\ rc, \\ hich he foJl()\\ ed hy a full-length ance, the Bible society, and t he Young men's Chri:s- 
figure eallell ,. I talia." :\[1', l\[acHonald settled in tian as:<oeiation, In X o\'l'mher. I
H., he hl'Cèime a 
.N ew York in l
ü3, He has e:)\.l'cuted a colos
al memher of t ht' Dominion senate, and about tllt' same 
he.tll of 'Vashington for Prosppl'Ì plu'k, Brooklyn, tÍllll' g-a\ e :!;:40,OOO to found a hospital in Toronto, 
N, y,: a colossal hronze statue of El!ward Bates Ill' has puhli,.;hed a pamphlet.. Business Sucee:<s," 
for Forest park, St, Louis, :\10,; It statut' of Fitz- JL\('nO:\'.\l..n.Sir.Tohn.\h'
allld('I'.C'anadian 
Grf'ene Ilalleck for Central park, Xt'w York: and a statesman, b, in Glasgow, 
cotla1ll1. 11 Jun., 1
15, 
colossal equestrian statue of (Ten, 
athaniel Lyon, His father, Hugh .:\Iacllonalll, emigrated from 
II is other works inelude husts of ('lmrll's C)'('onor, SutherlaIHbhire to ('Hnuda amI sett lell in Kings- 
James T, Brady, 'Vi/liam Cullen Br
 lint, Peter ton. Ontario, in It::.?O, Young 
laedonHhl \HIS edu- 
Cooper, Thurlow \Veed, and John Van Buren, lIe cat cd ut the Royal grammar-school, King-ston, 
has painted portraits and lalllbcapes in oil, lec- adopted the Inw as his profl'ssion. and \\as called 
tured on art and science, and written analytical to the har 0f l
pper Canada in It:!;}ti. Ten years 
criticisms on . \ nH'rican artists, later he \\ as appointed Queen's counsel, HIlII a fter- 
)I_\('nO
_\LU, .Jolm, Canallian member of warll hpcanw It henchl'r, ex offieio, of the Law 
parliament, b, in Saratoga, K, y" 10 Feb.. 1.8.; sl'ciety of Ontario, As counsel he achif'\"ed dis- 
d, in Gananollue. Ontario, 20 Sept" It-\üO, IIis fa- tinetion hy his memorahle defence of Y on 
ChllltZ, 
thcr, John, eamp to Saratoga from Perthshire, ::;eot- who raidl'll Canada in lti:Jü at the head of a small 
land, a few days hl'fore the birth of his son, The band of nlltTalHll'rs, But it is us a politician and 
latter attellliell school at G le11n's Falls, und, after e11- statesman tlwt he has \, on his pInel' in Canadian 
ga
ing in business in Troy, N, y" l"('moH'd to Uana- hbtory, Ill' entereel puhlie life in 1844 as the rep- 
nO
l'le,l'anada, and became a partner of his brother I resentative of the eity of King-ston in the hou
e of 
(,harles, who had established himsl'lf in that place ussl'mhl
, and continued to sit for this con
titu- 
in 1810, In It;3H he was appointed a memher of ("ney until the union of l:>:lj.. when he was elected 
the legislath-e council of Upper Camula, amI at the to the house of comlllons of Canada hy the same 
time of the union of rpper allli Lower Canada in electorate until 187t:!, when he was defeated, ,Mar- 
lti4U he \\as called to the leg-islative council of the I qnette in .:\Ianitoha, and Victorill. British ('olum- 
united 1)['0\ inces, of which he was a memher until I bia, afÌl'rward returned him, amI in 1 


 Lennox 
the remontlof the seat of government from Kings- and Carleton counties chose him lis tlll'ir memher, 
ton to :\Iontr?
l.. lIe wa
 for son
e tiJ!ll' a colonel of I lie sat in parliam.l'nt f
H' tl
e f
rmer county,I
J!el at 
the Leelh; nllhtm, held local ofhces III Gananoque. the gl'neral elf'etlOn of lR:>:7 (arlpton and I"mgs- 
und, to
et.her \\ ith his brother (,harle
, pail! for ton hoth electell him, In :\lay, 1
4;, he was first 
the buiÌding of the fil'st church that. was erpetefl in I IIppointed to office, hpcoming reeei\'Cr-gl'l1eral and 
that town,-lIis son, n"I'ht'l't StUllt', ('anadian subsequently commis
iOIH'r of crown lands in the 
juri
t, b, in GaIUIIlOltUe, 
a Feh.. It:!42, was edu- : I>ruper ministry, Early in the following year the 
pated at Ganalloque gralllmar-:<chool anI! at QI1Cpn'
 gOH'rnment \\IIS lldeated by the Heformers, and 



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103 


l\lacllonnld nnd hi
 eolleHgue
 remained in opposi- the premÍ(>r..;hip; hut he declinell in favor of Sir 
tiun until 11".-)-1:. During t he interim he de\ elopeù X
tI'('is
l'!-', Belleau, .i\lacdonald held the ofiiee of 
powers of Hs:-,iduityawl tad, familiarized himsdf minister of militia jointly with that of attoJ'lley- 
with all the great Il\lestions of the da
', and He- general from Janual'y to .i\Iay, 1
()2, and from 
quirt',l a klllJ\\ ledge of procedure and practice August, l
li.\ until the union, On 1 J ul\', 1
1i7, 
which ser\'('ù him \\ ell in after-life, HI' took a first the nl'W eonst it ution came into force in ('muula 
plaee at onee umong the debaters of the time, 111\(1 and :\lacdonald \\as sworn as a prh y l'oundllo; 
his speeches on the rebdlion losses bill anù the anù al'pointl'd mini4er of ju
tice Ilm1 nttorney- 
secularÏimtion of .ll' clergy re:-'erves attmetl'd general. 1n recognition of his serdces, he was 
markell attention, The furml'r measure Ill' 01'- created a knight commuIH1er of the bath (civil) by 
posed \\ it h vigor and elwrgy, In :-;l'ptl'mbel'. lH.,)4, the l
ueen. HIIlI in 11"H4 he receh'ed the grand cross 
the lattel' fluestion prowd the issul' bl'fure the peo- of the same O['Ùl'I', lIc renlainell primc ministl'r 
pIe, and l\Iacllonald entered the coalition cabinet until It:!,3. \\ hen his government resigned on the 
of :\IacXah-:\Iorin, pledged to settle the vc}.ed Canadian Padfic chllrges, AIl'xander .i\Iaeh('nzie 
problem at once and fore\ er, HI' Ilcceptell an ofJiee acceptcd the responsibilities of (,mCe, and 
ir John 
for \\hich his training \\ell fitted him-that of WIIS lender of the opposition for llI'arly the ) ears, 
attorney-general-und ùuring the sway of the coali- and as such gan' the admini:-,trution the l)l>nefit 
tion the clergy re,er\-es wen' secularized on a fair of his ability awl long e'\.I'I'rience in perfecting, 
anll elluitable basis, ::-;eignorial tenure in Lo\\er among other measures /If importance, the insolvent 
Canada was also abolished, In ]H.jU the nominal aet and th(' a<'t that constitutl'd the supreme court 
leader of the Consermti\yes, Sir Allan :\IacXah. suc- of the Dominion, In :-;pptembl'r, 1
,
, the Liheral 
cumhed to ,goout, and, much to his chag-rin, his part
 was defeated ut the polls on the cry of pro- 
voung- anll acti n' liellt('nant, :\[aedllnald, was chosen teetion to nath'e industries. awl Sir John \\ as !'ent 
to sUl'ceed him as chief of the party, Thi
 post for by the Governor-general, anll invited to form a 
he has hdd evcr since, and in otlice awl out of it government. I Ie u('cept(,11 the eharge, and, tru(' to 
he ha
 exercised a degree of personal intltll'nce his I'romise
. a high tariff on imported goods at 
over his follo\\ ers that has npver bepn equalled once hecanH' the fi
cal policy of the country, The 
in the ease of any other public man in Canada, In new tariff diseriminatell in favor of no nation. the 
1838 the government was defeated on the seat of products of all. not e\ en excepting (;reat Britain, 
gOYernment question, 31acdonald r('signed, anù heing- pla('ell on t h(' same footing, Sir John took 
(
e()rge Brown \\a
 ealled on to form a new allmin- the portfolio of the inÌl'rior, and suhsequcntly be- 
i:-t rat ion, He succeeded in the ta
k, hut, bping Climl' pre"idl'nt of the privy eounl'il uml superin- 
defl'ated on the first votl' in the hou
l' of IIs
l'mhlv, tendent of lwlian affairs, In 1
82 and 18t:!7 he 
he lIlade way for ,Macdonald, who again re
umèd \\as alike succl'ssful at the polls, though in the lat- 
power, taking the oflice of l'ostma
ter - genernl, tel' year, owing to ddeC'tions from his party on the 
which he resignetl the neÜ day in ord('r to assume Uiell'l.bellion question, his majority in the hou!'e 
hi:- more congenialllffice of attorn('
-gl'll('ral. His of commons \\as consideruhly reduced, Sir John 
mini
ters also changed offices, and this incillent in has been ('hargell at various times with the execu- 
Canadian politics i
 known as the "double shufUe." tion of delicatp diplomatic missions, He has been 
:\Iacdonald held the attorney - generalship until a delegate to Eng-land and to other countries on 
1
li2, when his government WHS defeated on the puhlic husine::os very frequently, In ]"-',1 he was 
militia bill. '\ïth Sir George Etienne Cartil'r he appointed one of her majesty's joint high commis- 
led the opposition until lIarch, 1
G4, when. on the sioners \\ ith Ead de Grey, :-;ir Stafford 1\ orthcote, 
fall of the Sand field .i\Iacdonald-Dorion minh.;try, Sir Eù\\anl Thornton, and the Hight lion, 1\lon- 
he formed a new government, \\ith Sir Etienne p, tague Uprnard, to settle the Alahmna claims CJues- 
Tache lewling the Lower Canadian contingl'nt, III' tion, then pending between Great Britain and the 
resumed the attorney-general
hip, hut it was found, r nited States, The treaty of \Vashington, signed 
howe\-er. impos:.:ible to carryon affairs with ('om- :\Iay,] H71, \\ as the outcome of this conference" ith 
fort. The gO\-ernment, owing to freqlll'nt dead- the American commbsiòners, For this service 
ir 
locks. was quite unable to command the confidence ,John \\ae; called to the prh"y council of Greilt 
of parliament, and the proposition to federalize Bl'Îtain (J Illy, 1ti,2), an honor seldom conferred 
Upper hlJ(1 Lower Canada and the maritime prov-' on a colonial statesman, 1n l?:,(j.} the Lniwr- 
inees of .xom :-;cotia, Xe\\ Brunswic'k, and Prinee sit
 of 01\ford conferred on him the degree of 
Edward i:.:land \\as recehoed with enthusia!'m as a 1>, C_ L., and later Queen's university, Kingston, 
wav out of the ùifficulty, A conference took and :McGill university. Montreal, that of LL, D" 
plåce between the leaders' on both sides, and the and Trinity college, Toronto, made him J>, C, L. 
que
tion was vcry fully discussed, In 1864 :\Iac- During his long political career Sir Juhn has car- 
donald attpnded as a delegate the confl'rence ried to a succes
ful issue very many measures of 
that had been called at Charlottetown, Prince the highest importance, besides those that have 
Edward i:.:land, where the smaller confederation of been briefly referred to here, Chief among them 
the 
eaboard provinces was under con!'oideration, are the improvement of the f'riminalla\\s of C'an- 
:\Iacdonald anù his a
sociates turned the tide. and ada; thp consolidation of the statutes: the e}.tcn- 
succeeded in convincing most of the gentlemen 
ion of the municipal system: military organiza- 
present that the larger union of all the British' tion; the establishment of direct steam mail com- 
Korth 
\meriean provinces wa,.; much the more munication with Europe: the in!'l'ection of re- 
dl'sirable scheme of the two, .Another convention formatories, prisons, penitentiaries, and asylums; 
was held a few months afterward in the city of the reorganization of the civil ser\'Îce on a perm a- 
Quehec, deleg-ates from all the provinces being nent hasi
: the construction of the Intercolonial 
present, and at this meeting the plan of union was and the Canadian Pacific railways; the enlarge- 
fürnwd. In bringing about confederation, l\Iac- ment of the canals: the enactment of a stringent 
donald took an active part, and in 1
l;6-'j' he was election law; the e'\.tension of the franchise; the 
chairman of the l..ondon colonial confprence, "hen ratification of the 'Ya
hington treaty; and the ex- 
the British X firth America ar-t was passpd by tilt' tension and consolillation of the Dominion, At 
Imperial parliament, In l
(j,) Sir Etienne p, I the time of the Riel outbreaks in the northwest 
Tache dicù, and his colleague was asked to tal\.e territories of Canada, Sir John was at the head of 



affnirs, and under his direC'tion ,the insurgents were the elections of 18i1. finding himself in a minority 
cru
hed and punished, the operations being con- he r.e
igned the le[ukrship, though he rPJlHtined 
 
dlU'ted with spirit and dptermination, Sir' John member of parliament till his death, ,1\11', 
Iac- 
has natural abilities of the highe
t ordpr, is an au- donald, though regarded a
 a reformer during the 
thority on con
titutional law, antI ranks high as a gn'ater part of his public life. ne\"er elaimed politi- 
public spcaker IIHf! parliamentary ,Ie\,JHt
r, He ha
 I cal,colI
i
tenl'
, ]
or permitter! his alleþ'ianc;e to party 
always de\'oted hllnse}f to the pubhc mteresl. as to mfluence hIS Judgment or det"rmme Ius actions, 
he has ullIlerstooll it. and his bitterest opponent
 He opposed the confederation of the prO\'inces, rep- 
cannot chargp him with heing governed by avarice resentation by population, and. alth<H1gh a Homan 
or personal amhition in his cOl\lluct of public af- Catholic, wa
 not an advocate of separate schools. 
fairs,-IIis wife, :-;PSA
 AGXES, whom he married Ill' po

essea gr('at administrati,-e powers. und Was 
in 1BGi, is a tlan
htl'r of Thomas.J. Bel'llard, mem- per
onally popular, but too imkpendent to be a good 
her of the Queen's privy f'Olmeil, .Jamaica, \V, I., party-leader'. and was regar(led even by his politieal 
unlI is known as a writer for pf'rioclicals, opponents as ÌJeing- above the su
picion of puhlic or 
JL\('()OXALO, Jollll Sl1lulfh'ld, Canadian private wrong-doing, He married a daughter of 
statesman, b, in St., Raphaels, Gleng-arry, 12 Dee" Ueor,g-e,A, '\'ag-
aman, r, S, s('nator,-lli
 bruther, 
1812: d, in Corn- lÞunaltl Uf'XHIHh'I', state
man, b, in St, Haphaels, 
wall, 1 J UlW. 1H.2, Glengarry, Untario. 1 i Feb" 1B1.. \\a
 pdueated at 
His grawlfathcr St, Haphaels colleg-e, lIe \\as a contra('tor on the 
came from Scot- Granll Trunk milwav for somp tim{', for seyeral 
lalltl in 1 .
ß with years wardpn of the e<)Until's of :-itonnont, Dundas. 
one of those High- and G leng-arry. and in It','ji was elected to the ('nn- 
land mig-mtions ada a

embly for Ulengarry, He represented this 
bywhich tIle coun- constituenc
' till the union of 1Böi when }I(' was rc- 
ty of Glengan'y ell'cted for it to the I)ominion parliament. In 1H'ì1 
was almost excln- he was offered the trea
urer:-hip of Ontario, whieh 
sively colonized, hp refused. He was elected for Glengarry again in 
His mother died 1
.2. amI on his appointment as po::<tnUlster-g-eneral 
when hp wa
 a in the :\Iaekpnzie administration, 'j' Xov" 1Hj3, was 
bO\-, and. being )'e-elected by acclamation. as well a
 afterwanI in 
dissatisfied with 1Bi4, TIp remained post nHlsÌl'r-g{'npra I until he 
the career that was was appClinted lieutenant-gowrnor of Ontario, 18 
intentll'd for him, 1lay, IH.3. retired from the lattpr office in 181:>0, 
he ran away from and ha
 sinee heen out of public life, 
Ir, 
Iac- 
honll' and :-iervt'd donalcl is liplItemmt-colonel comnwnl1ing the Glen- 
as a merchant's clerk for about two years, when he !..:'arry resPITe militia, anrl president of the :\Ion- 
determined to abandon commerce for law, His treul amI Ottawa junction railway, 
education having been much neglected. in XOVCJl1- J[ (' ))()X A I,n, J ost'ph Ewing., senator, b, in 
bel', 1
i:J2, he cntered Corn\\all grammar-sdlOol, aJll1, Butler ('01Ulty. Ohio, 2!) Aug.. 1H19, His father 
though the usual course was three year
. at the end died \\ hile the son was an infant, and the latter 
of two years he was declared" dux" of the school. was edueated by his mother until his thirteenth 
In 1tì:33 :\11', l\[acdon
ltl passed his preliminary ex'- year," hen he was apprenticed to a .
acldler, He 
amination before the Law society, and in .June, entered "-a hash college, ('rawfords\'ille, Ind" at 
1B40, \Hl::< admitted to the bar, and hegan practice eightepn years of age, supporting him:-elf by \\ ork- 
in Corm\all, He achieved an immediate Sllccess, ing at hi
 trude at oùd hours nnll betwel'n terms, 
and established It lucrative practice, which he re- was at A
bur
' uniwr
ity in 1t;-lO-"2. IImI aftl'r leav- 
tained anel inereased even after his attention had ing collf'ge :-tudied law, He was admittcII to th{> 
bel'n lliverted from his profe
si(lnal duties by his har in 1H,H. and, removing to Cmwfortls,-ille in 
political associations, In 1
41 he was electell nomi- 1B4:J, e
tahlished a practice, 1Ie was elected attor- 
nallyas a Uonsen'utÍ\'e to the parliament of the re- ney-gpneral in 1
5Ii. and three years latl'r remoyed 
('ently united provinces of U Pl'er amI IJower Cana- to Indianapolis, where he has ::;ince follO\H'd his 
da for Glengarry, In the fir:5t session of this pal'lia- profes
ion, lie was 
ment the resolutions that established responsible elected to congress 
government were passed, but Sit, Charles )[etcalf as a DenlOemL in 
ha\"Íng attempted, in 
ovemher, 1843, to subvert 1H4H, and sel'\'el! in 
theìrprindples, 
Ir, :\Ial'donald scparat{'d from 18-l!l-",)1. but was 
his former political assodate
. and t hcnl'eforwal'll defeated in thl' ncxt 
acted as an inùepemlent rdormer, Though Glen- CltnnlSS, and also 
garrv was a Conservative ('onstituencv, .:\11'. ,;\1:11'- in 18(i4 as I>emo- 
domÌI,rs Gaelic ami English harangue; secured his c'ratic call1lillate for 
re-election, and produced a complete change in its go\-ernor ag-ainst 
politic's, In lB4tì, 1B,,)2, and IB34 he was re-elected Oliver p, -;'\[orton, 
without opposition, He succeeded William llume He was chairman 
ßIake as solieitor-general in the HaIth, in- Lafon- of the state Demo- 
tainc go\-ernment in December, 18-l!1, anll held eraticcommittee in 
this portfolio till hi:;; re
ig-nation in It;,')1. He was 1H.2. l'l'organized 
speaker of parliament in 1832-'4, and in 1
,'jB was the party, and se- 
attorncy-genpral in the Ero" n-Dorinn, or ,. two- curcd the election 
days'" mini
try, In 1
.')7 he was eleetl'd for Corn- of a Democratic le- 
wall, and in 1BG2 was callell upon by Lonl :\Ionk gislatnre by whieh 
to form a gO\-ernment after the defeat of the Car- he was scnt to the 
tier-){aCllllnald administration, This he Ilid, and C S, senate in 18.3, serYing till 1881. 'Vhile in 
remained its premier until he resigned in 1
1i4, In that body he took a conspicuous part in dphate
 on 
1BG7 he hel'ame premier of the prÓvince of Untario, finance, amI \HIS in fa\-or of hartl mone, and a pro- 
'lnd the leader of a coalition government. hut after tel'tÍ\'c tariff, 


104 


l\L\CDOX .\JJD 


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l\lcDONALD 


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,McDOX
\LD 


J((,nUX,\T,U, RunuM. Canadian n. C, hi
hop. 
b, in Antigonish count
r. Xont ::;cotia, in 1SJ,), Ill, 
IJl'gnn his elas:o:ical :;;\ udies in Care Ueorge, amI fiu- 
i:5hed his theologiml course in St. Francis Xadf>r's 
collpg{', where he wa:;; o1"llaiJll'd prie:o:t, 2 Oct.. 1
.)!I, 
He was then appointed pl'Ufes:o:or in the college, 
\\ here he remaÍIll'd for three Veal'S, In U3fj2 he \\ a::,. 
sent to take charge of the Hòman Catholic ntÍs",ion 
in Pietou, During his minh-try he erecte<l fh-e 
churches, including a fine one at Pic,tou, and in 
1
R() he !milt a lay com-ent amI e'ì:tensi'e sehoo1s 
in that plaee, Hè established schools among- the 
:Micmac IIHlians, in which all the Indian children 
of school age nre at pr{'sent (1


) recei, ing an etlu- 
cation, His congregation, \\ hich numberecl about 
one humlrccl "hen he "as first appointed pastor. 
'Was consiclerahh- OWl' 1.000 in U,R1. Dr, :i\rcI>onald 
was consecratetl bishop of Harbor Gmce in the 
church of Pietou. 21 Ang,. l
H1. The Roman 
('atholic ehurch has n1l1(le considC'rable progress in 
his diocese under hi" a(lmini
tration, 
JLlCn()
ELL, 
\l('
and('r, Canadian R. C, 
llishop, b, in Glen rrf1uhart, in the Glengarry 
Highlands. Scotland, in 17(;2; d, in Dumfries, 
Scotland, 14 ,Tan" 1840, Ill' was sent at an early 
age to the Scotch college at Yalladolid, Spain. 
,,11('re he stmliecl for' tlle prie4hooll, and, after his 
ordination in 1jt;7, retUl'lll'tl to Scotlanll amI did 
missionary duty in Lochaher, At this period thf> 
rise in the price of wool and meat, owing- to the 
development of manufactures in thf> LowlalHls. de- 
cideel sen'l'al of the Highland chic'fs to substitute 
larg-e sheep-farms for small holdings on their prop- 
erty, In 1 jÐ2 Father )[acdonell, who 'HlS tIwn 
la!Îoring on the borders between Im"C'rness and 
Perth, eIHh'avorcd to secure employment in the 
Lowlands for the evicted I1ig-hlantlen; VI ho were too 
poor to emip'ate, He persuaded Glasgow manu- 
facturers to take GOO of them into their employ; 
but the stagnation of trade, caused by the French 
reyolution, threw them out of work, Then the 
missionary convened a meeting of represl'ntative 
Homan Catholics at Fort Augustus in 1 j!),!, and 
the senices of the Clan 
[acdonell were tend- 
ered to the king, They offered to serve in any 
part of his majesty's dominions umll'r their chief- 
tain, )[ac,lonell of Glengarry, The offpr was ac- 
cepted, the 1st Glengarry fencihle reginwnt was 
organized. and Father Macdonell was appointed 
chaplain, although such an appointment was con- 
trary to law, They served with other Highland 
regiments in the Iri:o:h rebellion of 1.D8. amI tra- 
ditions of the forbeamnce and humanitv of the
e 
Scotch regiments still linger Hlnong the Ìrish peas- 
antry, The rl'giment was dishanclecl in 1803. 
1Jld 
Father )[aedonell appealed to the English gO\-ern- 
ment to as",ign its members a tract of land in Can- 
a:da, The English ministry was at this time doubt- 
ful as to whether they could kepp ('anada. and 
offerefl to settle the Highlanders in Trinitlml in- 
stead, hut in 1804 a grant of lGO,OOO acres was mwle 
in what is now Glengarry county, CawlIla, Fatlwr 
l\laedonell accompanied his dan, awl after their ar- 
riml the whole work, not only of fouwling churches 
and schools. hut of organizing the settlement, fell 
on his shoulders, In 1t312 he raised again It regi- 
ment of Glf>ngarry fencibles and hastèned to the 
defence of St: La
HPnce ri,-er, His sen-ices were 
duly ae-knowledged by the gowrnment, from which 
he recei,"etl a pension of 
400, amI afterwlml Æ:(;OO 
a veal', and he was also formally thanked hy the 
prince regent, Father :\[acdonell was mll/ll' 'vicar 
apostolic of Cpper Canada on 12 .Jan" l!-iW, and 
recei,"ed episcopal consecration in (luehec in IJe- 
cember, 1
;'?O, under the title of Bishop of Hpgiopo- 


:i\[A(,DO
ELTJ 


105 


lis Ù
 7)((rfib/ls, He then returned to rpper ('an- 
mla and fhell his episcopal n'sidpnce at Kingston, 
\Vith the l'xcpption of Kingston, the only towns that 
luul Roman Catholic churchps \\ pl"(' CluÎrlottenhurg 
and Toronto, 'rhe Homan Catholic population in 
his whole \'Ícariate 
hardl v mnounted 
to 30,ÒOO, of whom 
more than half 
were Iwlians. ancl 
to ministel" tothem 
he had onlv two 
priest
, tTnder 
hisatlminish'at ion, 
howe\"er. the num- 
bcrofHoman('ath- 
olics grew rapidly. 
and it was soon 
fOUllll necessarv to 
change the vicari- 
ate into a regular 
:<ee, The city 
of Kingston wI1s 
thel'efol"e erected 
into a titular bish- 
opri(',1t:)Jan",1
2(j, :x
:r

 
hy Pope Lt'o XII. 
in fa\'or of 1>1', :Macdonell. to whom Canlinal \Yeld 
wa
 assigned as coadjutor, hut the latter cle('lined to 
go to
'anada, The rest of his ppiscopate was spent 
in founding nt'w parishl's, ereefing churches and 
schools, and forming new missions in the depths 
of the solitary forests of hi
 imnJ('n
e di<J('esf>, Ill' 
fountleù the "Highland society. aftprwllnl destined 
to have no inconsidt'rahle influence in C'anada. and 
in 1
:r, he took stpps to e
ta1Jlish a Roman Catholic 

eminary for r ppt'r f':mada to he caller 1 Uegiopolis 
college, To procure funds for this purpo
e and 
to stimulate emigration among the II ighlllnders, 
he ,-isited Europe in 1t)3Ð, He spent some time in 
Lonùon ('onferring with the English ministry, and 
then went to Inverness, where he entered upon the 
work for which he had come to SC'otlawl. lIe \\ent 
to Irpland in O('toher to attend a meeting of the 
Irish bishops, and was prostrated by sickness tlwre, 
but returned to Scotland. intending to go to Lon- 
don for the purposè of arranging with the English 
ministry nn emigration of Ilighlanders to Canada 
on an e'Xtensi,"e scale, Bishop 
laedOJH'll "itS a 
man of liberal views and unhounded C'harity, Dur- 
ing his C'pi
copate he huilt forty-eight ehui'('hes, 
.l\(Af))O:\f:J,I,. Allun. Canadian explorer. 1J. in 
York (now Toronto), [) Koy,. 11'(08, His father, 
.Alexander, a nath e of In \"(>l'Jle:<s-shire, 

kotlllnd, 
was for nmnv veal'S a member of the legh..lature, 
and legislati\=e connC'il of e J>ppr ('Imadn, The son 
studied law. was admitted to the bar in H;:
2. antl 
in the following year entf'red into partner:<hip with 
Sir Allan N, 1\[acKab, A short time preyiou
 to 
the rebellion of 1
3j he was appointed sheriff of 
the Gore di
trict. and at the beginning of tllf' re- 
volt raisl'cl a troop of C'lIvalry IU'lIled HlIIl equippetl 
at his own expense, After holding t IH' Gore 
hriev- 
altv for five veal'S he resigned. and in the winter of 
1
-Ü) ohtainèd from the Lgoyermnent a license for 
exploring the shores of T
ake Superior for mines, 
Though opposed by the nud
on bay company. he 
was succe

ful, and as a result the Quehec compuny 
wus formed, and mining operations were carried <?n 
successfully for several, ears, The government, III 
owrlooking. the claims (If the Indu1lIs for ('(lmpen- 
sation, in selling thp lands ol'cul'ied by the llUP!WC 
f'ompany, made trouble between the aborigine's a.ml 
the miner
, 1\[r, )[acdOJH'll twice aceompmlled 
dpputatiolls of chiefs to urge tht'Ìr elaims upon the 


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106 


1\IA('nO
ELL 


:\lACDOXO('"G II 


government, Commissioners were appointed hy I Bnthurst. but in 1830 resigned his charge and re- 
the lattN' to arrange the difficnlt
., but, owing to turnea with his family to :-;cotland, where the son 
their ineompetl')we, no under
taJl(ling was arrived reecived hb preparatory ellueatiun, He was gnulu- 
at, and finally the Indians regained pos
p
sion of I ated at 
ueen's college, Kingston, ('an ada, at fif- 
their property hy force, in whidl they were sup- I teen years of age, and studied theology at Glus- 
portcll lIy ;\[1', :\Iacdoncll. Soon afterwarll a mili- gow, lleidelherg, and Edinhurgh, where he was 
tary expedition was sent to the mÌIws, and he and gnHluatell in.divinity in 1t-!fi,), and ordained hy 
two I 1lI1ian ehicf
 were arrested and takf'n to '1'0- thc prcsbytery in IHfili, He then returned to ('an- 
ronto, but were release,l on a writ of h((úeat-; COl'jJu,,=, ada and was minister of St, Andrew's church. 
The (Jl1Cstion (Jf the Indian title to the land was Pcterhorough, until 1HìO, when Ii(> wa"- appointed 
finally settle(l in 1
;j0, when hy treaty the Indians pastor of 
t. 4\ndrew's ('hurch, Toronto, whcre 
receivcd paymcnt, In IH,")O :\[r, ':\laedollpll pro- one of the finest churches in the city was built for 
jel'ted the con:,:t ruct ion of a canal around the Sault him, Ill' had expr-esscd doubts as to rhe correct- 
8te, )lal"Ìe on the Canadian side; but the govern- ne:,::,: of some of tllP doctrines of his church, and 
ment refu
ing- to grant n duu'ter, the sehenw proved was pros('c'uted for heresy. but the casp was finally 
abortive, In his explorations of the country west dismissl'd upon his promise not to intro(hwe his \ 
of htke 
ul'crior hp had acquired a good knowledge doubt
 into the pulpit, Ill' was one of the mo
t 
of thl' country and its capabilitics. find at an early actÌ\'e promoter
 of the union of the ,-arious 
date had Pllhlishcd a series of artieles in the To- hranches of the Presbyterian church in Canada, 
ronto newspapers aùvocating the sehenl{' of a Pacific which wa,.. ('onsummatcò in l
ì,), lIe was ap- 
railway, Ill' applied to parliament for a charter pointed by the Ontario governmcnt as one of its 
for its con
tl'uction, the road to extend frolll the representatives in the senate of Toronto uni,-er- 
head of I"jakc Superior to thl' Pacific ocean, but sity, and is one of the most eloqul'nt and learned 
wa
 rduscd on the ground that such an undcr- of Canadian clerg
'men, 
taking wa" premature, lie continue(l to interest )ld)O
()(
 H, .J olm, philanthropist, b, in Dalti- 
himself in the work of opcning communication more. .:\ld., 2H Dec" 17iH; <1, in l\[eDonog-h. IJa.. 
with the north'H'st. and in l
,ìR securctl from par- 2G Oct., 11-(.".0, His father, John, was in the BnHI- 
liaml'nt the chartl'r for the Korthwest transit eO(n- (lock expedition in 1 13.". 
ll1d ufterward sern.d in 
pany. of which Sir Allan )ì, )f:H'Xuh was aftel'\\':ml the Hevolution, The son recei\'Cd an academic 
president, awl Sir John Be,-erley Hobin:-:on 
ecre- education. and at spventeen cntpred mcreuntÏle life 
tarT, ':\11', :\Iacdone]l afterward removed to '1'0- in Baltimore, but rellloved in 1800 to Kf'w Orleans, 
ronto. wlwre he now (U

ì) resides, where he rapidly a('c'umulatecl wealth in the com- 

LH'j)O
 ELL. JIiles. gm-ernor of .\:,:sinihoia, mis
ion and f'hipping business, J)llring" the war 
b, in 1n\'crtH's
, Scotland. in l'ì(i7; d, at Point of 1H12 he partieipated in the hattle of Xew Or- 
Fortune, on Ottawa riwr, in IH:?R, IIis father, lean:,:, In lR18 he wn
 an un:,:uc('es:,:ful eandidate 
Col. John )[acdonell, of Scothouse. Inn'rne
s-shire, for the U, S, senatl'. nnd about this time founded 
at the iJl\'itation of Sir \\'illiam .Johnson, ('nme to the town of .ì\rl'Dono,!,,ðn-ille, In 1
22 he prepared 
thi" ('ount ry in l1ì:{, with se\ eral of his friends, to liheratl' hi
 slaYe
. but, di
apprO\-ing of manumis- 
and spttlcd at Callghnawag-a, on :\[ohawk river, in 
ion, required l'aeh one to buy himsl'lf at a moder- 
New York, \t the beginJlin
 of the Heyolutionary ate sum. 'l'o enable him to aceumulate this, .!\Ir, 
Wal', Co], :\[acùonell migrated with his family to 
lcnonogh paid caeh slave for his :,;el'\ iees at fair 
Canada, amI took up his n'
Ì<Il'nee at St, ,AlHhews, rate
, ga'-e an cducation to those that desired it, 
near Cornwall, wherc he dicd in UHO, 'l'he son ftwl. whcn frpedom hllll bcen purl'hased, sent ship- 
l\Iile
, who sho\\ ed military tendcncies at. an early loatls of his llf'groes to Uriea at hi
 own expense 
age, was appoilltl'd pn:,:ign in the king's royal regi- for It ppriod of Sl'ventecn years, IIp became a \'Ìce- 
ment of 
f'w York in lìU;?, lieutcnant in the prcsident of the Amcriean l'olonization sodety in 
royall'ana(lian volunteers in 17!J-t antI captain in l
:m. and C'ontrihutt,ù largely to its support, At 
the 
:une corps in 1 ìDö, At the rcque
t of Lonl hi:-, dpath he left the hulk of his fortUJw, whi('h 
Selkirk he visited IJondon in 180:
, and was in- wa
 estimated at morp than 82,000.000. to the cities 
ùuce.l by that nobll'man to a
sunH' the post of gov- of K(,w Orle/Ills nml ]
aHimOl'e, for the purpose of 
ernol' of hi
 projectcd colon,'. on {{cù ri,-el', Xorth- establishing frl'e schools, After many years of liti- 
we
t territory, lIe <IlTin\(1 there with the fil.
t gation and mueh lo
s of value by the ch-il war, an 
hody of coloni:4s. composed principally of evicted p
tate of HOO acres wa:-, purcha:,:C'd on tIll' \Vt'
tern 
Seotti...h llig-hlanders from the Sutlll'l'lalld estates. )[arvland railroad nea)' Baltimore in l
ì:}, and the 
in 1.tH
, awl was at once met with oppo
ition from )[cI)onogh labor-:';l'hools were establbhed, at \\hieh 
the agents of t Ill' 
 ort hwest company, whose lll'a(l- se,-pllty boys annually are receÌ\.ed to learn practical 
quarters were at )[olltreal. On 11 June, 181:}, the and 
cicntifie farming, and the rudiment
 of an 
Northwest company's Sl\l'\'ants ltttacked and fired English education, In Kt'w Orleans the principal 
upon the (.oloni:,:ts, and demanded the surrender of of the fund is investetl in the 1\h:Donogh schools, 
Gov, )[/w(londl, who, to sa'-e the effusion of hlood, ,\hich are cowlucted in connection with the pub- 
gave himsclf up voluntarily, Ill' was taken to lic schools of that c'ity, He al:,:o left bequests to 

lontrcal ItS a prisOJwr, awl charges prefprred the 
\mcriean colonization 
o('iety and to the Xcw 
against him by his enemies, but hi
 ca
e was not Orleans boys' orplwn a
ylum, 
ee" Life anrl 
tricd, During his ten or twelve 
l'ars' connection Work of .John )[d)onogh:' b) \Villiam .Allan 
with Lord St'lkirk's Hpd rÌ\-cr settlemcnt he wa
 (Baltimore, 1XHfi). 
its Ipadin,
 spirit amI took an acti,-e and dp('ided JI.\CHOXOrGH, Thomu
, naval officer, b, in 
part in the Jeurls of the Ihulson hay and Korth- Xl'\\' ('astlf' county, Del., 23 Dec.. IjH:I; d, at sea, 
west tmding companies, [[is latter years were 1(j Kov.. IH
:), Ill' enten'd the navy a
 a midship- 
spent at his farm at Osnahllrg. -lTppl'r Canada, but man in 1
()O. and in IHO:
 was aUac-hed to the frig- 
he .lie.l at the rcsidence of his hrothl'r, ,John, ate" Phihulelphia," which was one of tlw 
quad- 

1.\f()O
Xl
I.IJ, ))unif'I.'nuws.C'anadiancler- ron emplo
'ed against Tripoli, under the command 
gyman. h, in Bathur
t. Xew Bru))
wick, J.} Jan" of Com, .EtIwarcl II. 1>1"e1lIe, On 2" .Aug" 

03, 
IH-t:
, His fath{'l'. thc Uf"., George l\laellonnell, a thc" Philadelphia" captured the l\Ioorish fngate 
nati,'e of ScotlHlHl. hall for many years been pa
- " l\Ieshboa," of the Cape de ({atte, on th
 
panish 
tor of the Church of Scotland congregation at coast, and ;\[acdonough e:,:caped the captivIty that 



suu:,:equently hefl'll the other officers nnrl crpw by 1 ous ch-ic honor
 from cities and town;;, and was 
being left, at niumltar with her prize, Ill' after- pre
ented h.," the legisluhll'l' of Y ermont with an 
ward 
ern'll in thl' 
chomH'r .. Enterprise." under estate upon ('umberlaIlll head, which overlooks the 
Com, :::'tephl'n Hecatur, participatin
 in the vari- !'=cene of the engagement, The ::\Ieditermnean 
ous attack
 that were nttule in ltiU-t upon the C:ity squadl'On wa
 hi
 last ('OInmand, and he died on 
awl battl'ries of hoard a traùin
 brig that had been 1;ent by the 
Tripoli. and was I e, s. 
()\'ermlH:'nt to brin
 him home, 
onpoftJlt'party 'lal'HUI'ALL. Rnhf'rt, British soillier, b, in 
UlHler Decatur Stranral'r. Scotlanrl. ahout 17NO; rl. there, 1,) Ko\"" 
that recaptured l
-t
, Ill' entl'red th(> army in August. 17!)6, and 
and dl'stroye<l h('came lieutenant in Xo,-ember. 17f)7, ('aptain in 
the "Philadel- Odober, 1
().t. major in .T nne, 181:3, lielltenant- 
phia" on the 1 colonel in Hq:.t colonel in H
:30, and major-gl'neral, 
nightof lfiFeh" 
:l Xo,'" IH41. III' sPJ"\'e<l in this couutry during 
I
O-t, III' was thf' war of 1!-\1
. and, while in command of Fort 
promoted lieu- I :\Iaekinaw, 
uccessfully ùl'feIlfled it when it \\as 
tenant in 1t'Oì, attacked hy a 
uperior force. 4 Aug.. 1
1-t, 
alHlmastercmll- JI('))nrH.H., f'lintnn Hngalcl, 
oldier, 1. in 
malllier in 1H1:t t;cotland. 14 .J une, 1
;m, lIe remowd with his 
In AllgllSt.1814, I parents to the r nitI'd States in 1
42, recei,-eù an 
a British arrIl\' academic education, 
tudied law, anù in 18,){)-'GD 
of ahout 1
:- 1 was engaged in hanking, lie rai
erl a company for 
000, llIuler Sir the 75th Xew York reginlf'nt in IHfil, accompanied 
Gcorgl'Provost, it to FloridH, and hecame lieutenant-colOllf'l of the 
adntÌlCed along 111th .New York volunteel's in August, 1t;6
. and 
the western colonel in .January. tSIj:t commanrling it at Cl'ntre- 

hor{' of Lake ,-ille. Ya, Ill' l(>ll a brigalh> iu the 
\I'IIIY of the Poto- 
Champlain to Plattsburg, which was held hy <len, IIIHl,:It (-Tetty
lHlrg mId in ib suuserJuent campaigns 
Alexander :\[acomh, ,\ ith about l.:ïOO men, The until the clo:'e of the \\ ar, and in 18tH 'Ht:> bre\'et- 
British squadron. undel' Capt. George Downie, f'on- ted brigadiel'-g-ent'ral of volunteers, lIe became 
si;;terlof 10 ,p.;;sels. earryin
 !).) gun
 allli ahout 1.000 postmaster at .\ uhurn in 18(;9, amI wa
 el('cted to 
men, The .\meriean na,-al fùrep. which was UlIller congre

 as a Repuhlican in lti72, serving till 1H77, 
('ommander )[acdonough, was anchorpd in Platts- and declining in June. It;7G, the office of U, S, treas- 
burg- beL,". and consisted of 14 '-e"''''l'l
 of all classes. urpr. and in ,J ulv that of commissionf'r of internal 
carr
 ini 
ü gun.;; and ahout H.30 mpll, 
\t sunrisp rewnue, In IS7. he was appointed r, S, marshal 
on 11 Sept, the British came in 
ight. and hyei
ht for the we
tern jurlieinl district of-Xc\\" York. 
o'clock approachcll the .\merÏcan fleet, Fire was :;'1('))0 (-(L\ I., Ha\"ill. na\'al officf'l'. b, in Ohio, 
openell by the AlllPricalls. who, a... It mattprof course, '
7 :-)ept., 1
O!); d, in San Fmncisl'o, Cal., 7 ..-\u
" 
were anchored with springs, ßut, in addition to 1
82, He was appointed midshipman in 1 x 2H, 
this arrangement, :\[acdonollgh h
tfl laid a kedge pa:-oserl mid
hipman in 1
:}-t, lieutenant in 1R41, 
broad off on each how of the .. 
aratoga." amI commander in 1
,).. cnptain in 18fi-t, and CDmmo- 
brought their hawser;; in, upon the two quarter
, dore in 1
liD, ('om, MeDougal eommanded the 
letting them hang in hights unlh'r watel', By .. 'Vyoming," of the 
\siatic squadron, in 18öl-'4, 
this timely preeaution the victor
. is said to ha,-e pngagell six batterip!,= and threp ve:,:sels of war at 
bepn gained, The attack was not returned by the Simonoseki. Japan, 10 July, l
fi:t and had charge 
ßritish until the" ('onfiance" had anchored ahout of the navv-vard at ::\Iare island, California, in 
300 ya,nls from the American line, IIer first lRö:)-'ß, He "eommanrlell thp steam-sloop .. Pow- 
broadside killt'ù or woun<led forty nwn on the hatan" in IHGti-'!), and the south squadron of the 
"Samtoglt." nparly a fifth of her entÌI'e foree, and Pal'ific fle('t in 1870. III' became a rear-admiral 
more than It third of thp 
\merican foree <luring on the retin'<1li
t in 1
7:3, 
the action, The engagement then hecame general. .l\LH' 1)0 rH..\ I.IJ, Alf'xJlIItlf'l'. soldier, b, in the 
In an hour the whole starhoard battpr\' of the i
laml of Islav. Scotland. in l'ì;H; d, in Xew York 
.. t;aratoga " was disabled, She was then winded city 
 June, i,Rö, His father, Ronald :\Iacùougall, 
ahout by means of the kpdges that had ueen lai<l emigmted to the 
on her how
. and was brought to bear on the province of Xew 
.. Confianc(>:' which had also suffered 
everelv and York in 17;).). and 
lost her captain, Geor
e Downie, After attèmpt- pureha:,;ell a farm 
rng- to ['l'rform the same e,-olution without :"uc- in tllP upper part 
ce
s, and fig-hting ahout two hoUl's and a half. th(' of :;\[unhattan isl- 
.. Con fiance " was foreefl to strike her flag, The and, Alexander at 
remaillllel' of the British fleet were either taken or first followed the 
put to flig-ht, The enemy's 1055 was about 
OO. ex- sea, and took part 
clllsi'-e of prisoner:>, Tha.t of the Americans in in the war of 17,ïfi 
killell an,l wOUlulefl \Va... 11
, The Briti
h lost all as commander of 
but 20 of the !J3 guns they had urou
ht into ac- the two prÌ\'ateprs 
tion, By )[acdonough's precaution of throwin
 out .. Barrington" and 
ke<lges from the bows of the .. :-::;aratogf'." her 
Ii ., Tigpr:' IIesuh- 
guns were practically twice a,.; many, since she sequently beeame 
coulù he turne(l around and 
o pre
ent a fresh a succe:"sful n1<'r- 
broad"iùp to th(' enemy, Durin
 most of the ac- chant in Xew 
tion )Iacdonough pointprl a favorite gun, aUfI wa" York city. and 
twice knol'k('d ,.;ensele,.:s bv shots that eut the deyote<l himself 
spanker boom. If'tting the 
par fall on his back, ardently to the 
For his 
eJ"\'ic('s on this occasion II(' was mn<le eap- cause of the colonies, 'Vhen the a:-O";f'mbly, fal- 
tain, received a gold medal from congress, numer- tering in its oppusition to the usurpations of the 


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108 


,jlAcDUrGALL 


:\L\(,DOrG.\.LL 


crown, rejected a proposition that authorized vot- in the legi
lature, and in 18:)2 V>:IS ('ho
en to con- 
ing- by ballot. and fann.ably con
illerell a bill of gre

 a
 a Democrat. hut declined a renomination 
supplies for troop
 that wpre quarterell in the city in IH3:3, Ill' wa
 elected U, :-;, 
enator in l1-iOO, 
to o\-erawe it:,: inhabitant
, he i:-;
ued an addre:,:, sen-ell till IS(j7. and was chairman of the commit- 
entitlf'll ".\ 
lIn IIf Libert v to the Betrl1wd lnhahi- tee on the Pacific railroad, 1'11', )leDougall wa
 a 
tants of the Colon v:' wliich wa
 yote(l bv the as- ""ar De
lIocrfit. and was a delegate to the Chicago 

embly to be "an 'infamous aIllI seùitioll
 libel:' convcntlOn that nominated (fen. Ueorge 13. 1\[c('}el- 
a III I fòr which ib author was arre
ted and impris- Ian for pre..;iùent. On the eXIJÌration of hi..; sena- 
Olll'd for tWt'ntv-three weeks in what is now the torial Ìl'nu he retired to Alhany, X, y, lle was 
rf'gi
ter's ol1ice: thns hecoming the fir
t mart
 r in an doqlwnt HIIlIl'ffec-tive speaker, 
the patriot caw..e, (In heing 
et at liberty, he cor- .11,\ (;])0 (' (; .\1.1.. .J oil n 1.0rn, Canadian official. 
rC'..;pomll'd with the leading spirit:,: in all parts of b, in Henfrew, Ontario. (j XU\'" lti38, His father, 
tht country. and presilled. on (j ,July. I".!, at the of the 
ame name, a native of Scotland. was in the 
mepting- "in the fields " that \Va,.; held prpparatory II wI,.;on hay company's scn-ice, and reprpSl'nted 
to the election of dC'legate,.; to the h:t Continental Henfrew county in the Canadian assemhly, The 
congre
s, lIe was appointed coloIll.l of the ht son was educ
itea at the High-
ehool. :\Ìontrea1. 
XI'W York regiment. 30 June. 1,,(j. hrigèillier-gen- amI at Toronto unÏ\'ersity, where he wa
 gradu- 
eral on the Hth of the following .\ugust, tmll IlW- ated in H';.3B. After sening for a time a
 \\arùen 
jor-g-eneral 20 Oet., 1,7i, He was aetÌ\'ely l'ng-aged of Henfrew county. hl' wao..; eleetell to the Ontario 
at (,hatterton's Hill, nf'ar White Plains. X y" UlIlI a

emblv Jor South Henfrew in 1
(jì, sel"\'ed till 
in various placcs in Xew .Jersl'y, and \\as in COIll- 1871, mid also repre..;enteù that constituenc
- in the 
mand at Pe('kskill in 1 ÎÎì, hut wa
 (,PlIIpelled to Dominion parliament from September, 1
fi!l. till 
retreat before a sUIJerior Briti
h fO!'l.:e that had It;7;l when he wa
 dl'feated, Ile wa
 again elected 
been 
ent up the rin'I' hy Hen, Howe. Ill' took in 1873. awl Ullsl'at(,ll on pptition in 
epteIHher, 
part. in the battles of '''hite )[arsh and of German- 1
74, but wa
 re-eleeted in Febnmrv, 18,,), He re- 
town, I1is militnry cnree!' was interrupted by his signed from his plaN' in parliameìlt on being ap- 
being- spnt as a delegate to the Continental con- pointed auditor-general of Canada, 2 .Aug.. 18.1'. 
gTess. where he took his seat in 
eptemher. l,HO, \\ hi('h office he 
till holds (18St;), 
and again in Fehruary. I,H-t Ill' was eleC'tell min- JIn('()OrH.\I.IJ. 
ir l)atrit'k Leonard, British 
i4er of lIwrine hy that Lody, hut, prf'ferring adin
 
olllier. L, in 
cotlaml in 1819, Be enÌ('red the 
service, he resigned to take the field again, .\fter British army in IS;J(j. amI was emp]oyed on 
peeial 
the dose (\f the war he was plected to the XC'w 
enice in the Crimea. amI on the quartermaster- 
York senate, of whil-h bod v he was a membl'r at general's staff in the Kerteh f'xl'edition, He was 
the time of his dl'ath, lIe 'was also the first prcsi- appointed genernl officer commanding- the im- 
dent of the Xew lork 
tate 
oeietv of the Cincin- perial forces in Cnnada. 21 Aug" 18,8, alllI acted 
natL-lIis daughter. }:liZ
llJctll,' married John as administrator of the Dominion governnwnt of 
Lauranl'e. who pre
ided as judge-ad vocate-general Canacla from HI (Jet., IHi8, when Lord Duffl'rin 
at the trial of 3htj, AIllIré; his son. JOIlX, dil'd in departed for Eng]and. till the arrival of the new 
the Canada e
pedition at the heall of Lake ChaIll- gowrnur-generaJ. thl' .l\lal"lluis of Lome. He IIgain 
plain in 17i;); anll hi
 cousin, JOH
, the son of John was aùministrator during the ah
ence of the 3Iar- 
)[aedougall, was blown up in the frigate" Han- quis of Lorne in Eng]and, fl'OIH XO\'emher, IHtj1. 
dolph." 3
 gnn
, in its engagement with the British till January, U
s2. and also during his visit to the 
(j-!-
un frigate" Y armollt h " on 7 Mareh, 17Î8, LT nitell :-:tat('s. from lti Dee,. It!ti2, tiH .1anuary, 
][a('()() ('(H. I. L. (')Hu'lf's. surgeon, h, in ('hil- 1883, Oen, 1\lae Dougall is the author of "The 
licot he, Ohio, 21 Sept.. ltiO-!; d, in Fairfield, Clark Theory of War" (London, IH.')li); .. Campaigns of 
eo" Va" 2,3 July, IS
,3, He studied mcdic'ine. re- Hannibal" (183H): amI .. :\lodel"l1 'Varfare as in- 
movell to Indiana. and was appointed a..;
istant sur- fhwnced by )[odl'rn ArtiHcry" (18G4), 
geon in the U,::;, army, 1a ,July, 1832, He wa
 pru- JL\.fUOrHAI.I" Willbun. Canadian 
tatps- 
motedmajor and surgl'on. ì .J uly, 18
H. and Lre\ et man, II, in Toronto. 2.:; J an.. It:<22. 11 is grand- 
colonel, 2U Xov" It;IH, lIe \Va
 with the mounted father, John :\Ia('dougall, a nati\'c of ::;cotllllHl amI 
rangers in the Black Hawk war in 11';;:
, 5el"\'ed in a Cnited empire loyalist, 
rved in the ßriti
h com- 
the ('rel'k and ::;eminole wars in 18;;8-'4t, and was mis..;ariat during the American He\'olution, 'ViH- 
at the (T, 
, military academy fmm 1
-!fj tm IH4H, jam wa:-: C'lhH'ated at Toronto amI at \Ïf'toria col- 
when he wa..; sent west and remail1l'd there until lege. Cobourg-, 
tudied law, and wa,; allmitted to the 
the heginning- of the cidl \\
Ir, 11l' \\as medical harofUppeI'Canadaa
anattol'Iwyin HH'ì, 
hortly 
direl'Ìol' of t he 
\ rmy of the Tenne..;see fl'Om April aften\ ard he engH,ged in joul"l1ali
m. l'stabli
hing , 
to Spptl'mher, IH(j'J, \\ hen he was orllerl'ù to Xew I in 1
48 the" Canuùa Fnrmer:' and subseqlwntly 
York city, wherl' he fi]Jed a similar office, On 13 merging it in the "('anadian Agril'ulturi..;t," 
:.\Iarch, lti/j,3, he \\as bre\-ettpIl hrigadier-general which he continuell to publi
h find eait until IH:ï8, 
"for faithful and meritorious 
l'nil'e during- the In 18:ï0 he founded the "Korth Amel'ieun," a re- 
war:' Ill' was promoted Jielltenant-eolonel mì,l as- form ne\\spapl'r. of \\ hich he was mHlUtging editor 
sÏstant medieall'llrveyor, 28 July, 18(jG, and l'l,til'l'll, I until its ahsorption in the 1'01'0 . nto .. Daily (ilohe " 
OIl 

 Feb" is(i!I, in 18:)" aud he was the ll'alling political writer on 
.ì\1(,))Ol."U.\LL. .TanU's Ah'XHIHh'l'. senntor, b, the latter paper from l:-;:)ì till 11':i!). Ill' rcpre- 
in Bethle}Il'III, .\lbany co" X, y" IH XO\"" l
lì; d, I 
l'ntea Xorth Ox:fol'll in the Call1lllian a

l'mhly 
in 
\.lhanr, 
, y,. 3 :o;cpt.. IHli" ]Ip wa
 educated from IH,')t; tm 1
/j:
: XOl'th Untario from 18/j;; tm 
at .\.111any grammar-school. studil'll law, an,l set- ,Tuh', lH(j-!; and XOl'th Lanark from Xowmher, 
tIed in Pike l'Ollntv, Ill., in IH;
i, He was Httome\"- 181i-!, till the union of 18G7. when he wa..; re-cleded 
gpneml of Illinois in 1k42, allll was l'l>-elpeted Ìn for the latter constituency to the Dominioll par- 
1844, lie then eng-agl'd III engincering. and in Jianlt'nt. and reprl'sentpd it till IH72. when lIP was 
It:!4t1 originatl'll aud 3('eompanied an l'xploring defeatell, lIe represented IIalton county in the 
expedition to Rio del 
 IIrtp, Gila, and ('olomllo Dominion parlianll'nt frolll 1
7H until tllp general 
river
. awl !'ouhse'lueutly sl'ttll.1l in ::;an Frauc'isco eleC'tion of 1
S
, lie \\as elc.('ted for 
outh 
imcoe 
in the practice of law, He wa,.; elected attorney- to the Ontario as
elJlhly in )Ia
', 1':);,,), lIIul rpprp- 
general of California in 18,30. :;en'ed seH'rnl terms I sented it till hÜ; resignation in 
eptpmlll'r, l
ìK 



)[d>OWELIJ 


'McDOWELL 


109 


Ill' wa
 a memher of Ow e"eeutin' counf'il. and I Quaker 1Ièa<10w!':, on ('ataw\m river, X, C, His 
commi

iOlll'r of cl'own lands in the :-'alHlfieid family is dbting-ui
hed from that of hi
 cOII
in 
:\Iaellonald-I>orion admini
tration from )lay, It;fj
, ,John by the name of the .. 
uaker 
Ieadow 1\1c- 
till :\Iarch, ISla: awl pn)\-inl'ial secrl'tary in tilt' Vowdl:-:," ('harles wa:s 1m ardl'nt patriot, and at 
3Iaedonald-Taelu; administration from .June, IHli-t, the hl'g-inning' of the Hevolution was plal'ell in 
until 1
li7, )[r, !\Iaelloug-all wa:-: appointed aeting command of an e"-tensin' distrid III we:-:tel"ll 
orth 
mini4C'r of marine in Julv, IHliü, with charge of Carolina, Un thl' British inya
ion in 1,1:;0 he 01'- 
t!w eight pro\ itll'ial gun-bòats on the lake
, which, ganizf'd troop
, fortified posts, and in ,June of this 
with the aid of Yicf'-.\dmiral Sil' ,fames Hope, he year atta('ked the enemy at their works on Pacolet 
hall 
peedily fittell Ollt for sl'n-ice again:-:t tlw (<'f'n- river, compelled their sll1TC'])(lf'r, 
ubseqllently 
ian:-:, Ill' was appointel1. 1 .r nly, IHH7, mini:-:ter of g-ainell \'idoril's at )Ius
rove )Iill and Cave ('n'l'k, 
puhlic worl"s in the first Dominion g'(wernment. hut, after the reverses of the colonists at Savannah, 
and retained the utJice till he was cunllni
sionell Charleston, and Fishing ('rpek, his army was ùis- 
lientenant-go\'l'l"IIor of Rupert's LHl1Il and the banded, and he resig'lf'd hi
 comnwlIll }H'f'vious to 
Xorthwest'tf'rritories in Octohl'r, IHIi!), Ill' was the battlf' of King's Mountain, He was state sen- 
met at tlw houllllarv-line of the Hl'd ,"iver :-:l,tth'- atur in I.H
-'
, and a memher of the lowl'r house 
ment b\- an armed "for('l', af'ting- on bl'half of the in 1HO!I- '11.-11 is wife, (
rn('(' (
rct'nlc(', was 
IU"ovi:,i,;nal go\-ernmf'nt of Loui
 Hiel, which com- 'lOtE'd among the woml'n of the l{evulution for her 
pellell him to retreat to Pembina, :\linn" allli he prwlenep a:-: well us her daring-, Ilf'r first hus- 
did not pnter on the Iluties of his offiee, Ill' rep- hand, ('apt. Bowman, of the plltriot army, was 
resented ('alHHla at the 
ew York exhihition in killed at tht' hattle of H1ImsonÙ 1\WI. After h('r 
It:;.j:l, was u delegate to th(' Charlottetown union marria
e with .l\Il'Dowell, sIll' aillC'd him in all 
cont'erl'!lce in 1
1i-t, to that at (luehec the same his patriotic sehemes, aI1Il \\ hilp llC' was secn.tly 
y('al", allll to the colonial (,OItfere!lee in London to manufaduring in a ca\-e tllf' powder that was aftl'r- 
complf'te the terms of union of the Briti:-:h Xorth ward uSl'll at King-'s :\lountain, she made the 
A merican colonies in 18üfi-'j, He was also a ùele- ehareoal in small quantities in her fireplace, CatTY- 
g-ate to <Treat Uritain, with Sir f'l'orge EtipnnC' ing- it to him at night to }H'en'nt dete(,tion, Aftt'r 
Cartier, to confl'r with the impl'rial authoritil's on this hattl,' she visited the tiel 11, and nm"sC'd anù 
the :,;uhjed of the df'fl'nees of the Dominion, allll tl'nded tIll' soldiers, A party of nuu"mlliers ha\-ing- 
for the al'(jui,.;jtion of the Xorthwèst territory in plunderell hI"" house in the absl'nce of her hushand, 
IHliH-'9, :\11', 1\lal'dougall was sent to H,'eat Brit- shl' collef'tl'd a few of her neighbors, }Illrsuell, and 
ain by the ('anadian government in IH7:l as a s)lf'- capturl'd t helll, .md at the lIluzzll' of the musket 
cia I conllni
sioner to eonfer ,.. it h the home 
o\'el'll- compelled them to return her propC'Yty, She was 
ment on the suhject of the fisherie:-:, and to make the mothC'r of a large family,-C'harles's 1>1'other, 
arrangements in Scallliinada and the Baltic .J os('])h. soldif'r, b, in \Yinche
tf'r, \'a.. in 1 j,)fi: d, 
prO\ inces for the promotion of emigration to Can- in Burke ('ounty, N, (',. was familiarly known as 
ada, Ill' was createll a eOlupanion of the hath ., (lunker )le:1Ilows .Joe," to distinguish him from 
(civil list) in mG" appointed (lueen's counsel in his cousin of the same name, with whom he is 
.dugust, IHR1. anll sub
equl'ntl
' a puisne jlldge in freqlll'ntly confounded, 111' served in the cam- 
tlH' pro\-ince of <.llwbec, At the beginning- of his paigns ug-ainst the frontier Indian
 p,"evious to the 
politieal carl'er he was a I{<'former, but aftprward Heyolution, and under his hrot her {'harll's in all 
was independent, and did not plellge himself to the bat tIe:-: in we
tern XOI"th Carolina before that 
support any party, Ill' has intrOlluced and f'arriell of King's Mountain, In that engagelllent he com- 
throug-h sueces
fully some of the most important manded the Xorth Carolina lIIilitia, \\ith the rank 
act:-: of the Canadian parliament, Ill' is a fluent of majur, Ill' was in the state house of commons 
and powerful speake," and an eloquC'nt :lIId logical in 171-'7-'!I
, wns a memher of the X orth CHrolina 
:Hhoeate, but hi:-: col.l and unsympathetic manne," constitutional convention in ] ,I-;R, Hnd l:u'g-ely in- 
has rendered him less popuh1r and successful than strumental in its rejection of the {;, S, constitu- 
he would be were his s
-mpathics broader and his tion, He was cle('ted to ('ongre
s in 1 Î!)
, Sl'ITed 
humor le
s cl\,ustic,-His son, Joseph Easton. till I.!!!!, and \\a:-. ucth-e in opposition to the Fed- 
l'all1ulian juri4, 1. in Toronto, 2:> :\Iar('h, 18-tfi, was eral pa'"ty, Ill' was boundary éOlllmi
siOJlPr in 
g-raduate.l at C ppf'r Canada eollege in l
fi-t, He 17Hj for running the line heÌ\\"f'en Tt'Yllle:-:sel' Il11d 
studied law atlll became a barri4t'I' in 1
70, lIt> 
orth Carolina, a general of militia, and the reeog- 
was lecturer on l'riminal la\.. for the La\\ snciety nized lealIeI' of thc Hepublil'an party in the \.. e
tprn 
{)f Ontario from 1
7t:; tilll
H:
, junior judge of the counties, A county is nameù in his honor,-Jo- 
county court of York and the city of Toronto from seplÙ; son, .Jmw.th .T.. eon gressman, h. in Burke 
I
H:
 till 1 t:;t:;.j , and since that time he has been county, X, ('" Ii} XO\"" 1800; (1. in JIill
horough, 
"enio!' jud,ge of the county court. On 1
 ::;f'pt.. f )hio, 1; Jan" 1877, WllS eng-agwl in ag1"Í('ulturl' 
11-'8,), he was abo appointell judgE' oj the )laritime during his early life, anù remO\-ed first to \
irg-iuia 
court of OntaI'io, which place he still (l
HH) retains, and snhsl'(Juently to Ohio, Ill' sel'\ ed in the Ohio 
Ill' beéanH' a (lueen's counsf'l in 181:;:3, and is one legislature in 18:32, in 1H:34 hecame state senator 
of the comllli:-:
ioners appointed in II-;Hfj for re- amI gf'ncral of militia, and thf' next year was ad- 
vising the puillie statutes of Ontario, Ill' was mitted to the har, lie was elect I'll to congress as 
seeretary to till' ('anHllian commis"ion that was a Dl'mocrat in ] H-t4, and serwIl till 1847, 
appointèd to vi
it the We:-:t Inllif's and British '}[(,))(H\ .
LL. In-in, solùif'r, b, in Columbus, 
Guiana, to impro\-e the trade relations \)('tween Ohio, 1,) Oct.. II:;IH: d, in :-)an Francisco, ('aI., 4 
these l'olonil's and Canada, in lA(j,)-'(j, .Jud1!:e 1\1ac- l\lay, 1
H,), Ill' recei\-ed his early edueation at the 
doug-all is the anthnr of h Lectures on Criminal ('ollf'ge of Tro
-es, in Fr:IIICP, and was graduated 
Law :11111 Torts" (Toronto, It:H
), at the U, S" military aeadpmy in 1
:
H, \>t'coming 
)I(.I)OWELl
. f]uu'l('s. soillier, h. in \\Ïnl'hes- 2d lieutenant in tliP 1st artillery, His first sery- 
tel', Ya.. in 174:l: d, in Burke county, X" ('" 21 i(,l' wa:-: on the northern frontier. during- the ('ana- 
:\[a1"('h, 1
1,)" Ilis fat Iwr, Joseph, C'lI1ig-ratNl from I cia border di
turhallf'es. in Houlton, )Ip" p.'nding 
11'1'1111111 to the L nitf'cI 
tate:-: :thout 1 j?'O, anll aft('r I thl' (lispnte(l tl'rt'itOJ'
- eontrover
y, 111' retnl'lll'd 
a resi(lpnee of se,-eral \'e1ll's in }JC'nnsvl nll1ia set-to the a('ademy in 18-t1. and was assistant instructor 
tied tirst in \Vinchestèr, Ya" allll sub
equently at j of infantry tllcties and adjutant until 1t;4.j, [If' 



110 


l\kDOWELL 


McDOWELL 


was then appointed aide-de-camp to Gen, .John E. I disor<ierly retreat to 'Yashington, Thus the first 
'Vool, and became the acting- adjutant-g-en('ral of I great battle of the cÌ\-il war '\as foug-ht and lost, 
that officer's column on its march to Chihuahua, According to Gen, Sherman." it was one of the 
and participatf'fl in the battle of BUC'lUt Yista, best-planned battles. but one of the worst fought." 
'" h('rp for his seI'\'ices he was hreyettC'd captain, I1eay)' losses of artillery and oth('1' war-supplies 
amI on 1
 )Iay, 11:)-tì, received that rank in the I ,\('re experienced as the soldiers fell back on the 
udjutant-g-l'lwral"s d<,partment, Suhsequently he capital. Both armil's were fairly dcfeatpd, and 
f'ontinued with the army of occupation, and was whiche,-er hlld stood fast th(' other would have 
engaged in mus- run, Gl'n, Johnston says: ,. The Confederate army 
tering out and diS- 1 was morp disorganized by victory thau that of the 
charging troops rnited 
tates by defeat." 'Yhile the plan was ex- 
until 1
4R, He cellent and had receiYed the approval of the com- 
then filled the manding general, still much difficulty was expe- 
office üf assistant rienced from the fact that the time of mam' of the 
adjntant - general regiments had expired and the men refu";l:d posi- 
in the war dC'part- tively to sene any longer, Inde('d, 4,000 mC'n 
m('nt in \Yashing- marched to the rear to the sound of the enemy's 
ton. in K ew York, guns, and the defent of the Kational trooi)S was 
and elsewhere. at- due to Confederate re-enforcements arriving undPl' 
taining the rank Gl'n, E, Kiruy Smith, who were supposed to be 
of major on 31 held in ('heck by a f01'('e under Gen" Robert l>atter- 
l\Iarch, l
,)(i, The :-;on in thl' 
henandoah ,Talll'v, 
year 1
;;tì-'9 hp Gen, 
[c Dowell was then g.iven charge of the 1st 
.....-J 1. !'pent on )('a,'e in corps, Army of the Potomac, haying b('cn super- 


 Europe.and thC'r{'- ....eelI'd in the chief command by Gen, :\[eClellan, 
, 
 
I 

&- after. until thc he- This corps undC'r his command \\ as soon afterward 
ginning of the detached from t.he main arm
 and desi
nateù as 
civil war, he was engagell in the cluties of tllf' the Army of the HappahannoC'k. )h'anwhile he 
acljutallt-
enerars depal"tn1l'nt in "Tashing-ton und wus macle major-geneml of \'olunteC'rs on 14 )[areh, 
as aide-Ile-eamp on Gen, 
eott's staff, serving as 18(j
, In the summer of It'(j
 there were four in- 
inspector of troops, During- the C'arIy part of dependent commands in Yirginin. awl in CJuick 
18(jl he was ocC'upied in organizing anù mus- succe:"sion they were atta{;ked with sueh force that 
tering \'oluntC'ers into s('nice at. the capital: hut coneentration becmnc necessary. and the Army of 
on ueing made hrigadi('r-general, 14 :\Iay. 1S(i1, Yirginia was formed under ({en, John Pope and 
he was H!'!'igned to the command of the I>epart- the command of the 3d corps was g-iycn to Gen, 
ment of Xorthenstern Yirg-inia and of the de- ) I<-DO\\'l'll , The campaign of northern Yirginia. 
fences of Washington south of the Potomac, On followed. and with hi" command he partic-ipated 

!) :\Ia.y, 1Hfil. he was gi,-en command of the in the battle of Ceùar :\Iountain. the nction of 
Army òf tllP Potomac, whieh consisted oÏ about Rappahannoek Station. and the second battle of 
30.00n n)('n, who, with the exeeption of 'ion or )Innassas, In tlH.' latter engng-ement Gen,l\lcDow- 
1:)00 regulars, were almost entirely raw recruits, ell tenaciously held his old position on Henry Hill 
With these troops, in respon:-;e to the public dc- until forc('ll to retire, The campaign ended at 
mar1l1 for !'ome immellÏatl' aetion, he was ordered, this point, allll, beginning \\ ith the retrl'at from 
on 1lj July, to march against. the Confederate Cedar )[ount:lÌn on 9 Ang" with seal'('e]y a. half 
army, posted at 
Ianassas Junction undC'r Gen, day's intermission, 
IcDuwen's corps wa;; eithcr 
Beauregard, IIis plan of campaign ha<Ì been making forf'pd mnrehes, many timcs through the 
carefully 
tudied out, and its principal fentllre night and many times \\ ithout food, or Was en- 
was to turn the enemy's left flank while tlweaten- gagell in battle. Though worn out \\ ith fa....ting, 
in,g- the front. which was well posted hehind Bull marching. und fighting, his men were neither de- 
Run on an elevation that commanded the entire moralized nllr disorganized, but In"ese1'\"{'(l their 
plateau, .A preliminnry action, \\ ithout the au- discipline to the last, Public opinioll persi....ted in 
thority of Gen, )[eDowell, took place at Black- holding him responsible for the defeat at Bull 
burn's Fon} on the It!th, and d('wlopl'd the fact Hun, and in eonsequenee no further field-command 
that the Confederates were strongly intrenched, wa
 intru....ted to him during the ci,"il \\ aI', He 
The Xational troops, unahle to carry the maskell was retired from duty in the field on (j Sept.. 1
(j
. 
hatteries, fell bac'k to C'entrevil1e, where they r('4ed and, regarding thi.... as a rd\ection upon him as a 
during the two following days, On t he morning' soldier,)1C' as)ü'll for a court of inquiry, which re- 
of the 21st the Kational army crossell the run awl ported" 11mt the interest:; of the public :,;;e1'\.ice do 
succeeded in throwing the enemy's left into such Hot requÜ"p an) further i1l\.e
tigation into the eon- 
confusion that the pres('nce of Gens, neaureganl dm-f, of )[ajor-General :\lc1>o\\e11," During part 
and John
ton was necessary to rally their troops, of 18ö:; he \\as prcsident of the ('ourt for inn'sti- 
who then re-formed in line on the crc"t of the hill, gating allegell cotton - frauds, awl later he was 
A severe struggle for this position ensll{'(l. and it presÏllent of the hoard for retiring disahle<l oflicprs, 
was lost. and won three times, anll about three On 1 .T lily, 1
{j-t, he was plal'pel in eomnwwl of the 
o'clod\: in thl' afternoon it rema.ined in the control Depa.rtment of the Pacific, with hpudquarters in 
of the 
ational forces, nut soon aftpr that hour 
an Fl'ancisco. and held tlwt office until 2ì Julv, 
fresh Confpderate re - cnforeements arri,-ed and 1
(j:), afh'r \\ hi('h he had command of thc Depart- 
completely turned the tide of battle, )Ic Dowell's ment of California until;n )Iarch. 1
fi
, l\lean- 
men, who hnd Iwen on their fpet sinee two o'clock while he was hre\'{'tted major-general in the IT, ::;, 
in the morning, who ha<l marehed twe1\'e mile:, to army and mustpred out of thc YOlllnteer sen-ice on 
the field and b('pn engaged in hea,'y fighting since 1 
ept., l
ö(j, In July, 18fiS. he was assign('d to 
ten o'clOl'k, were now cxhausted hy fatigue and the command of the Department of the East. awl 
want of foud and water, enable to withstand the 011 
,) XOY" lH;
, was promotC'1l to major-general. 
fiC'rce attack of fre....h troops. the\" brokp and rl'- Soon after this he succeeded Gen, George G, )[('ade 
tired in confusiun duwn the hill;ide and made a as commander of the Divbion of the :::;outh, amI re- 


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main{'d until :
O June, 1
7(j. after whieh he re- I 22 July, 1RRt, She \HlS educated in seminaries in 
turned to :-\an Franci:-l"o in charge of tlw l>iyi:-.iun .\1 i

i

i ppi and .\lahama. as IlPr falUih" mon
d 
of the Pacific until hi
 retirement on 1:; Oet.. 1:-;s
, trom place to place in :uh ance of the 'Xational 
Gen, :\Iel>uwell hCHi great fondness for landscape .fun'es, :::\he married Edw:mi .\l('[Jowell at Holly 
gardening', and during the la4 years of hi
 life \\ a
 ::;I'rings in 1t)7U, and in 1
j2 removed to Bo
tOIi, 
one of the park comlllissiolll'rs uf :-\an Fl"allf'iscu, in \\here for several 
ears she \\a" prinlte l'oecretary 
whieh eapacity he constrm'tl'd a park out of the to II l'nry \V, Longfellow. who preùidC'd for hl'r 
ne<rlectell Presiliio rl'sel'vation and laid out drives SUCl'e
s in literatUl'e, lieI' fir
t eontrihution to thl' 
th
t command fine view
 of the Golden Gate, press that attracted attention was a poem pnt itl('d 
JlcU()W.:I.I.. Jam('s. statt'sman, L, in Roek- .. The Hadical Clu},," The club, whieh she dl'- 
bridgp county, Va" 1
 Oct" l';Ufi: d, near Lexing- seriut'd as the .. ù('n of the unknO\\ahlt," and the 
ton. \
a" 
-t 
\ug" IH,;l. His tather. James. \\a
 "c:l\-e of the unintelligible," is 
aid to lune l.een 
de
cended from Ephraim ,McDowell, an earl
 set- killed by the poem, Tn 1878 !'lll' returned to Hol- 
tl('r in l{,ockbl'idge county, His mother, Sarah ly Sl'ring
, in the midst of the ypllow-Iever epi- 
Prestun, was the sister of Gen, Francis Preston, demic, to nurse her fathel' and hrotllPr, Her puh- 
whose daughter the ')"Olmger James )[eDowell Iications, which aPlwared undpr the pen-nnmt' of 
subselluently married, lie was P"raduated at ., Sher\\ood Bonner:' include "Like unto Lihe" 
Princeton in un 7, amI en
a
eù in planting till (Boston, 18)0\1) and" Dialect Tales" (1
H4), 
1t:;31, when he \\as in the \ïrginia legislatLU'l' and J[cUOW J
I.L, :-'alllu('l, jurist. h, in l'l'nnsyl- 
took high rank as an orator, During thi
 ses!'ion vania, 2i Oe1., 1'j;1.;; d, nl'al" Darn-ille. Ky" 2,:; 
he advoeated the 
radual m:mumi..sion of sla\es, 0I'1.,1Hl'ì, lIe took an llC'tive part in the move- 
and abo supported in a series of brilliant speechl's ment that brought ahout the" ar of independenee, 
measures for internal improvement and thl' puLlic- which is prO\-ed hy lettel's addn'

ed to him by 
school system by extra legislath'e appropriation, Pe
 ton Hanclolph. HidulI'd Henry Lee, Patl'i(.k 
He was governor in 1
-t2-'J, received the degree of Hpnry, George \\Tashington, and otll('rs. lIe served 
LL, D, from Prilll:eton in It!-tß. and in the latter in l'apt, Lewi
'
 company at BI"H(1Iloel;:'s deteat. anù 
veal' \Va-; elected to con
ress as a Democrat, seryin
 with his eld(':-.t son, who likf' him
elf \\ as an offi- 
till 1
31. Although an a(h-ocate of state I'ight
. cer in the Continental line, witnesf'ed ('01'11\\ allis's 
he vehemently op}Juseù slavery, and is said to have surrender, For many years he was a memher of 
done more to imprfo,-s upon the south the superior the Virginia l(>
islature. \\hieh in l'ì
2 uppointed 
economy as wdl as philanthropy of abolition him a commissioner to spttle the laml-claims of 
than any other from Jefferson till his own dn\'. Kentucky, lIesettlerl in Damille in 1 7
:1. served 
When the extremists demanded that CalifornÌa in the I{l'ntucky legislature for 
e\-eral year
. and 
should not be admitted as a free state \\ ithout an \\llS a circuit jUlIgC', organizing th(> fir:-t court in 
equimlent in the e
tension of slave territory, he I>anville. which \HIS held in a log caI,in n(>ar lJan- 
addres
ed the house in a speech on that subject, on ville, arlll was the first court formed in the terri- 
3 Sppt" 18.;0, that was unanimously deseriLed b
 tory, Ill' was also presilit'nt of the fir:,t ::;tate eon- 
those present, of \\hate\rer party, as one of the stitutiollal comention of Kentul'ky, held in Dan- 
most eloquent efforts that hall been heard in COI1- yille, HI 
\rl'il. 1 j!I
, Ill' remained upon the helll.h 
gress, A contemporary writer says: ,. His tall until within a few years of his death,-His son, 
form. graceful gestures, and commanding yoiee Ephnlim, surgeon, L, in Hochhridge county, \Ta., 
re\-iwd the eX[I/>ctations formed of hi
 fame, His 11 Sov" 17,1; d, in Danville, K
" 20 June, H3:lO, 
sustained and splendirl appeal confirmed them, attended classil'al sehools in Georg('to\\ nand Bards- 
The house I'epeatedly broke into imoluntary ap- town. Ky" and studied medicine in :-;taunton, Ya" 
plausl', At the conclusion of his hour it shouted eompleting his medical eùueation in EdinLmrgh 
. Go on! ' a proceeding hitherto unknown in the his- in 17n3-'4, Ill' he- 
tory of congress, .At the conclusion all Lusine

 gan to practise in 
was suspended. and the house adjournecl almust in [)allville. Ky.. in 
silence," See" History of t he 
\nti-Slaverv )[ms- 17:-;,;, and for Veal'S 
ures of the :3ith and ?'
th Congre:,;:,;es," Lÿ Henry was the fore'most 
Wilson (X e\\ York, H:!ü4), practitioner in the 
Jh'UOWEI.L. .John. clergyman. L, in Bedmin- southwest, In 1t)17 
ster. S, J" 10 Sept" 1 j
O; d, in Philadelphia, Pa., he \\a
 made a mem- 
in February, 1
lj
, He was graduated at Princeton bel' of the :\fedical 
in 1t-iOl, arid ordainPll in 1
04 pa
tor of the Pres- soeietyof Philadel- 
byterian church in Elizabethtown. X, J" whl're he }Jhia, He recei\-ed 
remained till 1t!:J3, He then was in charge of the the degree of .:\1. D, 
Central church of Philadelphia till 18-tfi, and in from the V" ni\-er:--ity 
,Mayof that year established the Spring Garden of :\Iaryland in 1
2,;, 
church, of which he was pastor till his death, Ill' In 1
O!) he succe
,.;- 
was a trustee of Princeton for more than fift
 fully performed the 
years, and of the theological seminary there operation fur extir- 
f!'om its foundation, and as agent of hoth institu- pation of the oYar
", 
t1On'" he eolleeted sUlns for their endowment. the first on recOl'd, 
V"nion and the eniwrsityof Snuth Carolina gave and acquired in con- 
him th
 degree of D. D, in 1
18, The first :-iunda
'- sequence European 
school m Elizahethtown was estahlishell Iluring hiE- celebrit
", A description of thi
. \\ ith other ea!'e!", 
pa40rate there in 1t:;1-t, and he wrote for its use he puhlishe<l in the Philadelphia .. Eelectic He- 
t!le fir
t Bible-class que
tions that \\,pre e\-er puh- pertory and Anal
 tic Re\-iew" in 1
1'ì. Hp abo 
IIshe!l (Elizahethtll\\ n, 1"314), His othel' works are acquired fame as a lithotomi"t, Dr, :\Ic'Dowell's 
.. 
\ Bihle-C'lass )[anual" (1HHì) and "
\ S
-4em of aecount of hi
 operations on the ovaries were 
Theology" (1
2(j), See" )[emoir," by William B. reppiw(l with ineredulity in man
' pla('es. e:-pe- 
Sprague (Xpw York, 1
IÎ-t), ('ially abroad, hut at this time his title to the 
JI(.nOWf:U.. Knthf'riu(' Shf'rnocul. author, name of the" father of omriotonn'" is generally 
b, in Holly Springs, )Iif:";" 
(j Feb" 1
-tO; d, there, ,recognizeù, He \\as a man of culturc and liLerål 


.i\IcDOWEIJL 


.:\IcDO \V ELL 


111 


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112 


l\lcDOWELL 


:\1AcEACHER
 


vie\\ s, and, had he lived in a le
s primith-e com- house of representatives, anù al
o in the moùe of 
munity, might have attained wealth and world- choosin
 presidential electors, and as clutÏrman of 
\\ide celebrity in his lifetime, In per
on he was this committee he made an elaborate report in 
stout, nearly six fpet in height, with a florid com- .January, V-:
.}, III' opposed congressional appro- 
plexi/ln and black eyes, He was unf' of the found- priations for internal imprm'ements, and also 
f'r
 and an Oliginal tru
tee of Cf'ntl'e college, Dan- argued against the 
yille, and a ff'w mouth:< before his final illness proposed congress 
hegan to 'mild a large IIHlIlsion near that town, uf Panama, a fa- 
On 14 :\ltn, 11-1,9, a granite monument with a yorite mf'asurp of 
mellallion ()f nr, :\1<:1)0\\ ell was crectec1 to his Presidf'nt John 
menlOry, the memorial aùdress heing made by Dr, Quincy Adam
, .As 
Samuel D, Gros
, of Philadelphia, beforf' the Ken- chairman of the 
tucky medical society, This is located near the committee of wa\-s 
C'l'nti"e of Danyille, in a public square known as and means he l'Îl- 
)Iel>owell park.-I1is grandson, "illiam .\tlair, dea\-ored to main- 
physician, h, near Dam-ille, Ky" 21 ,l\Iarch, 1,tl3: tain the Bank of 
d, in Loui
dne, Ky" 10 Dpc,. 1
;j::3. was educated the rnited States, 
at \\Ta:--hington college. Ya" which he left to f'elTe wa, a frpquent as- 
in the war of 1H12, Hp studied medicine with his ..ailant of the pro- 
uncle Ephraim, with \\ hom he pradised after rp- teetÏ\-e tariff. and 
ceh'ing his degree from the medical department engaged in impor- 
of thp rniwrsitv of Pennsvl\-ania in 1
H:;, He tant ddmtt's, In 
devoted much tÌme to the' study of pulmonary Decemher, ll-l:m, he 
consumption. and the result of his clinical observa- opened the im- 
tiollS 'HIS puhlished in a mono
raph entitled ,. 
\ peachment trial of 
Demon
tration of the Curahilitv of Pulmonarv ,Jud
e Janlf's II, 
COll:,:umption" (Louisville, 184:3).' . Peek. for the prol'ecution, in a speeC'h of gn'at 
Jlr no W I::IÆ., Silas. author. b, in York dis- }lower, Ill' h;1I1 been originally It supporter of 
trid. 
, (',. Hi :\IIt\,. 1'ì!)3; d. in :\[acon county, Prp,,;ident Jaekson, hut opposed him on the state- 
X, ('" 14 .Jul
', 1
,!( He was left an orphan at ån l"ights issuf', and was one of tht' most arllent and 
early age, and hi!-o life was one of hardship, For a eloquent champions of nullification, whic'h he re- 
short time he \\as a 
tUllent at the Xewton ac:ule- g;mled not as a eonstitutional but as a justifiable 
my. Buncombe eo,. S, ('" working to pay for hi
 rcvolutiolllllT UleaSUl'e, Ill' wa
 the fiuthor of the 
tuition. and he subsequently apprenticf'd himself addre

 to the people of the l'niteù State
 that 
to a tailor, lIe wOl'hed at this trade for ten years wa::. i:>sueù lIy the South C:u"úlina convention of 
in Xorth Carolina. but in 11-1:30 removed to a farm l
:

, In 1N:\4 he left congress, after making a 
in :\lm'on county amI sencd as clerk in the snpe- vehement speeeh against the administration, and 
rioI' ('ourt fOl' :-:i"teen years. and H
 derk and mns- in the same year he was eleeted governor of South 
tel' in equity for five )'l'ars, Ill' \\<IS a devoted Carolina. \\hieh otJiee he held until1
:JG, lie then 

tUlll'nt of natllre,-gi\'Ïng Illuch time to geology, retired to private life. but in 1
4
 was elected to 
mineralogy. and botany, llis shteh, .. 
\hove the the U, 
, senate in place of "'1lliam (', Preston, 
Cloud,;," \,:as e"tensi \ eiy copiell in journal
 in 18
f), who had rl':-:iglled, and sel"\'ed until 184G. \\ hen he 
and was followed by others that deserihed XOl'th I relinquishell his place, o\\ing to impaired health, 
Carolina mountain scenery, lIe also \\ l'ote article
 In congrcss few men have trented \\ ith more abil- 
upon pomolo,gy, horticultlÌre. sheep-husbandry. and ity such 11 variety of difficult suhjeets, Ill' was 
chee
e-making, and a paper upon the .. Theory of one of the mo
t succes
ful planters in the state. 
the '!'l)('rmal Zone," printed in the" Oeneral Agri- and deli\-ered an oration before the State agricul- 
cultural Ht'ports" ('Vashil1
ton, 1
G1), hlral sodety, For manv \ ears he was c(Jrnmonly 
JldH' FFI J
, Hcol'g'(', go\-crnor of South Caro- culled (;'en, )lcDullie, as 'hè had been fI major-
eli- 
lina, h. in ('"lumhia county. Ua" ahout l,I-I
; d. in eral in the state militia, He puhlished a" Eulo
y 
:-;Ulnter district, :-;, (j" 11 :\1:lreh. 1
,j1. He WWi of on Hobert y, Hayne" (C'hHrle
ton, 1840), and was 
humhle pun'ntage. mlll bcgan lifp u
 a clerk in a mer- the author of numerous addresses, 
cantiIe estahli....hment in Augusta, Ga, His tall'u ts )L\.(, .
. }'I'
lIlCe
 l'n I'kf'l' I.a ug'htun, poet. b, in 
attral'ted the attpntion of \\ïUiam Calhoun, \\ ho I Orono. )Ie" 1:1 .Jan., 18:3G, Her maiden lIame wa
 
sent him to Dr, :\lûse
 \\Tadllt'l\"s school in Wil- Lall
hton, She \HIS graduated at the hig-h-school 
mington. N, Co, and suhsequC'ntly to ,South Caro- of Bangor in 11),)2, amI in 1t:;5i) married Benjamin 
lina college, \\'lll're he \HLS graduated with fir
t II. :\I<I('e, a lawyer of that city, In 1t:t<,j she re- 
honors in 1
13, lle then 
tUllied law, was mImit- moved to San ,José, Cal. One of her pOem
; ,. Unly 
ted to tllP bar in 1814, and bf'gan to praetise in \Vaiting:' !'uggested hy the reply of un old nwn 
EtlgC'field. 
,C, In ll-il
 he was 
ent to the South \\ ho was a
ked what he was doing, first puhlished 
Carolina legislature, where he prm-ed himself an in the \Vater,-ille, l\Ie" .. :\1ail," in 1
34, heeame 
alile writer, .A political contro\"ersy with ('01. \\'111- \'er
 popular, She ha
 puhlbhed .. Lf'gellds, Lyrics, 
iam Cumming. of Georgia (q, 1',). about this tiull', and 
onnets" (Boston. 1
N:n. and p()em
 entitled 
lel[ to several duels, in one of which :\Id>uffie ,. L ndcr Pine ami Palm" (It:t:;ì), besides eontribu- 
recei "ed \\ ound
 from \\ hi('h he up\-er full v re- tions to magazines. which inelude "Israfil." .. Easter 
eo\t'red, In his earlier writings he alh-oèated 
lol"llin
." 
llId .. The Kingdom of the Child," 
consolÏllation doctrines in opposition to the 8tate- I M;ld'
.-\ l' H FJfX, nt'I'n
H'tl .-\ ng'us, Canadian 
rights views that he subsequently e:--poused, II is R. C, hi
h()p. h, in 
cotland about 1 'ì
(); d, in 
nll'ious papers on thi
 suhject \\l're collee-ted in Charlottetown. Prince Ed ward island, in It:;33, 
a series of pamphlets entitled" The Crisis," In I Ill' was for a long time enga
ed on the mission of 
lI"
I. he. was elect
fl to congress as a pemoerat, 1'rinee _ ElhumI island
 amI wasT eonsl'crated_ \'ic
lr 

('rYlllg from 1N21 hll 1t'34, when hf' re
lgl1el1. In apostolIc of that pronnee and 
ew BrunswIck. III 
December, 18
;1. he ach-ocated the cxpellipncy of I QuebC'c, Ii ,June, 1
21. TIll' population uf his dio- 
('hangin,
 the constitution so a
 to establish I1ni- cese was large, Hllll the numher of pril'sts incon
id- 
formity in the mode of electing the members of the erabJe, and to insure an increase in the latter he 



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l\I('ELHOY 


113 


nUlII!' arrangements for JUt\'ing eccle:,iastical stu- j anel in 18.ï:3 that of LL, l), from IIarrodsLurg Fe- 
dents educated in the College of the propagandu, male college, Ky, In 1H4H he was editol' of '" The 
Home, mHl in the 
eminary of QueLl'c, After hI"' 'l'em'hers' 
-\.dvocate," a journal devotcd to I'cienee 
had laLored zealously for se\eral year
, his vil'ariate all(llitpruture, In addition to Gr!'eI, a 1111 J lehrew 
\Va:' erected into a titulnr Lishopric, and the new t('xt-houk
, he pnhlished a .. :1\lanuul. Allah-tical 
sce \\<L:S plac!'d in Charlottetown, the capital of alld Synthetical, of Orthography and Definition" 
Prince Ed ward hland, 11 - \ug" lti:W, (X t'W York, 11::14.3); " The Young Anal vzer" (1 
4!J) ; 
JL\C EDO, J oaflnim Jlanoel tie (llIah-:,hay'-du), "The Humorous ðpeaker" (1t:;.3a);- and "The 
Brazilian poet. b, in :-;an JOtLO d'ItaLorahi, 24 June, Americun l)eLatt'r" (It{.3,ï), He al
o wrote 
undu\-- 
1

U, III' f'tudied Ilwllieine in Hio JaIleiro, and school hymn:" and an unfinished Latin gl'ammur: 
was graduatcd therp, Lut never practi
ed hi:,: 1'1'0- l\1('ET,RATH. Thomas. lawypl", h, in \Yilliallls- 
fession, and was appointed in 1t:;.3U professor of port, Pa,,1 3J11Y, tSUì; d, in l"ew York city, () 
national history in the college of the pity, lle en- JUlll', 1H
8, He h!'came a printpr early ill lifl', hut 
tcred polit il's in 18,ï4, and was elected deputy by suhsequmtly hegan th!' stUtlyof law, HplJlllving- 
the city of Rio ,Janeiro se\-eral timl':', :\Iacedo ha
 latel' to Xew York city. he was engaged as proof- 
acquil'ed a great reputation as a lyric puet, but reader and then as head salesman in the :\Iethodist 
he has al:;o written novels, and composed several hook coneern, and in 1

,") he formed a partnership 
drama=- and comedies, whieh have he en rl'pre- with T,emw.l Bang-
 in the puhlieation of s('hool and 
::-òented with great success in the prin('ipal cities of religious hooks, On it:, dbsolution he l"l'sumell his 
South America, .l\Iacedo is highly e
teellled hy thl' lpgal studies, was admitte(l to the bar, awl bq!an 
Brazilians, who consider him the most elegant of the practice of law in 
ew York, In 1
;JH he was 
th('ir national poets, II is works include .. .:\Iore- elected to the legislature, \\ as placed on its judi- 
ninha." a novel (Hio ,TaIll'iro, HH-l; ,ïth ed" re\Tised, ciary eommittee, and chost.n to w1'ite a. report on 
1
'ìì); .. 0 :\Iot;o loura," a novel of the early stages pditions praying for the aholition of cHl'ital I'l1n- 
ofthe Portuguese conquest (18-1,")); .. 0 Fora,..;teiro," ishment, He l'urly allie,l him
('lf with till' Whig 
a novel (1
,ï;j); ,. 
\. Kf'bulosa." a poem (UPì); party, and was an parnest supporter of Henry Clay, 
., Cotie," a drama, ,. FantaslIla. Branco," a comedy In It:;40 hp was appointed a master in chancery, 
(183li); "Luxo-e- Vaidadc," a comedy (1!:),ï!J); and hut in 1H41, relinquishing' the law, he enterecl illto 
.. Cort,graphia do Brazil" (It:;7:n, partlH'r:-:hip \\ ith Horaee Greeley in the cOlllluet ot 
Jr.\.(' .:])0, Serg"io 'l'(,xf'i ru df:', Brazilian jour- the" 
 I'W Y urk Tribune" under the firm-JIIlllle of 
nalist, L, in Rio ,Janeiro in Sept emLer, 1HO!); d, in Greeley and :\IeElrath, It is eon ceded tlwt the 
Lishon, Portug"al. in 18fj,), He was gra<lunted in c"tah/ishment and SUC('('ss of the" TribUJw " \\ pre 
law in Ulinda in 18:H, and imme<liately began his a
sured only after ::\Ir, l\Jl'Elrath joined in it:, puh- 
career as journalbt, publishing the papl'r .. Olin- lication, In 18,)7 he was elected eorresponding sec- 
dense," In It:;;J:3 he published in Hio Janeiro the rdal"yof the American institute, editing the state 
.. Venlade" and the "Aurora. Fluminense," In annual reports of the in:,titute until 1
Ut, when he 
IH;J:
 he was appointed sel'retary of the Bmzilian r!'siglll'd, [n 11-\Ul he was apl'oint,>d appraiser-gen- 
legation in .France, and in 18;H became :'I'pcial en- eral for the X ew York district, hut hf' re
ig'ned in 
voy to Lisbon, In 1t;;JS he was sent to Home to 1HU4 to resume the publication of the" Trihune," 
settle some ditIieulties between Brazil and the pope, In It:;fj(.i he wa:- appointed chief appraispr of foreig-n 
.anù by his good otJir'e:o: the independence of Chili mel'chandbe at the purt uf X ew York. lle Was one 
was recognized, Macedo was al:-;o minister to of the commissioners to the PUl'is exposition in 
Turin in 1842, to France in 184:{, and to A ustria. in 18G7, and to thp Vienna exhibition of 1 Hì;{, and, with 
1847, In 1

ß he was calle(l hy the gl
vernment to Jolm Jay, special commis:-oioner to adjust and Sll- 
Brazil to consult on its financial difliculties. and, perintend the 
\merican department in the latter 
,although not a ,,;pecialist, he settled t.he que:,tion exhibition, In It)'ìU he was seert>taryof the Xpw 
satisfactorily, and re
tored the creùit of the nation, York :-tate commission at the Centennial exhibi- 
In 18.3-1 he began to ag-itate against the :,lave-trade, tinn, 
-\.t his death he WIIS a banker in 
ew York, 
and the same year was appointed minister to Lon- He published ., Dictionary of \\" ords and Phrases 
don, where he gave valuable hints to the abolition- uscd in Commerce" (X ew York, Il::1ì
), 
bts in regard to preventing the tra(le from ..Africa, l\h'EI,RO\', .John, clergyman, b, in Brookehor- 
In It:;.ï.3 he was appointed minister to the Unitf'd ough. County. Fermanagh, Ireland, 11 :\lay, 171-1:3; 
States, but declined and retired to Brazil, where d, in Frederick, 1\Id" 12 Sept., 1
77, Owing to the 
he published valuable papers in the" Journal do penal laws, he received a yery limited education in 
Commercio," Ill' was eleeted representative in his natiye country, amI about the beginning of this 
18,")U and senator in 11"57, from IS.ï!J till 18m was century he emigrated to the Lnited I-itates and 
minister of state, and in H;G,ï he went to Europe in settled at Georg-etown, D, C,. where he engaged in 
-quest of hpalth, but died thC're, mereantile business, lIe afterward became bOllk- 
)[('ELLIHOrf, Jumes 
af}ol('on. edueator, b, keeper at. Georgetown l'ollege, and, wishing to im- 
in Hichmond, Va" i:J Oct.. 1H12; <1, in 
ew York prO\'e himself, employe(l his leisure hours in the 
city, 22 Oct.. 18ûu, Ill' came to 1': ew York at an study of Latin, a:-osistl'd 1,,' onp of the students of 
early age, nUcndell a primte school. and studied in the èollege, In mou he mitered the Society of Jf'- 
the Xew York university, but left before receiving sus as a lay brother. but after a Lrif'f experience in 
a degree, In 1H:
j he bf'came a candidate for or- that capacity he was recommended to the general 
del's in the Prote4ant Episcopal church, but was of the order as a suitable person for the prie
thood 
not ordained, and dC\-otecl his suhsequent life to by onp of hi:-o superiors, who had heard him ex- 
tf>:lching: and to the preparation of text-books, In plain very logically a le:,son in catechism, He was 
1
4.ï he wa:o: principal of the sehool of the General ordained in .:\Jay, 1Hl'ì, hy Arehhishop Kenll', of 
sucietyof mechanics anll tradesmen in Xew York, Baltimore, and for sevpral years stationed at 
In 1
4D he opened a prÏ\-ate school, \\ hi(./1 IlP con- Trinity chun-h, Georgetown, but in 182
, at the 
tinued until his death, Ill' laborpd aetively among refJuest of Roger B, Taney, was tmnsferred to 
the poor, and was interested in Epiphany mis
ion Frederick, 1\[d, Here he began to display that 
-chlH'ch, raising a fUllll for its future support. He practical ahility that made him ewr afterward one 
was president of the State teachers' as:,ocintion, of the most useful members of the So('iety of ,Jesus 
In 184
) he received the degree of .:\1. _\., from Yctlp, in the L'nited States, He built St. John's church, 
VOL, Iv,-8 



a college, an academ
", an orphan asylum, amI the JlcFAnnE
. Ohae1inh ß" jurist, b, in Wash- 
fir
t free 
chool in Prederick, After twenty-three ington county, Pa., in 1
17: d, in Olympia, \Vash- 
years of work there he wa
 tram:ferreù to Trinity ington territory, 2.; June, 1 t:; 7.'), He was elected 
èhurch. Georgetown, but the following year, PresÍ- to the legislature of Pennsylyania in IH-t:3. and was 
dent Polk h:Lving reql1l'
ted the council of bishops prothonotary of 'Vashington county, Pa." in 1
43, 
m Baltimore to select chaplains for the Roman In It:;;)3 he was appointed a
sociate justice of the 
Catholic 
ohliers in the .:\Iexican war, Father )Id
l- suprenH' court of Oregon t.erritory, and in 1834 to 
roy was one of the two priests that werE' cho
en for the same office in \Vashington territory, In 11-1:)8 
that duty, Xotwithstanding his adnmced age, he he hecame chief justice of \Vm:hington territorv, 
accepted the office, and was so faithful in the di
- which office he held until the autumn of 1861. I-Ïe 

harg-(> of his duties that he was frequently men- J"{'presented his district in the legislative council, 
tioncd in the high('st t('rms in the despatches from and was also elected a delf'gate from \Yashington 
the scat of war, At the close of host.ilities he was territory to congre
s as a Democrat, to sen"e from 
ma(Ie pastor of St. }[ary's church, Boston, }Iass" 1 D('c.. It:;7:
, till 3 
[arch. 18Tj', 
where he paid special att('ntion to the subject of 'h'FARLA
)). Amnneln R., missionary, b, in 
edur-ation, huil(ling Boston college and the Church Brooke count\\ Va" ahout 1837, She was educated 
of the immacnlate conception, Father }lcElroy at StpubenvilÌe female seminary, amI in 1857 mar- 
continued in the acti,(' pcrformance of his priestly ried .Hev, David F, .l\IeFarhind, a Presbvtf'rian 
dl1ti('
 until he was past eig-hty years old, \Vh('n clergyman, :b-'rom 1!:)6t tilll!:)ü6 her husuand hdd 
four:-:core anel ten he uecame hlind, and retired to charge of }Iattoon female seminary, Ill" and in 
.Fre(lerick, .:\1(1., in his last veal'S, 'Vhen he died 18ü7 removed to Santa Fé to engage in mission 
he wa:-: th(' oldest ,Jesuit in the worM, work in Xew':\Iexico, Here .:\Ir
, :\lcFariand 01'- 
lUl'IU.UOf. 
Iur) Arthur, b, in Greenwich, ganiz('d and conducted a successful mission-school 
\Vashington co" X, y" in 1t:;42, She is the young- among .:\Iexican ('hiJdren, In 18;3 they remowd 
est ehild of the to California and ('stablished an acadcJI1Y at San 
Hev, William Ar- Dipgo, and in 187;) they condllct('d missiOJis among 
thnr (q, v,) and the the 
ez Pprces IllIliuns. After .1\11', }Ie Farland's 
sist<.'r of Chest('l' death in 1
7ü his wife removed to Portland, Ore- 
A,.Arthur, Hered- gon, and in 18;; took charge of a school at Fort 
ucation was coJll- Wrangell, Alaska, Here she acted as clergyman, 
pleted in Troy, at physiciun, and lawyer for the IwIians, who urought 
the seminary of their difficulties for her solution, 
he was called 
which 
[rs,Einma to preside over a native constitutional conYention, 
Willard was prin- and chiefs came long distances to enter the school 
cipal. In 18ül 
he of ,. the woman who lovccl their people," and to 
married John E. plead that teaehers should be sent to their tribes 
}[eElrov, of Al- Her efforts resulted in the establishment of a 
hanv, ãnd since training-school for Alaskan girls which is called 
that event she has .. The 
lc Farland Home," of which institution she 
resided in that now (18HR) has charge, 
city, During the )1(' "'ARIJA
n, }'..uncis Pntrkk, R. (', bishop, 
administration of b. in Franklin, Pa" 16 April. 1819; d, in Hartford. 
her brother she Conn" 12 Oct., 18;4, He was educated for the 
made her home priesthood at Mount. 5t, .:\Iary"s college, ordained 
in Washington in in.x ew York city on 18 .1\Iay, 11:'4;', and after act- 
the wint('r S('3son, and dispensed the hospitalities ing for a 
 car as pl'ofes
or at St. John's college, 
of the ""hite House with rare social tact, the place Fordham, and for 5everul months as assbtant priest 
Leino- one for which she was peculiarly fitted uy in X ('w York city, was appointed to the mbsion of 
herJ
('rsonal character' and previous Hs:-:ociations, \\Tatl'rtown, 1\, y" and in 11:':)1 made pastor of St. 

r('EXl'}:E, Jenis, artist, h, in Rondout. K y" John's church, Ptica, On 14 )Iarch, It:;38, he was 
14 Juh", 182t:;; d, there, 2; Jan" It:!lt, 11(' 
tudied consecrated uishop of the see of Hartford, and. like 
with ij'rederic Eo l'hureh in X ew Y 01'1;:. hut later the two first bishops, made Providence his resi- 
engaged in Lll
inc
s in UOllllout, This he relin- dence, In 18;2, when t.he Roman Catholic popu- 
qlli
lll'd after thn.e years, and, opening- a st udio in lation of the dioc('se had grown to more than 
Xe\\ York, de,-oted himself thenceforth whollv to 200.000, the new see of Providence was erected. 
art. Ill' fil'st exhiuited at the Academv of de
ign and Bi:-:hup )fcFarland removeù to Hartford awl 
in U.(j3. allli was clN't('d nn a:-:so('iate ii. lti60, HÌlt! therp engaged in the erection of a eatlwdral. with 
aca(I(>!llieian one veal' later, In 1
G9 he yi
ited an episcopal palace and a convent, continuing the 
Europe, 
ketchini in Italy and Switzerland, and work until his health failed, 
studying in the prineipal gnll('ries on tIlE' conti- }L\ (' F.A R 1..-\ 
 E, A Ic:\.n nd('r. lawver, b, in 
nent, ':\11', .:\lcEntee Il
uallv delineated Xature in 'Yallace, Xont Scotia, 17 June, 1818, . A'fter re- 
her more somhre aspe('ts, mid there i
 in his I'
dnt- ceiving an education from priyate tutors he studied 
ings a latent 
entiment not often found among law, was called to the uar of Noya Scotia in It:;44, 
lands('ape-paint('r
, lIe was e:-pecially succe:-:sful in and acquired n large practice, Ill' was in the Koya 
autumnal SCenes, His more important works arp Scotia legislature from 11:;36 until the union of 
.. The :\Ielancholy Days ha\"e come" (1860); .. In- l
ü;, In 1
(i;j he became a member of the execu- 
dian Summer" (18ül); "Late .Autumn"' (lR6a); ti,-eCOUJl('i1of the pro\"inc(',nnd holds rank mlll 
.. Oetober Snow" (1
;0); "Sea from Shore" (l
ía): pr('eedence as such hy patent from the queen, He 
.. ('ape Ann" (18;4); "A Song- of :::-ìummer" (1876): was one of the delegates from NO\-a Scotia to the 
"Winter in the )Iountains" (It:;7
): .. Clouds" colonial conference in London to complete the 
(IH7!)); .. The Edge of a Wood" (1

0): .. Kaats- term
 of union in 1
(jG-';, and in the latter year 
kill Hi\"Cr " (1881): "Autumn .:\Iemory" (1K
3); wa
 appointed queen's counsel. On 10 O('t., 1870, 
.. Shadows of 
\utumn" and .. The Kaatskills in I he was ('aIled to the senate, In politics he is a. 
W 
nter" (1
84); .. Ch,rist m:
s Eve" (It:;t:;;)); and Cnnscn-ati ve, a 1111. hi
 speeches in t he 
(,J
a te haver 
.. shallows of Autumn' (18t:;ü), been marked uy (hglllty and uremlth of new. 


114 



IcELROY 



 


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}L\('F ARLA
E 



JI.\cr.\RI.,\XE. Rohf'I'f. editor, b, in Ruther- Xov" 1823, was received into the Tennessee con- 
g-len, near Glasgow, 
eot1awl. :!:J _\ pril. 1
13; <1, in fer
nce a
 
n itinerant preacher, IIis mini:stry, 
Brooklvn. 
, y" 21 Dec., H:,
;J, I1is early educa- wIuch Wh" III 
\lahama after 1
28, and in \\estern 
tion \\its limited, and, after learning his father's Tenness
e after 11'-':34, \\a,..; attended with great suc- 
trade. that of a dyer, he emigrated to the Gnited 
'es",-Ihs eldest son, .J
.hu Ih'l'r,-, clergyman, h, 
States in 18
6 and settled in 
\lhany, X, y" in III Rutherford county, 1enn" 13 June, It-iO;; d, in 
1840, \\ here he became editor of a paper in the in- Xash vi
lc, 10 May, 1t'
7, was appointe(l a class- 
terests of the \\orking clas,..;es, In 11';41'; he \\as np- leader III l

:J, licensed to e:xhort in 11"
4 and to 
pointed editor of the" Scientific American," which preach in 182:'), and joined the Tennessee confer- 
post he held for seventeen years, but, being threat- encl'. the.sal!le year, The next three years he spent 
cued with failing eyesight, he relinquished literary on cIrcmts III Tcnnes"ee and Alabama, and he was 
work in IHü3, returned to Alhany, and engaged in then mi::;sionary to the Cherokee nation for two 
dvcin
, In 11'ì74 he retired, aUlI thenceforward re- years, six 
'ears in stations, three years presiding 
stded 'chietlv in Brooklvn, He revisited his natÏ\-e elder, and III 11;40 elected editor of the" Christian 
land twice 'and wrote sketches of his travels, also Advocate," In thi
 post he was continupd till 
de\"otin
 himself to Scottish antiquities and to the )Ia
", 1t'."'j
. when he was elected book-agent, Thi:s 
history uf Scotti::-h emigration to this country, He office, with the further appointment of "missionary 
was the author of .. Propellers and Steam Xaviga- to the Army of Tenne
see, he held eig-ht wars, In 
tion" (Xew York, 1R,"'j1: new ed" Philadelphia, l
GG he \\as elected secretan'to the ÌJoaÌ'd of mi
- 
1
34), and edited LO\'e's" Treatise on the .\.rt of sions. which office he filled till 18.8, In that year 
Dyeing" (Philadelphia, l
til"), he was ag-ain elected book-agent, and he contiñued 
]l \(:}'.EE L f. Uobt'rt. sol(lier, b, about. 1


, in this otlice till his death, Handolph--:\lacon col- 
lIe was gmduated at the U, S, military acaùcmy lege gave him the degree of D, D, in 1
31. lIe 
in l
,"'jO, served as lieutenant of infantry in scout- represented American )Iethodism in the æcumeni- 
ing against t.he Snake Indians, in the Yakima cal conferencp in London, England, in 1

1. and he 
e
peditiun of 18::;3, and against the Oregon In- WHS at the centennial conference in Baltimore in 
dians, Ill' was made a captain on the staff on 11 1t'1"4, His chief \\ork wa... a .. lIi
,;torv of :\fethod- 
)fay, l
ül, and was commis
ary for the state of ism in Tennessee" (3 vols" Xashyille: 113.0-'2), .A 
Indiana, and afterward chief of the commÎssa- memorial volume, edited hy Hey, 0, p, Fitzg-el'ald. 
riat of the Army of the Ohio, and then of the is now (HN
) in prepanttion,-Another son, Andel'. 
Army of the Tenrwssee during the Yiekshurg cmn- "'('II Pnnh. clerg-yman, b, in Rutherford county 
paign ant! the suhsequent operations until the Tenn" 23 .f'eh" 1
i8, entprell the )fethodist minis
 
close of the Atlanta campaign, after heing com- tr
r in 1
,"'j4, and has published" Sermons for the 
missioned as major on!) Feh" 1863, lIe recCÎ\"ed rimes" (Kashyillf>, 1884), and" Heayenly Shadow:< 
two brevets on 13 )Iarch, l
G,"'j, for faithful ser\'Ïces and Hymn,," (11::'
j), . 
during the war, After serving as chief of com- )1
l('H,
 H.\X. .

\lHu\1'ins Atop-ins, journalist, 
missariat at Cincinnati, Detroit, and Chicago, he b, near XeW Le
lIlgton, Perry co" Ohio, 12 June, 
was appointed commissary-general of subsistence, 1
-t4: d, in Constantinople, Turkey, !) June 113.8. 
with the rank of brigadier-general. on 14 .\. pril , His father died when the son was'seven \ ea
's old 
l
;."'j, whil'h oftice he still (l

H) hohls, lea
ing a farm on which the latter workecl till th
 
JlrFERRA5, .Jolm fonl't
. soldier, b, in Ken- age of sixteen, attending school during the winter 
tucky in 1
:31; d, in I.Joui::-\'Ïlle, Ky" 2:') April, months, Ill' went to Huntington, Ill" in HmO, 
1872, He was grwluated at the (T, S, military taught for two terms, then beeame a book-keeper, 
academy in 1843 and as,.;igned to the infantry, lIe and, removing to St, Louis in l
(H, followed the 
served in the military occupation of Texas and the same calling after first passing through the course 
war with 3fexico, being engaged at Palo 
-\lto and of instruction in a 
Resaca de la Palma, lie was with his regiment Imsine:;:; colleg-e, lie 
on the frontiers of Texas and Xew :\Iexico until he also wrote news-let- 
entered the quartermaster's department and was tel's to the Hunt- 
made a captain on the staff on 20 Aug" l
."'j,j, Re- inO'ton" Democrat" 
fore and during the civil war he was on duty in g-a
"e publie reading.s 
X ew )Iexico, being promoted major and appointed from Charles Dick- 
chief quartermaster of that department on :m X oy" ens's works, and dur- 
18O::
, In 18ü-t-'5 he was Gen, James II. Carleton\; ing his spare hours 
chief of staff, and at the clo:-:e of the war was bre- read law, which he 
\"etted brigadier-general. He was promotf'd lieu- intended to make his 
tenant-colonel on 29 Julv, l
üG, and sprved subse- profession, In Janu- 
qoentlyas chief quarterÌnaster of the Department ary, l
(i!), he went to 
of Washington and of the Division of the SOltth, Europe, visited Lon- 
)[ePERRIX, J
'IIl(,
. clergyman. h, in Washing- don, Paris, and oth- 
ton county, Va" 25 )1arch, ] 7
4; d, in Tipton er places, and then 
county, Tenn" 4 Sept" 1840, He was of Irish Pres- 'pent many months 
hyterian extraction, \\ as brought up as a farmer, in Brussels, where he 
and, after marrying at the age of twenty, settled in devoted himself to 
Rutherford county, Tenn" whpre he was often en- the studV' of cidl and international law, and per- 
gaged in combats with the Indians, After the fected his knowledO'e of French and German, When 
declaration of war with England he was cho"en ahout to em hark fur home he "as ene-aged in the 
captain of a company of \"olunteers, and marched autumn of l
;O a" special correspOlìaË-nt of 
he 
under Gen, Andrew Jackson against the Creeks. Xew York" lIerald," Ill' oyertook the retreatmg 
was present at Tallade,ga, and suffered gl'l'at pri\"a- arm v of Gen, Charles D. S, Bourbaki. and then 
tions during- the campaign, Capt, )lcFerrin was went to L\ons and ne",t to Bordeau"" whence he de- 
elected colonel on his return. and for several years :,patched à series of intf>n-ip\\s \\ith the leaders of 
took pride in leading the he,,;t-trained regime"nt of the Republican and the )Ionarchi
al and Clerical 
the state troops, At the age of thirt\"-six he unite(l parties that attracted much attentIOn, fill,l on the 
with the )lethodist Episeupal church, and on 2::; : remO'-al of the "cat of the Xational gO\-ernment to 


)L-\CF AHL.\X E 


)[AcGAIlAN 


115 



 


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116 


l\[AcG
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)h.;GEE 


Ver:"nille
 ha
telwd to Paris. and remained thP1'e the faU of an mnmunition-cnrt, he accompanied 
fmlll the heginning to the ('nd of the Commune, Gen, Gourko'
 column, and was with Gen, Skobeleff 
de
crihing tht' eyents of the period in graphic at the front, where he often went \\ithout food. 
letter:". ([e wa
 the only éorre:"pondent in the city, nnd four times lay ill in the tl'enéhe
 with malarial 
a/HI est;Ihlislll'd IUI intimacy \\ith Domhroyskv and fever, His lettel::" de
{'ribed the course of opera- 
other communist lea<lers that wa
 the cau
e òf his tions and vividly pictured the scene:; of battle from 
arrest b
- the Xational troop
. from whose custody the fight at 
hipka Pass to tlw fall of Plevna, 
he \HIS Ileliwr('d through the interee,,
ion of the \Vhile thf' negotiations of San Stefano v. ere pro- 
U, S, ministel, Elihu n. \\
 ashhurne, His puhlishecl ceeding he remained at Pent during nn epid('mic 
conycr
ations \..ith L{.on Gambetta. Archbishop of spottmi typhu
, amI at lfist fell a ..-ietim to the 
Dupanloup. amI others introduced into Europe the disease, l\IacGahan comllined in a remarkable 
practi<'e of newspaper intervÍe\\ ing, After the d('gree rlescripti\'c power:" amI facility of composi- 
Commune he visited Bucharest, ()de

a, find then tion, aeute military an<l political perceptions, and 
Yalta, where he formed many friendships with physical energy and deeisiwness in action, II is 
nwmhers of the czar'
 household amI officers of the fearle
snes
 in exposing himself to fire enablpd him 
guards, 
\ccompanying the' court to St. Pptf'rs- to descrihe hattles with gn'at fidelity, Ill' had 
hurg, he WH
 appointpd regular correspondpnt of plmuwd a work on the eastern question, but left 
the ., lIeralrl" in that capital. und through his it in no form for puhlication, 
exceptional 
ocial relations with high officials waq JIl'(L\RYEY. John Willialll. theologian, b, in 
able to ohtain intere4ing political news. lIe ac- IIopking, ille. Ky" 1 3Ian'h. 1

!I, He was gra(Iu- 
companied Gen, \\rilliam T, Sherman to the Cau- fitcd at BptlHmy co}}('gP, Ya.. in 1
,)O, becmne a min- 
ca
u
 in 1
7:.?, then reported the proceedings of the i:,tel' of the C'hri:,tian denomination. and preacher! 
".Alahama ., conference in Gl'ne\'a. gaUll'red news fit Fayette, :\[0" in 1
51-'3, tllf'n at Doyel'. :Mo" till 
in Lowlon, Paris, IJyon
, awl othèr placcs, and 1
ü2, and from It:ü2 till 18tH at Lexington, Ky, 
after mlllTying-. in ,January. IH7a, a Hussian huly 
inC'e 11'<(;:) he ha" hcen profl,,,,,or of sacred history 
whosc aClluaintanee he hall first made at Yalta. in the College of the BillIe, Kentucky uniYer:,ity, 
was unexp('<'tedly ordere<l to join the expedition From 18G!) till 1t;ìG he edited the "Apostolic 
against Khiva, After yainly seeking permission Times," He is the author of a "Commentary on 
for tllf' journey from the J{u:,sian government, he the Acts of the Apostles" (Cincinnati. H
(;:{); .. èom- 
set out alone on his aflwnturous trip, riding nn- mentary on the Gospels of :Matthew amI )Inrk" 
hinderl'rl throug-h the (Iesert. and o\'Crtaking the (1876);" Lamb of the Bible" (philadelphia, 1t;
O); 
Russian ('olumn hefore Khinl just as the hombarr!- and" The Text awl the Canon." consisting of the 
JIlent began, ,nlile he was there It close intimac) first two pnrts of a work on the evidences of ('hris- 
spmng up beÌ\\ een him and Col. Skoheleff, tianity (Cincinnati, 1HHü), 
On his return to Europe he puhli:,hed his .:\(('(U:F.. Thomas ))".A )'('f. statesman, h, in ('ar- 
., Campaigning on the UXU5. and the Fall of lingford, In'lanrl, 1:l April: 18
;;: d, in Ottawa, 
KhÏ\"a" (London. 1874). which has pns
ed through Canada, 7 April, 18Gt;, lIe wns educated at Wex- 
many editions, In Julv, 1874, he went to the ford, where his father wa:" employed in the cus- 
Pyn:lll'eS to report the t;arlist war, mlll remainerl tom-hou
p. emigrated to this cOllntry in 1
42, 
with Don ('arlos for the ne
t ten month
, acquiring and settled in Boston, "here he wrote for the 
in a 
hort time a perfect command of the :::\pani::;h .. Pilot," a Roman Catholic new:"pnpf'r, and soon 
tongue, nurin
 the clllllpaign he li\'l'd in the became its editor, On hi
 return to Ireland soon 
saddle and was frequently under fire, In his aftE'rwanl he beeame parliamentary corresponrlent 
lettE'rs to the" Herald" he trie(l to gain for the of the Vuhlin " Freellllln's Journnl." and, ÜI('JÜify- 
Carlists the sympnthies of the civilized \\orM, In ing himself with the Young Ireland party, joined 
June, 11:)7,). he sailell from Southampton on the the staff of ., The Kation" new:,paper, In 1
4, he 
.. Pawlol'a" for the Polar seas, This yovage he maùe himself conspieuous by summoning a meet- 
described in newspaper letters, nnd in a' volume ing' to the Rotunda. Dublin. his object heing- to ex- 
entitled" under the Xorthern Lights" (TJonùon, pose the later policy of Daniel O'Connell. Toward 
1t;7ü), In J une, 1
7(j, he receÍ\ ed a speeial com- the end of 1848, ha\-ing become compromised by 
rnis
ion from t.he editor of the London "nail v the part he had taken in the Young Ireland moyc- 
Xew::-:" to investigate the truth of ,lespatches dè- ment, he macIe g-omi his f'scape to the United State:-:; 
scribing Turldsh barbarities in BulglLl'ia, whiC'h and in Kew York he e:-:tahlished a newspaper called 
had bpen c
111(>d in question hy the premier. Ben- .. The .American Celt,'. and aftprwarù .. The Xation," 
jamin DisraelÏ, in the House of common
, Accom- advocating the claim
 of Ireland to independent 
panied by .Eugene ::-;ehuyler, who had been ('om- natiomtlity, During the ,. Know-Xothing" excite- 
missioned hy the U, S, gO\-f'l'nment to prosecute a ment of 18
)4-'G his views underwent a radical 
similar inquiry, )IacG-ahan went over the desolatell change. and he became an ardent rOYlllist. Ill' 
districts, llue:,:tioned the people in Hu::;sian, of then removed to Canada, where he was gladly wel- 
which hUl,
uage he had gained It limited knowledge. comed, e
tahlished a paper called" The Xew Bra," 
and pre
ented in brilliant descriptive stylI' a mass anù in 1H,), was elected to the Canadian parliament 
of detaih..l e\'i<lence of the reality of the RulgarÜm as one of the lIlf'mher:, for )[ontreal. In 1
ü4 he 
horrors that enlisted on hehalf of thf' Chri4ians of was made president of the executive council. which 
TurkPv the sYlllpathie
 of the British public. and office he continued to hold till 11"(;7, 11e took an 
remo\'èd the hindrances to the Hnned intenention acti..'e part in th
 movement that re
u1tell in the 
of Hussia, Ui
 letters were rl'printerl in a pamphlet confecleration of the British Xorth .American colo- 
pntit h>d " Turkish .Atrlleities in Bulgaria" (IJondon, nil's, fmming the draft of the plan of union that was 
1 I-; 7(i), In the following winter he reported the substantially adopted, lIe was re-eleeted after the 
conference of tlIP ambas
adurs in Constantinople, union anrl 
f'nt to the parliament of Ottawa, 
then went to St, Petershurg to watch the war prep- '[eOf'e had remlt'Jwl him
elf obnoxions to the 
arations, Xotwithstanding a p;lÏnful accident. he members of the Fenian Sl>('rf't soeif'ty, and on the 
accompanied the H.u

ian arm
', was present at the evening- of 7 .April, 18G8, when returning from a 
first hattle "ith the Turk
. anll witnessed thp pas- night s('ssion of pnr1ialllPnt, he was as
as::-:inated at 
sage of the mh lIueed guarrl o..-er the DanuIJP. , th(' door of his hotel. HE' was a man of more than 
Though l'rippled by a broken leg HIHI bruised in ordinary culture, which was full
 recognized, At 



::\kGEE 


.:\IcG ILL 


117 


the Pari:, exhihition in l
:):). ana at the Dublin ex- he was moderator of the general as:;:('mblv, which 
hibition in ItHa, he l'l'pre:-:ented Canada in the ca- met in Baltimore, In ÙlP winter of it:;.ì2 he 
pacity of chief commbsioner, IIi:, contributions filled a professorship in the Prf'
byterian s('lIIinary 
to literatur(' were h II istorical 
kc>tches of O'('on- at Columhia, 
, ('" and in l
;):
 returIlf'd to h{" 
nell and his FrielHIs" (Dublin, It;-t,")): .. Irish 'Yrit- fOI'llll'r chaÌl' in 
\llegheny. [n 1
,)4 he \\as trans- 
er:, of the 
eventeenth Century" (l"i-tG); .. :\lemoir ferred to the profe:-:sorship of ecclesia:,tical. homi- 
of the Life and COIHLuests of 
[aC)1urrough, King letic, al!d pa:--toral,thpologyat Princeton theologi- 
of Lein:;:ter" (1F<47); "Irish Letters" (X ew York, cal sf'mmary, and m 1

:
 he was retired as emeri- 
1
,ì
); "Life of Edward )[cGinn. Coadjutor Bishop tu:, profe:,sor, He reeeiYeù the d('gree of D. f), 
of D('rry" ()[ontr('nl. 18'")0: "( 'anadian Ballads" from )[arshall college, )[ereersburg, Pa., in 1
-t:?, 
(lS:)8); .. Popular IIi:stury of Ireland ., (Xew York, and that of LL, D, from Princeton in 1
(iR, ::\[any 
ISH:?); mlll ,. Speeches und 
\ddr('s<;es on the Brit- of his sermons and speeche:-: haH
 been printel1. 
i:-:h American rnion" (London, 1
Ii,ì), _\ volump He was a freeluent euntributOl' to revie" s. and, 
of his po('ms, with an introduction by)[rs, D, J, besides a:-:sisting in tlw composition of otlll'r works, 
Sadlier, appemwl aft('r his lkath (X('w York, If:7Ü). was the author of a volume on .. Church GO\-ern- 
JIl,(a:E. ". .J [he has no Christian name], gpulo- nll'nt," aIllI two on .. Church Ordinance"." which 
gist, b, in Dubuque county, IO\H1, 1 ì _\pril. 1
.ì:l he prf'parell for the press, IIis SOIl, Ht'org(' ]lc. 
lie "itS s('lf-educated. and in em'ly life inwnted {'nllot'h, surg-l'on, b. at Hannah Furnace, Celltre 
and patent('d several improyements.on agricultural CO., Pa,. 
() .\I'ril, H
:
t;; Ù, near Fort LYon, ('01- 
implements, subsequently he turned his attention ormlo, 
() July, It:;Gi, wa:.-: graduated at I'rincl'ton 
to geology, and made important inYestigations in in 1t:;-1
 and at the medical department of the [ni- 
that direction, inclwling r('!'('arches on the lo('ss Yer
ity of Penllsylntnia in l
fi1. 1Ie "as com- 
of the :\fissis:.-:ippi valley, the examination of the missioned as:.-:istant surgeon in the r, S, army to 
great quaternary lakes of Xemda and California, date from 1ü April, l
Gì, in June, It;Ha. "US niade 
and the study of a re('ent fauIt-JllOyement of great medical in:-:pector, and in l\[ay, I
H-t. 'HIS acting 
sf'Ï('ntific interest in the middle .\tIantic slope, In m('dieal director of the eavalry eorl's of the 
\rmy 
18
1 he receiwd the appointment of geologist 011 of the Potomac, For gallantry at )Ieadow Brook 
the L.
, geological sun-ey, and in that capac'ity he he receiyetl the brC',et of cuptain, In June,lt;ü4, 
yi:;:Ïted in lR8G the city üf Charleston for the )lur- he was made acting medil'ul in:'-:)lector of the .Army 
pose of studying the earthquake (listurbfinces in of the }>otomll(>. and sern'd as such until Januarv, 
its vicinity, Ill' is a member of many sci('ntific l
fi."), At the clo"e of the war he \\ns breyettpd 
societies in the r nited Stntes, and has published major, Dming- the cholera 
 ear of 18(i(Î he at- 
nearly fifty scientific papers in the proceedings tellded the victim:-: of the epidemic on lIarfs and 
of the societies of "hich he is a member, amI in David's i:;:lands. X ew York harbor, receiving the 
technical journnls, brewt of lieutenant-colonel. He wa
 then ordered 
J[.\('{a:OR{;E. Roh(,I't J aekson, Canadian to the west, alld while he was on the nHlrch from 
clergyman, b, in Gla:,gow, Scotland, in l
l1, IIi:: Fort Harker, Knnsas, to Fort LVOII, the cholera 
fatlìÙ, _\ndrew, was a ;n'll-known solicitor in Glas- broke out, Ince:.-:sant labor then, \,-hich em'lIed for 
gow, Hobert was educated at the l
niYersities of him the hr('\'et of colonel, \\ ith grief at the df'ath 
(Tlasgow and E(linburgh, in 1
::!) was ordained a of his wife, wns the cause of his death,-.Another 
mini:-:ter of the Episcopal church of 
cotlalld, and son, .\]('xan([t'r Ta
rgal't. jurist. b, in .\llegheny 
in 1841 he removed to Canada, \\ here he "as ap- City. Pa., :?O Oct.. 1
-l:
, \\ as graduated at Prince- 
pointed incumbent of Trinity church, Streetsville, ton in 18ü4, studied lnw, was admittc(l to the bar, 
Durinf his connection with this congregation he amI practised in Jersl'Y City, X, J, Ill' \\a:.-: eleeted 
did much missionary work at adjoining stations, to the legislature in 1
74. r('-elected the following 
'Yhile in Canada he èdited the" Church." a weekl v year, and \\ as pro
ecutor of the pl('us of II udsan 
newspaper, and the" .Anglo-American )[agazÌne,;' county in 1
7
-'S:J and then president. of the county 
In It:;;;t:; he returned to Scotland, and was placed in courts till May, 1

7, when he 'HI
 chosen ehan- 
charge of the Episcopal church in Ohan, )1r, cellor of the state of X ew Jersey, 
::\1acg-eorge was for some time synod clerk, and in )[('(;[1,1., .Jamf's. C'anadiaIi philanthropist. h. 
1872 was appointed dean of Arg-yll and the Isles, in Gla
gow, Scotland, G Oct.. 1744: d, in )lontreal, 
In 18t;1 he re
igned his charge. as well as his office Canada, 1!J Dec" 1813, Ill' rel.'eiwd his early edu- 
of dean and ('anon of the cathedral. lie has written cation in his native place, and CHme to Canada ue- 
numerous songs which have been set to mu:.-:ic. fore the American Heyolution, For some time 
and is also the author of a volume of ,. Tales, Ly- after his arrival he engnged in the northwl'
t fur- 
rics, and Sketches ., (Toronto, 1
;;8), trade, but afterward settled in 1\1ontreal. and, in 
)[C(;.ILL. Alf'xander 'l'mnrnrt, clerg\'lnun. h, in partnel":;:hip with his brother, Andre" 
Ic'Gill, be- 
Cannonshurgh, Pa,
 24 Jan.. -1
Oi; d, ilì "PrÌl:ceton, came one of the chief merchants in tl1l1t town, He 
N, J" 13 ,Jan" l

!), Ill' was graduated at Jeffer:.-:on was for many ,ears a member of the Low('r Cana- 
college, was a tutor. and thPlI removed to Georgia, dian parlianieilt for ,rest :\1ontreal, nnd after- 
where he studied law, and was admitÌl'd to the bar ward a member of the legislative and exeeuti,-e 
in Ht10, Ilc was appointed by the legislature to councils, Ill' was lieutenant-colonel amI suhse- 
suney and map the north,,(':.-:t corner of the state. quently colonel of the 1\[ontreal city militia, and 
and after this \\ ork was complpted in 18:31 he re- at the heginning- of the war of 1
12 became briga- 
tl!rned to Cannoni-lmrg-h for the purpose of fitting- dier-geneml, an(l was prepared in that capacity to 
hImself for the mini4ry, 
\fter studying in the take the field, In addition to many other benefits 
Associate Presl)\ tf'rinn seminary, "here he was that he conferred upon )[ontreal:he \\as mainly 
graduated in 183,), he was ordåined at Carlisle, in:,trllmentnl in founding the uniyer:.-:ity that bears 
Pa" and was pastor of three small churche
 in his name, find hequeathed to it property that was 
Cumberland, Perry, ann York counties till IHð
, ,alued at t:
O,OOO and t10,OOO in ea
h, Owing to 
"hen he eonnectèd him<;elf with the oIrl-school the growth of the city, the land has inerea::<ed 
PreshyterhUl church, 
oon afterward he became greatly in value, anù, üi ('on
equenee of thi:, fact 
pastor of the 2(1 Pre:,byterian church of C'al"lisle, and othpr hequf'4s and donation
 that III" e been 
and in 1
-t
 professor of church history in 'Yest- reeeiyed, it is now the Illost richly endo'H'd uni- 
ern theological s(,lIlinary, Alleghany, Pa, In 1
-t
 I versity of the Dominion, 



118 


:\IcG ILL 


:1{('(; 11,1,. .J oh u. C'awulian 
tat('sman, b, in Auch- 
land. Wigtonshire, Scotland. in :\Iarch, 17.32; d, in 
Toronto,:H Dec" 1
:34, After recf'Ì\-ing his pre- 
paratory education, he was apprenticed to a mer- 
chant at Ayr, In 17Î3 he emigrated to Yirginia. 
adhered to the roval cause in the Hevolution, and 
in 1'j'ì7 was a lielÌtenant in the IJoyal Virginians, 
In 1'jt<2 he wa
 a cllptain in the Queen's rangers, 
Hnd in lìt<H, at the elose of the war, went. to St, 
.John, 
ew Brunswick. whf're he remained seven 
Veal'S, In the winter of 1 ÎtI
 )11', )Id.ill removed 
to Fpper Canada, where he became a memuer of 
the executi ve council in 1 j!.Jfi, and in 1 ;97 of the 
legislative council, in which hody he remllined till 
his death, lIe was also inspector-general of ac- 
count
, to which office h(' was appointed in 11:\01. 
-His nephew. Pf'tf'l'. Canadian merchant, b, in 
Cree Bridge, 'Vigtonshire. :::;cotland, in August, 
178!.J; d, in :\lontreal, 28 Sept., l
GO, was name<l 
:\IcCutcheon, uut he afterward changed that sur- 
name to )IcGill at. the request of his uncle, whose 
heir he became, Peter emigrated to Canada in 
lR09, amI. settling in l\Iontreal, uecame a merchant. 
From .J une, ISH. till June, It</jO, he was president 
of the Bank of :\Iontreal. lIe becam(' a leg-islative 
councillor in 18-n, was al
o for a time an exeeuth-e 
councillor, and in 11'147 was :Ippointed speaker of 
the legislatiye council. which office he heM till his 
resignation in the following yeHr, :\ft-. )IeGill WHS 
the fil'st ehairman of the St, IJawrence and Cham- 
plain milroad company, the first that was estab- 
lished in Canada, from its b('ginning in 1
:34 until 
the road was completed in 1
:l8, lIe Was mayor 
of ::\Iontreal from 1
40 till 184
. a governor of the 
1. T nh-ersity of ::\lcGill college, governor of l\Iontreal 
gl'neral hospital, and president of various associ- 
ations, He was noted for his liberality, and prob- 
ablv no other citizen of ::\Iontreal did so much to 
alh:ance its interests, 
J{cUILL. .John, R. C, bishop. b, in Philadel- 
phia, Pa.. 4 Xov" 180!): d. in Hichmond. Ya,. 14 
Jan,. 1
Î2, His parents, who had come from Ire- 
land when the v \VPre children. settled in Philadel- 
phia before thèir marria
e. but removed to Rarcls- 
town, Ky" in HH
, John was graduated at the 
('olle
e of St, Josl'ph in 1
;!
, studied law, and 
practised with sucepss, hut afterward abandoned 
his profe:-:sion and entered the seminary of Bards- 
town as a candillate for the prie
thood, IIl're he 
spent two years. and was then sent to St. Mary's, 
Baltimore, for the completion of his tlwological 
studies, lIe returned to Banl:-:town in 1
8:; nnd 
was ordained priest by Bishop David on 18 June, 
He was placed in charge of the congregation of 
St, Peter's church. Lexington, and toward the end 
of lS;Jfi appointed assistant pastor of the Church 
of 
t, Louis, Louisville, In the summer of H-:31j 
he was de:-:patched to Europe on a special mission 
hy Bish0p Chabrat. On his return to I.ouisville 
in October, in 
ulllition to his ministerial work 
he elUted the "Catholic Ad voeate," in which his 
artieles in defence of the dogmas of his churC'h 
made his name known to all Homan Catholics in 
the enited States, lIe also gave a seri('s of lec- 
tures on the same subjects, which were listened to 
hy members of every denomination, In 184H he 
,,:as appointed Yicar:general by Bishop Spal<1ing, 
ami in Octouer, 1
.30, he was nominated for thp 
see of Hiehmond, and cons('erated bishop on 10 
Xm", TIe devoted himself ze
douslv to thl' admin- 
istration of his diocese, ,},lwre 'were but ten 
churches awl eight prie"ts in it, with two orphan 
asylums, Bishop "'\leGill huilt churches in Xor- 
folk, FOl'tress 310n1'Oe, Richmond, Fre(lerick
hurg, 
'Varrenton, am.1 Fairfax Station, Ill' visited Rome 


l\IcG ILLIYRA Y 


in If:32 in order to take part in the definition of 
the immaculate conception, and in lSûU to join in 
the deliberations of the V utican council. His dio- 
cese sufferell severely during the eiyil war. and 
several of his churehes were destroyed hut he 
gave himself up to the care of the w
un'ded, and 
established an infirmary in Richmond for their 
bl'nefit, After the war he built the convent of 
)lonte )Iaria, and introduced various sisterhoods, 
who estahlishell academies, Ill' also established 
fourteen parochial schools for It Homan Catholic 
population of ahout 17,000, His hmlth failen in 
I
Î1. While uishop of HÍchmond, 1>1', :\1 (.Gill 
published It series of letters on controversinl sub- 
jects addres:--ed to Hobert Hi<kwa\'. hesidf's two 
compendiums of Catholic doC'tl
ine;entitled "The 
True Church" and \0 Faith the Yietorv." He was 
also aul hor of a work criticisinQ' :Maca'ulav's "His- 
tory of England," and translatèd .Audin's'" Life of 
John Calvin" (Louisvillp, lRt7), 
)It'HILIÆ\'U,\ Y. .\If'x;llulf'l', I1Hlian ehil'f. b, 
in the Creek nation in 1;40; d, in Pensneola, Fla" 
17 Peb.. 1793, His father was Lachland :'McGilli- 
vray. of Dunmaglas, Scotland, his mother a half- 
\,reed ('reek princess of the influential "'ind fam- 
iI\', whose father had been a French officer of 

i)anish descent. He had thus in his veins the 
blood of four nations, and in his character were 
some of the traits of them all. He possessed the 
polishea urbanity of the Frenchman, the duplicity 
of the Spaniard, the cool sa
acity of the 
cotch- 
man, and the silent suuUpty, and inveterate hate 
of the Korth American Indian, lIe reeeiwd a 
clas:-;ical education from his father's brothl'l', a 
Scotch-Presuyterian elergyman of l'harle
ton, hut 
on reaching manhood returned to his mother's 
people, among whom he was at once giyen the po- 
sition to which he was entitled uy his talents and 
the influence of his family, He assumed a kind 
of semi-barhal"Ïc pomp, beÌng eonshmtlv attended 
hya numerous retinue, from whom he èxactf'd all 
the deference due to royal tv, He had several 
wi Yes, whom he lodgf'd in' as many different" pal- 
aces." at which he entertained. his guests in rude 
magnificence. His influence was always' great 
among his nation, but it was fit first overshadowed 
by tlwt of the Cherokee king, Oconostota, On the 
dl'posirion of the latter, he heCHme the autOl'rat of 
the Creeks, and their allies the Seminoles and 
Chickamaugas, Thus he could hring into the field 
not less than 10,000 warriors, He sided with the 
Briti
h in the Heyolutionarv war. and in retalia- 
tion Georgia confiscated suèh of his lands as lay 
within her limits, This ex('ited his bitter enmity, 
and led a long \\ar against the western settlel:s. 
The treaty of peace of lÎ
3 was no ,.ooner signed 
than he proposed to Arthur u'Xeil, the Spanish 
governor of Pensacola, the treaeherous policy hy 
which Spain sought for tWe1\'e yenrs to seyer the 
trans-
\lle
hany region from the l'nion, Failing 
to bring the other southern tribes into a coalition 
against John Sevier on Holston awl \V atauga 
riyers, he made constant r:tids upon Gen, James 
Hobertson, along C'umhprl:md riwr, and the latter, 
with unexampled heroism, as constantly heat him 
back, at one time with but seventy men, and with 
ne\'er so many as a thousand, The U, S, govern- 
ment made him repeated uyertures for peace, hut 
he s('riouslv listened to none till he was invited to 
Sew York' in 1790, to hold a personal conference 
with 'Vashington, Seein
 in this an opportunity 
for aisplay, he went, attendl'<l by twenty-eight of 
his principal chiefs and warriors; but he was care- 
ful uefore setting- out to write to the Spanish gov- 
ernor at Xew Orleans that, although l]e should 



:\kGIL VERY 


conclude 11 trpaty of peace with the (T, ::;, govern- 
m('nt, he would ever remain faithful to his old 
frienll,
, the Spaniards, He wa
 received with 
.rreat ceremony lw the r nitI'd States ollicials, 

 ho concludl'lf with him a treatv by which theV' 
restol'l'1l to tll(' Creeks a large tl
rritory, paid l\Iè- 
Gilli na v $100,0110 for his confiscated pruperty, and 
gn,-e hiill the ('onunission of major-g('neral in the 
U, S, army, lie return('d home. awl at once in- 

tignte(l fi fr(':-h mill upon the heroi(' Robertson, 
Hè pur
u('d t his treacherou
 poliey till his death, 
l\lcGillin.),V was a curiou
 cumpoulHl of the wild 

anlge an II' the educnted white nmn, Ill' indulgl'd 
in a plurality of whe
. and had a barbarian's lle- 
light in tin
el splendor; yet he had scholarly 
taste
, and an inteHoct so keen a
 to be a nmtch 
in diplomacy for the ablest stntesman, [Ie was a 
skilful speculator, a shrewll mer('hant, an astut(' 
politician, awl an able writer of state paper
, At 
the 
ame time he WaS a British colonel. and a Span- 
i
h and an American general, an(l he played these 
different nationalities so skilfully ngaillst eaeh 
other as always to secure hi
 own intere
t and that 
of his nation, lIe is ehiefly remembered for his 
savage deli,
ht in blood, his tÌ-cacherous diplomacy, 
and the duplicity by which he hid the most fiendish 
desi
ns under the guise of fraternal kindnc
s, lIe 
was an in
tance of a powerful intl'llect absolutely 
divorcell from moral pl'inciple, Said J{oberbon, 
\\ ho knew him well: .. The Spaniards are devils, 
and the bi
!::'est devil among- them is the half 

paniard, half Frenchman, hålf Scotchman, amI 
altogethpr ('reek scoumlrel, :\IcGillinay," 
)i('GlI
YER\'". FrN'nU11l, soldier. 'b, in Pros- 
pect, 1\11'., 27 Oct" 1
:!3; d, in Yir
inia, 2 Sept" 
18ü-!, He was born in humble circumstancb, he- 
('ame a 
ailor, and hefore he had completed his 
twentr-fir
t veal' was master of a ve
s('l. On 
heariJig of thè be
inning of the civil war, while he 
was in Rio .Janeiro, he returned. after completing 
his business. to his nati,-e state, and raisell a bat- 
tery of artillery, whir'h wa
 fir
t brought into ac- 
tion at Cedar :\lountain.!J A ug" IHG2. "here he 
was in
tnllnental in preserving the left flank of 
the Xational army, He was sub
{'(]uently engaged 
at Sulphur Slwings, the second battle of Bull J{un. 
Chantilly, and 
-\ ntietam, lIe was promoted major 
,5 Feb" 18Ü::
, and assigned to the command of the 
1st brigade of the volunteer artillery reserve of 
the Armv of the Potomac, On 2:3 J une, 1
(j;
, he 
was comñÜs:-;ioned lieutenant-colonel, and at Get- 
tysburg. by the rapid and destructive fire of his 
guns. repelled three infantry charges on Gen, 
Daniel E. Sickles's position, which would other\Vi
e 
ha'"e brokC'n the Xational line, In the third as- 
sault he was driven from his position after the in- 
fantry had retreated: but by sacrificing one bat- 
terv he was able to form a new line that. without 
inf
LIltry supports, filled a gap of 1:;()() Y
l1'II
, 
through which the Confederates would otherwi
e 
have passed, cutting the National army in twain, 
lIe was promoted colonel of the Maine mounted 
artillery on 1 Sept" 1
(j:
, and in .r une, 1
()4. com- 
manlle<<l the reserve artillery before Pete
hurg, In 
August he was appointed chief of artillery of the 
10th army corps, and whilp serving in that capaci- 
ty in the operations at Deep Bottom was shot 
in the finger, The urgency of his duties caused 
him to neglect the wound until an operation b('- 
came neces..;ary. and. while undergoing it, he died 
from the ('ffpct5 of chloroform, 
)leUl

IS. Ht'orge Fmnci
, soldier, b, in 
Boston. )[as5.. Hi )larch, 1
26, He was edut'ated 
in the common schools of Maine and Ohio, served 
luring the :\Iexican war as captain of Ohio volun- 


l\[cGLYX
 


119 


te('r5, amI in thp civil war as lieutenant-colonel and 
colonel of the 11th Indiana infantn', 'HlS elW1We(l 
at Fort I )onelson. and promoted brÌgaùier-g;II;"al 
of volunteers on 2\) X ov" l
Ii
, lIe sl'rved witb 
that rank durin,
 the remainùer of the wal', and 
was mustered out on 24 Aug,. lSü,j, After the 
war he settlefl in Indianapolis, Ind" hecame audi- 
tor of :\Iarion county in 1
G7, and held that 
office till 18;1. 
JIl'tHUl'H, Unuit'l, scout. b, in Ker
haw flis- 
trict, S, C,; Ù, in Sumter district, S. C" about 
1,;,.m, lIe was a hunter and trapper, \\hose famil- 
iarity with the wood..;; of South Carolina and GC'Or- 
gia nuule him a u
eful scout for the Amerieans 
with whom he sided in the early part of the [{c,-o- 
lution, \Vhile at St, IlIa. Gporgia, an AmerÏl'an 
officer, who co"et('d the valuahle mare that he rOlle, 
provoked 
[cGirth to an angry act. for whif'h he 
was sentenced to be flogged, )[aking his escape, 
he joined the Tories, and, to satisfy his vindict- 
i'"e fedings, committ('d marn- harharitil's, \nwn 
the patriot
 n'gained pos:-;essiim of South Carolina 
he rl'treatcil into Geor,
ia, and thell('e into Florida, 
wher(' he was arre
ted hy the Spaniards after the 
war, and confined in th.. ca
t1e of St. Augu
tine, 
He was not libemted until the cxpiration of fin> 
years, The hardships of prison-life soullllermined 
his healt h t hu t he soon (li('Il, 
JlcHLY

. Edwnrd. clergyman. h, in New 
York city, 2; 8('1'1., 1J:;ai, He 'HlS educntefl at 
public schools in Xew York. and in 1";.;1-'60 studied 
theology at the College of the propaganda in Rome, 
where he received 
his doctorate after 
public examina- 
tion, In 1
ljO he 
was oròainell to thf' 
priesthoo(l, and on 
his return to the 
Unit('d Stat
s he 
was made an assist- 
ant pa
tor, and also 
became a hO:-;l'ital 
chaplain, On the 
death of Father 
Cummings, in 18(jfj, 
he was appointed 
to succeed him as 
pa.<;tor of St, Ste- 
phen's church in C d-,'" /tú. ,.tfþ_ 
XewYorkcitv,and ,,
 -?
. 
there. bv his elo- 
quence, "heartiness, and quick sympathy with his 
people, won their warmest affection, Dr, :\fcGlynn's 
unwillingness to establi
h a parochial school in 
connection with his ehurch, amI his claim that the 
public schools were safe for the children of Homan 
Catholics, brought him into di!3favor with the 
authorities of the church, He suppnrted Henry 
George (q, t'.) during the mayoralty canvas
 of lR8(j, 
and his remarks in favor of :\11', George's land theo- 
ries on public platforms resulted in his being cen- 
sured by the archbishop of the dioce
e, He per- 
sisted, and the matter wus referred to Rome for 
action, The archbi
hop meanwhile remòved him 
from the charge of 
t, 
tephen's, and he was sum- 
moned to appear at the Vatican: hut ignoring the 
papal demands. he was excommunicated, :\Ianyof 
his parishioners shared his views, and in conse- 
quence the sentiment in his favor was very strong. 
During the spring of lSRi Dr, l\[eGlynn helped to 
found, amI became pre
ident of. the 
\nti-poYerty 

ociety. amI was conspicuou
 by his Sunday e,"en- 
ing lectures before that body in the 
\cademy of 
music in Xew York city, In behalf of the eco- 



 



 
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120 


.i\kGIL\ W 


l\IcG rFFEY 


nomic opinions that he holds, he has lectured in 1 18:J7, lle Was the eldest son of David :\IacGregor
 
many cities of the Cnited Statcs, and has puu- of Drynie, Ho
s-shire, When (iuite young, John 
lished articles in support of the principles that was sent to ('anada and placed in a commercial 
he eloqlll'ntly achocates, house on Prince Edward islaJll1. He soon uecame 
JldHLl W. John. merchant. ù. in Dryden. X. y,. (ll"ominent in the colon
. and finally ohtained a 
2
 )[ay, 1tH,); d, in Ithaca, X, y" 4 ,!\lay, l/j", spat in the coloniallt:'g-islature. After a lengthened 
Ile ul'gan in hum hie cirl'lImstances, but was Yery colonial eÀperience he returned to the mother- 
successful in business. being extensively engage(l country, and \HIS employed on various l'omlIlercial 
in the lumber trade in \Yisconsin, Iowa, and )Iichi- missions, He was made secretary of the board of 
g-an, and the head of a finn that possessed large tnule in 11::\-10. and held the ()f1ice untillt;-1,. when 
mills at Saginaw, Ill' nutde Ithaca his residence he was elected by the citizens of lflasg-ow as one 
in 1H(i1. lut,-ing lived for tht, previous eleven years of their representatiws in parliament, lIe took an 
in Xew York city, lie was one of the original active part in the free-trade controwrsy. and \\ith 
trustees of Cornell university. and erl'cted at hb Joscph HUlIle and others was instrumental in in- 
own expense, at a cost of :<1:;0.000, the Mc(
mw IhlCing the house of commons to appoint a select 
uuil(ling, for the accommodation of the library committee on the import dutil's, His puhlished 
and museum of the univer
ity,-Ili..; only dau
h- works are numerous, Among- them are "lIbtori- 
tel', J t'nn it.. married Prof. Daniel Willard Fiske cal and Descril'ti '-e ::-ìketches of the )[aritime ('010- 
(q, t',), awl at her death uequeathed to Cornell nics of British Xorth Ameriea '. (1
2
): "Emigra- 
Uniw'rsitv a lihrarv fund of ncarlv 
1.000,OOO, tion to British .America" (1
2U): ")Iv Kote-Book" 
JIt,(:niu Uf. .Jillllt'S, clerg
IH
IIl, u. in we
tern (lH:1:;);" Commercial and Financial Legislation of 
Penn,.;yh-ania about 1.38; d, in IIpIlllerson, Ky" Europe and 4\merica " (1
-11): "American Discov- 
in }1'e!.mary, It;17, \Vhile he 'Ht
 a child his ery from the Times of Columbu!''' (1t;4ü); .. Ger- 
family rcmoved to Guilford county. X, C, He was lUany aIllI her Resource:)" (1/j-1H): and an uncom- 
educatpd at the school of Rev, Dr, John )[e)lillan. pleted "lIi
tory of the British Empire from the 
Cannon,,:lHll"gh, Pa" and licensed to (ll"eaeh on 1
 Acces"ion of .Tames 1." (lH.j
), 
Aug"l.t;H, After spending some time with Hev, JIt'(;UOARTf, stt'pht'li .JuSt' I .h. soldier, b, ir 
Dr, ,Tohn ß. :::;mith at lIamp,len Sitlney college, :\lount Charles county, Donegal, reland, in It;30; 
V (l" he preaclll'd in Orange county, X, C.. and was d, in Colleg-e II ill. Ohio, 2 Jan" l/j,O, He was 
settled as a pastor, wherp his eloqucnce influenced urought to the united Statps when three year!' of 
many young men to follow the Christian ministry, age, His parcnts settled in ('incinnati, Ohio, where 
In 1.DG he removed to Kentucky, and was settled he was educated in St, Francis Xa,-ier college, 
over the Ua!'par river, He!1 river, an(1 :.\111ddy ri,'er After graduation he eng<lged in the lh'
--g-oods busi- 
churches. in Logan county, lIe was the originat()r ne
s in partnership with an unde, but left it at 
and dit'ector of the great revh-al of 1800, in thc the end of five years to study law, Ill' was ad- 
Cumberland country, which forms a spil'itual mitted to the Lar and began practice in Toledo, 
epoch in the history of the states west of the Lut 1;ub
cquently returned to C'inl'innati, where he- 
4\lleghany mountains, In July, 1
OO. he Ol'gan' aehiewd a reputation as a eriminallawyer, When 
ized an enl'ampment, and thus originated the re- the cÌ\'il w<lr bpgan he raised a company of Irish- 
ligious eamp-mt'eting, The employment as preuch- AmericHn:; for three months, \\ith whieh he re-en- 
('rs UIllI enwgelists of young men not regularly listed for three ycar:-:. At Cal'llifcx Ferry he re- 
educated for the ministry e
cited opposition in ('ei\'ed a gun
hot wound through the right lung, 
the church, and led to the org'ltllÌzation in 1t;1O of .AI' soon as he hall recO\-ered he returned to the- 
the ('umlJerland Presbyterian
, Two year:; after- fiehl II
 colonel of the 50th Ohio infantry, which 
ward he withdrew from the new Lody amI re- was afterward merged in the filst. and he com- 
turned to his fOl'mel" IJl"e
bytery, lIe wrote many manded the latter till the end of the 'Htr, .\1 
forciLlc sermons, which were collected and puL- Peach Tree Creek his left arm was 
hattered at the- 
lished by the He,", James ;-;mith (vol. i.. Louisyille, elbow in the beg-inning of the engagl'mcnt. 
-et he 
l$H; vol. ii., Xa
h\'illl', l/jaa), remained with his mcn through the fight, Ill' was 
MucUUEGUOR, James, clergyman. b, in Im- accustomed to expose his life \\ith the utmost 
land in 1{j,7; d, in LondoIlllplTY, X, 11., 3 )lal"ch. hardihood. and during the war reccÌ\-ed twenty- 
1,:?U, lIe received a thorough dassical und theo- three woulld
, lIe was ureyetted hrigadier-general 
logipul education, and had eharge of a Pre:-by- of volunteers on 1 )[ay. l
ü.j, He wa
 for two 
'ears 
terian chur('h in the north of It-elmllL The op- colll'l'Ìor of internal l'en'nue, and just hl'fore his- 
pre:-:sions to which Presbyterians wem at that death. whieh resulted from injuril':-; recei,-ed in Lat- 
time suLjeeted induced him to emigrate with tIe. was el('('te!l elerk of the Hamilton county courts, 
auout 100 families, They landed at Boston on 14 J[t.(a' FrEY, William lfollllt'S, educator, b. in 
U(.t" 1718, and estahlished near lIaverhill the town \\
a,;hing-ton county, Pa" 2:3 Sept" 1800: d, M the 
of Lomlolllierry, where they organized the first 1!niyersity of Yirginia. Charlottes,-ille. Ya., 4 ':\[ay, 
l'resuyterian church in Kew England, of which he 11'\j
, He was graduated at \Yashington college
 
assumed t he pastoral charge without the ceremony Pa" in 1H
(j. und imlIle(liately appointed profes
or 
of installation,-Uis son. Ihnid. b. in Il"elanò, ü of ancient lan
uages in Miami uni,-ersity, Ill" 
Nov" 1,10; d, in LondowIl'rr)', 
, II" 
O l\[ay, \\as lil'ensed as It Prpshyterian minister in 1829, 
I.,;, studied theology ,\ ith his fnthcr's sUece
sor, and preached frc(luently during the renwimll'r of 
and was' ordained pastor of It ncw parish in the hii; life, In 18:12 he was transferred to the chair 
westl'l"n part of Londollderry in 1 ;
;, Ill' took of moral Vhilo
ophy, He hel'ume pre
ident, ?f 
all active part in the great awakening that bega
l CincilllHiti collcgc in 18;
(j. and in 18:39 of OIno 
in 1,41. In 1j,j., he decline!l a call to the Presby- uni "er:-:ity, J n 18-13-"5 he was a pr()fcssor in \Y ood- 
terian church in Xew York city, I1is discourse!'. wllrd college. Cincinnati, From 184:1 till his death 
include .. Professors wlIl"lled of their Dangel"" he occupied the chail" of moral philo
ophy and 
(Bo
ton, 11-11); .. The Sl'irit
 of the Day Tried" l'oliti('al Cf'oJ}omy in the 'LnÏ\'ersity of Yirginia, 
(1 ,-!
): and" The Belie,'ers all S('cured" (1 ,47), "
hilp in ('inf'innati he he,!,:'aIl the preparation of 
lUal'(t R E(
On, J 011 n, British political econo- au" Eclectic" series of rpaders and spellers, which 
mist, U, in I>rynit', near 
tornoway. no
:-:-shire, 8cot- uecame popular. and have been many times re- 
land, in 179,; d, in ßoulogne, France, 23 _\pril, vised aud reissued. 



)[c(
rIltE. Hunter Hohn('
. phy
idan, b, in 1\(dlF.
RY, Jam('s, statesman, b, in lrelanll, Hi 
Winehe
ter. \'11.. 11 Uet" 1t;;3.3, lie is the Hon of Xov" l..j:
: d, in Baltimore, )[d" 
 )Iav, 1t\lü, 
a ph
 
ieian. amI \\as educated at \\ïnchf'
ter lIe recein,a a clas
ical etlucation in DubliI'i, subse- 
aeadelll\. and :-:tudied medieille at the }'ledical elll- (luently, on aecuunt of delieatc health, made a voy- 
Ie..e uf '.irg-inia, the metlical 
choob in Phihulel- af..{e to thi::; country, and came to Phihllieiphia 
pl
ia and X ew Urlean:-:, and Winchester metlical ahuut 1,,1. He induced his father to emigrate, 
college, from which he received his diploma in and after folluwing 
l
.'),'), IIe practi:-:ed first in Winchester. holding his studies in New- 
the chair of anatolllY in the )Iedieal college from ark. Ve!., he studied 
1
;:;ö till l
;jt;, wheli he removed to Philatlelphia, medkine under Dr. 
In the beginning of the eÏ\'il war he enli
ted in the Benjamin Ru
h in 
('onfl'derate army, was soon promoted to the posf Philatle1phia, and 
rf medical dire('tor of the .ArlIlv of the 
henandoah :-:ub::oequentlv aeeom- 
Yallev, and Was uiter\\ard medical directOl' of the panied \Vll
hington 
211 al:my corps, In It;ti,') he was elected profe
sor to the camp at ('am- 
of surgery in Virginia medical college. Hichmond, hridf..{e, lIe joined 
which chair he held till 1/:;80, In It;/:;.j he was the armv a:-: assi
tunt 
made prufessor emeritus in that institution, Dr, surgeon' in Jttnuary, 
)lcLTuire organized, in connection with hi
 large 1 "G, in a short time 
gf>neral surgical praetipe, St, Luke's home for the he was appoint<.d 
sick in Hiehmond, with a training-school for medical director, and 
nur
es, III' was president of the .A
':Ìociation of suusequently surgeon 
Conft.derate medical oflicers in 18G9, and of the to the .')th Pl'un
\'l- 
Virginia mellical society in 187
, vice-president of vania battalion, ill' 
the Internatioual JIledical congress in 1/:;,G. aIllI of wa
 made pl'i
OIH'r at 
the Ameriean medical a
'Sociation in 18
1. and Fort " a:;hington, 
pre
ident of the American surg-ical associatiuu in and was not e:\.ehangcd until the spring of 1'ì.8, 
1
t!j', The 'Lniver
ity of Xorth Carolina in 1t\t;, On 1,j May of that yC'ar he beefillle secrC'tliry to 
gave him the degree of LL, D. lIe has published 'Ya
hillgton, and his relations with thl' latter 
in medical journals various paper:;, an aceount of ('ontinued through life to be tho
e of It trusted 
the circuJIlstances of the wounding and death of friend al\(i a(hi
'l'r, Dr, :\leHenrv held this office 
Gen, Stonewall .Jackson, whom he attended, lIe unlill,80, and then was transfer'red to the staff of 
has contributed to John Ashhur
t"s "lnternatioual Lafavette, where he remained till the close of the 
CycIopa.dia of SurgC'ry" (11:;t!4); William Pepppr's war,' He was in the 
Iarvland senllte iu l,Rl-'ß, 
"Sy
tem of 
letlicine" (Philadelphia, 1t\8.')-'7); in 1,sa was appoÏIÜed to congress iu pla('e of l<
d- 
aIllI the .Ameriean edition of Holmes':,. .. Surgery." ward Giles, and held office until 1'ì
(j. douhle duty 
1\1.-\(,H F. (UE (" F. .J OSt'1th. R (', bishop, b, in in the state awl continental legislaturC's being cus- 
Riom, France, 11 .Au
., 11:;12; ù. in DellH'r. Col., 10 tnmary at that time, He became a member of the 
Julv, H38!1, He reeei'-ed hi
 em'lv education in the r, S, coustitutional convention the ne'\.Ì vear, was 
schòols and in the ('ollege of Hioñl. stuùie(l philoso- tll(' first of the tlelegates from ::\IarylaIlli to take 
phy and theology in the Sulpician 
eminary oC\lont- his seat, and was a regular attendant, although he 
ferran, awl wa
 ordained in 11":W, lie then !'pent took little part in debate, lie aftl'rward labored 
three Years in mi
sional'\' labor in France. and in to secure the ratification of the cow4itution, and 
lSö!). Ù the request of .Al:ehuishop Purcell, came to was succC's
fu1. not" ithstanding the powerful 01'- 
the 'Lnited StatC'
, where he lahored ten ymrs in tIll' position of Luther )lmtin and Samuel Chase, lIe 
dioce
e of Cineinnati, and then in X l'W :\1 exico UI1- \\ as repeatC'dly re-eleeted to the Maryland legisla- 
til 18ÜO, part of the time 
el"\'ing m: \-icar-geueral. ture until he became a IIlI'mber of 'Yashiugtou's 
lIe was uext seut to Colorado, where he was throwu cabinet as se
rC'tar'y of war in Jauuary, 1'ì!l(i, in 
from his carriage \\hile dl:'
cendiug a spur of the place of Timothy l)ickering, who was promoted to 
Hocky moul1tain
, awl lamed for life, He was secretary of 
tate, holding otlke throughout his 
appointed yiear-general of the territory, built the admini
tration and under Pre
ident AdllIlIS until 
fir
t church in Denwr, and gradually formed 1'ar- 1H01. .After that service he retired from pulJlic 
i
he
, erecting' other chul"('hes and outuining priests life, Fort :\Iellenn- \\as named in his honor, 
for them. In 1
(j8 he had built eighteen churches l\1('H}:
Rr, Jaine:;;, phy
ieian, b, in Larne, 
in the territo}"\', bl'
itl(.s founding It eOI1\-ent of the County Antrim, Ireland, 20 Dec" 1'ì
,'); d, there, 
f'isters of Lorètto, and an aeadèmv and a 
chool 21 ,) ulv. 1t;-!,), He wa
 the son of a cloth-mer- 
for ho
's in Denver, Ill' was consecrated hishop chant, \, ho died when the son was but a lad, Ill' 
of Epiphania in pariibll.<o: ilt.fidelium, und vicar- was graduated in medil.'inl' at the eolkge in Dub- 
upostolic of Colorado on Hi 
-\ ug" 1t'(j
. 11 i
 vicari- lin, and also received a diploma from thf' col1C'ge 
lite embraced ('olorado and l
tah, The Roman at Glasgow, lIe beg-an pral.'tice at Larne, then rc- 
Catholic population, whi('h originally con
i
teù of moved to Belfast, where }If> abo earried on a drug 
a few thou:-õand half-ci\'ilized )Ie
iean
 and miners, busines
 until he came to the rnited 
tates in 1817, 
at the date of hi
 dt'llth eXl'eCl!l'd ,')(1.000. .After living in BaltimorC', .!\Id" and Pittshllrg,1>a" 
1\L-\fH E
, Willi
 ßt'IlSI))l, senator. b, in C'lIltl- he eame in 1
24 to Philadelphia, where he prae- 
well county. Ky,. ,') April, uno, lIe received a ti
('d medicine and carried on a mercantilp uusi- 
common-school educctfion, became a farmer, allli in ne
s, From 184
 till his death he was r, s, con- 
lH4!> was 
ent to the State con
titutional COI1\Ten- suI at Londonderry, He '\\as of a romantil' dis- 
tion, In 1
,,):J he \Va..; a melllbl'r of the state senate po
ition. mrly de\=eloped considl'mhlf' poetic gc- 
and in 1
,')(j and lSliO of tl1(' state house of reprf'
 nius, and became noted for hi
 ruml stanzas in 
sentatiws, He wa,.. sent to the 1st Confedf'ratp Ireland, und, on coming to this country, took 
congre

 from Kentueky, being re-elected to the deeper intf're::ot in literary works than in the busi- 
2tl l'OI1
re

, aud SC'f\lIlg from 22 l<'t.b., lSß2, till ne
s of his profession, His house in PhiladelphIa 
.Apri
, 1
(j4, On the tleath of Garrett Davis he was I was mm'h frequented by litpmry men, His ear- 
appomted l.nited 
tates Sf'nator from Kentll('ky, l liest publication in the rnÏtpd States was" The 
and 
en'ed from 2 Dee" 1
î:!, till a )larch, 1/:;,;3, Pleasures of Friendship" (1t;

), which poem, with 


)[cGL'IRE 


1\1 cHEXH Y 


121 


t' 


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122 


l\lACHIX 


l\IcILYAI
E 


others, was reprinted (Philadelphia, 1R3lì), In 1824 :\Iontgompry in Octoher, 1"" "here he held a 
he edited at Philadelphia the" ..American .:\Ionthly C'ommission as bt lieutenant, and wa:,; attached to 
:\Iftgazine," for which he wrote "(I'Halloran, or Co1. John Lamh's artiller'y rEgiment; he sen ell as 
the Insurgcnt, a l{omance of the Irish Rebel- an engineer in the expedition of CoI. tTooo;en Yan 
lion," afterward reprinted at Glasgow, He was :O-;chaiek, which destroyed the settlements of the 
also the author of .. The Wilderness, or Brad- Onondaga Indians in the spring of 1'ì,U, and later 
dock's Times, a Tale of the \V est" (2 vols" K ew in the year accompanied Gen, ,J ames Clinton's expe- 
y ork, 1
23); ,,
\. Spectre of the Forest, or Annals dition into the (Tenesee country, lIe was promoted 
of the I1ousatonic" (2 vols.. 182;
): "The Hearts of ('ap
ain of artillery on 21 
\ug., 1780, cmployed on 
Steel, an Irish IIistorieal T
le of the I
a:-:t Cen- the siege-works at Yorktown, and in l,H;3 sett1ed 
tury" (2 vols" Philadelphia, 1
2.j) ; " The Betrothed in rbter county, 
,y, SubsequentI
 he estab- 
of \V yoming" (2ù ed" 18
0); and ":\Ieredith, or lished a mill west of X ewhurg, X, y" and coincd 
the .Mystery of the .l\Ieschianza, a Tale of the copper pieces for some of the states prior to the 
Reyolùtion;' (IH:Jl), 
\mong his poetical works are institution of a national coinage, lIe obtained 
.. \Valtham, an American Re\-olutionarv Tale, in patents for a large tract. of land in the northern 
Three Cantos " (Xew York, 1823); "Thè rsurper, part of Oneida county, X, y" and in 1,9, removed 
an Historical Tragedy, in Five Acts," which was to .:\Iohawk, X, Y.. "here he was eJlg-nged for some 
plap'd with great success at the old Chestnut street time in !'urveying',-llis son, Thoma,.;. soldier, b, 
theatre (Philadelphia, 1820); 3ml .. The Antedi- in Xew Grange, l
lster co.. K. y" in 1790; d. in 
luvians, or the 'V orld Destroyed, a Narrative 
\lhany, N, y" in .:\Tay, 18,3, sen'ed as a captain 
Poem in Ten Books" (1840), Dr, :\lcIIenry took during the war of H:H2-'1;;, awl became a brigadier- 
an active interest in politics, was the personal general in the Sew York militia, 
friend anù ardent admirer of Andrew Jackson, and 1L\CHIL\ y, Uob('rt, Canadian Anglican hishop. 
as a tribute to him published" Jackson's 'Vreath:' b, in .Aberdeen, 
cotIand, in 1
ð2, TIe is the son of 
a. poem (1
29),-Ilis son, Janws. merchant, b, in an ad\'ocate, and was educated at King's college in 
fJarne, Ireland, 3 :\Iay, UB" came to this country his native city anù at Cambridge. where he was 
in infancy. was educate(l in Philadelphia, where graduated in it\:ï1. He was ordaiÌled priest in 18:)6, 
he engaged in mercantile pursuits, and afterward became vieur of 1\ledinglev the same year, and in 
went to England, where he engaged extensiyely in 1838 \HLS appointed dean 'of ::;ydney colle:!e, Cam- 
husiness at Liverpool. lIe is said to ha\-e been the bridg-e, In 18üU-'1 he was uniwrsitv e
aminer, 
first to import into England .American butter and 'in 18fi., Ramsùen university preaelier, In l
fi.) 
and cheese, :\11', Mcllenrv has been interested in he WI1S conseprated bishop of Hupert's I
aI1(l, at 
Ameriean railwayenterpI:ises, Since 18ü1 he has Lambeth, by the archbishop of Canterbury, and 
resided in Kensington, London, in one of the most the bishops of London, Ely, and 
\hel'lleen, The 
famous prinLte houses in England-Oats Lodge- diocese at the time of Bishop 
Iachray's appoint- 
formerly called Little Holland House, where, for ment ineluded the prescnt pro\'ince of 
Ianitoha 
nearly a quarter of a century, the most noted of ana the northwest territories, In visiting the mis- 
Americans visiting London ha\'e enjuyed .:\{r, 1\lc- sion stations that were scattered over this exten- 
Henry's hospitalities, Dllrin
 the civil war his sive tract of country, he encountered many pri\'a- 
sympathies were with the 
ational government, tions anù dangers, and trawlled thousHwl:-: of miles 
ana he contributed 
:)UO to the equipment of the by canoe ami dog-sleigh, In 1874 his diocese was 
Corn Exchange regiment of Philadelphia, and subdivided, and the see of Rupert's Land now com- 
presented to that city a 'Vhitworth-gun battery, prises the province of )lanituha, part of the district 
-The first James's Ilaughter, }l
trJ, h, in Phila- of l'umherlawl, and the districts of S\\an HÏ\'er, 
delphia, marrie(l J, ßellargee Cox, and is widely Xorwllyhonse, and Lac I
a Plnie, In the same 
known for her philanthropic work in that city, year U.ishop :Maehmy was uppointed metropolitan 
She aideù in founding the Church home in 18:jü: of the whole northwest countl'\, In 181::H he Ile- 
the SolJiers' reading-room in 18ü2, which she aided came chancellor of the Cl1iversih of 1\Ianitoha. and 
in maintaining until the close of the civil war; the is now (1
88) professor of eccIesiastieal history in 
Lincoln instit.ution in 1Hf),j; and the ElIncntional the theological college there, 
home in 1
71, with all of which, e
cept the second .Jld LH E

Er. t'hnrles Mor!:an, artist, b, in 
namcd, she is still (1887) connected, anJ has been Philmlf'lphia, Fa"4 April, 18;j
, He studied paint- 
active in fostering, Since U)j;3 she has been presi- ing under Frank Briscoe, and anatomy in the 
Jent of the hoard of huly visitors of the Soldiers' Philadelphia academy of fine arts in 1877, IIp 
home, Phihuh'lphia, She was appointed in 1t-3,6 first nhihited in New York in H3f<2, and has since 
by the Centennial commission one of the thirteen continued to show pictures in the Xational acade- 
\\omen to reprl"'f'nt the thirteen original states, my and at the 
ew York water-color soeieh', of 
For sume years 1\Irs, Cox has been active in the \\Ì1il'h he is a memher, In 1878-'81 he was 'On a 
moyement for Hie education of Indian children, sketching--touJ' in the south Paf'ific, His studio is 
'IAl'HIN. 'l'homns, soldier, b, in Staffordshire, now (H3
8) in XewYork city, Among his pietures 
England, :!U March, 1,44; d, in Charleston, l\Iont- are" Good Bye " (18
a); .. A Gray 
ummer:N oon " 
gomery eo,,
, Y,,:3 April UUO, He wa:=; educnted (1884): \0 The Shadow of Twilight falls Silent and 
as an engineer, and employed in the construction Gray" (1
H.,); "The Old, Old Story" (188G); and 
of the Duke of Bridgewater's canal between 1\I1ln- .. The Passing Storm" (1 H 87), 
('hester and Worsley, In 1,,2 he was sent to 
ew .JlcIIJL\l
E. Joseph, senator, h, in Bristol, 
Jersey to examine a copper-mine, and remniued in Bucks co., I)a.. in l';li
: d, in Burlington,
, J., 19 
this country, settling in Boston, l\lass, He em- Aug" 1820, lIe received an academic education, 
braced \\ ith ardor the cause of independenee, was was udmitted to the nur
ington, K, J" bar in 1';91, 
one of the party that threw the tea, overhoa.rd in was clerk of the Burlington county court in 1
00- 
Boston harhol', and fough t as an officer of artlllery '2a, and U, S, attorney for the district of Sew 
at Bunker Hill, where Iw was wounded, He was Jersey in 1801-'20, He was elected to the U, S, 
commissioned as a lieutenant in the Kew York ar- Sf'nate from Xe\\' Jersey in 1823, in place of Samuel 
tillervon 18 Jan, 17';ü, awl dUl'ing that ypar was I J
, Southard, who had resigned, and served from 
empl
yed in placing cllè1ins a('ross the Hudson Decemher of that year till the time of his death in 
river at the Highlands, He was wounded at FOlt 182ü,-His son, (,hul'lt.s })('ttit, p, E, bishop, b, 



l\lcIL y AI
 E 


in Burling-ton, X, .r.. 1
 Jail.. 17!)!); Ù, in Florence, 
Huh", 13 
)[arl'h, 18ì:1, was grmluatl'11 at PrilH'e- 
ton' in l
lfj, !'tudied for tl
l' mini!'try, awl was 
maùe deacolI, 2
 .Tune, l

O, and prie
t. 20 )[areh, 
1

1. Hi:,: first charge was Christ church, George- 
town. 1>, C.. where he lahored zealously for fiw 
years, In U
2,3 he was appointed professoÌ' of ethies, 
awl chaplain in the 
U, S, military acade- 
my, Ill' acceptprl a 
call to :-;1. 
\nn's 
church, Brooklyn, X. 
Y.. in l

ì, anù in 
1
:H was cho:,;en to be 
profe!'sor of the e\'i- 
ùence-s of revealed re- 
ligion and sacred an- 
tiq uities in the e ni- 
\"ersitv of the city of 
X P\V 'Y ork, I>ui'ing 
his connection with 
the nniversity he de- 
liwred a ntluahle 
course of lectures, 
which were subse- 
quently puhlished, He was next elected bishop of 
Ohiu, and \HiS consecratell in 
t, Paul's chapel, 
XC\V Y urk city, 31 01'1., IH:32, On removing to his 
diocese he became president of Kenyon collpg(', 
and also of the theologieal seminary, at nambier, 
lIe- rpceiwd the degree of D, D, from Princeton 
and from Bf(1\\ n in 18:12, that of D, (', h from 
thforù in It;.33. and LL, D, from Cambritlge in 
U@3, :m
hol' 
Iell mine "as a member of the- 
sanitary commission during the ciyil war, and did 
good se-nice to his ntltive land, when on a visit 
to Europe. in setting forth right views on the 
questions at issne in the Cnited States, He wa;; 
present. at the Pan-Anglican council in I
ondon 
in lRfiì, 
\s age drew on, he yielde-d to the Jll'ces- 
sity of ha\ ing an assistant, anù Dr, Gregory T, 
Be-ùell was elected to that offiee in 18.39, Infirm 
health led to his making another vi...it to Europc in 
1
ì2-':3, but he died before he couM reach home, 
Bishop )[c11 mine was an able and voluminous 
writer, His chief publieations wpre .. Lectures on 
the Evidences of Christianity" ('K p\V York, lk:12), 
which have passed through thirty editions: "Ox- 
ford Divinity compared with that of the Roman 
and .Anglican Churches, with a Special View of the 
Doctrine of .Tustification by Faith " (Philadelphia, 
1R.H): .. The Holy Catholi<' Church" (18+4): .. Xu 
Prie
t, no Altar, no Sacrifiee, but Christ." and 
.. Reasons for Refusing to Consecrate a Church 
haying an Altar" (184fJ); ,,\r atf'dif'tory Offering, 
Five Sermons " (London, 18.33): "The Truth and 
the Life, Twenty-two I>iscoursps," puhlished at the 
request of the convention of Ohio (
ew Y ork, 1
,),")). 
together with numerous occasional Sl'rmons, aù- 
dres:,;es, pastoral letters, etc, He also edited" Select 
Family and Parish Sermons;' frum English sources 
(2 vols.. Philadelphia, l
:m), 
)ldLYAIXF.. ,Joshun Hnll. clergyman, b, in 
Lewi!', Del., 4 :\Iarch. 181,), He was gradwÜea at 
Prineeìon in 18:1ì, awl at the theological seminary 
there in 18-10, was pastor successively of Presby- 
terian churches at Little Falls. 'Ctica, aIlll Hoches- 
ter, X, Y.. professor of belles-lettres nt Princpton 
in 18üO-'ìO. and pastor of the High street chureh 
in Xewark, 
, .J., in IHìO-'4, lIe intl'Oduceù the 
name .. \Ve-:tminster" for chun'hes in foumling the 
church of that title in rtica, In 18,")!) he delivered 
a course l)f six lectures before the Smithsonian in- 
stitution on comparati\'e philology in rplation to 
ethnology, including an analysis of the structure of 


,---- 


" 


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,
 


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II 


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C?Aiý

 


l\IcIXTOSII 


123 


the Sanskrit language, and the prOf'ess of decipher- 
ing cuneiform inscriptions, In 1
li!l he d..li\'el"(.d 
It ..imilar course on !'oeial sc'ience ill PhiJade-ll'hia 
under the auspices of the L"niversitv of Pennsvl- 
\ allia, Hl' has been a memher for lilallv years' of 
the American oril'lltal sOf'ietv. and in 18;;4 i'eceived 
the degree of D, 1), from the.(rniversitv of Hoches- 
tl'r, X, y, In 1

ì he founded at Prilieeton, N, ,J., 
Ewlyn college for girls, His l'uhlieations include 
.. The Tree of the Knowledge of Goml and Evil .. 
(Xew York, l
.")-t); ,. Elocution, the- SonrC'es and 
Elements of its Power" (l
7'0): "Th(' \Yisdom of 
lIoly SeriptUl'l', with J{pference to Seeptical Ohjec- 
tions " (1

3): "The \Visdom of the Apocah"pse" 
(l
Hlj). and religious and scientific artiele!', . 
Jh.rI.W.-\ rXF.. Ril'llu1'(I, clergyman, h, in Pe- 
tersburg, Va.. 20 )[ay, 18;H, lIe was grnduateù nt 
IInmpden Sidney in 1R,,)3, studied at the 'Cniyersity 
of Yirginia, and receiver! his theologif'ul education 
at the Virginia union theological 
eminarv anel fit 
the ('ollegl' of the Free chureh of Seotlånd, Ill' 
was license-a to preaeh in 1857, was pa
tor of the 
Preshyterian church at Amelia Court-Ilou!'e, Ya" 
in 18.3ì-'liO. of churf'llPs in Farlllville and Lynl'h- 
hurg, Ya.. in 1Rli2-'ì2. and at the Intter date- he- 
came co-ordinate secretary and treasurer of home 
ana foreign missions in tile southern' Preshyterian 
chureh, He was 
eeretarv of home missIons in 
It(

-'a, and since J une, 18
a, has been president 
of Hampden ::;idney college. \r a , He \\as a dele- 
gatI' to the Pan-Preshyterian council that \\as held 
in Belfa:4. lrelancl, in 18t;4, 
l\lal'l

ES, Uonuld. Canadian senator, b. in 
Ohan, 
\rgyJeshire, Scotland, 2li )Iay, 1824, He 
came- to Canada in It(-10, engageù in business in 
Dunùas. and suhsequently removed to Hamilton. 
and has ùeen for years one of the forcmost mer- 
ehants and manufacturers of Canada, He was 
ehairman of the royal commission that was ap- 
pointed 16 J une-, 1
I';O, to inquire into the organi- 
zation of the f'Ìvil sl'rvice of Canaùa, and became 
a memher of the Dominion senate, 24 Dee.. 1881. 
:\11', )IacInnes is presidl'nt of the Bank of Hamil- 
ton, of the Canatla cotton company of Cornwall, 
and of the 
outh Saskatchewan valley raih\ av 
company, He is a Liheral Consenative: . 
Jll'I

ES, Thomas Robert, Canaùian senator, 
b. at Lake 
\inslie, XoYa Sl'otia, ;) 'Kov.. 1840, lIe 
was educ'ated at the normal school of Truro. and 
at Hanard. became a physician, and practiseù for 
.-;Oll1e time at Dresden, Ont, In 18ì4 he removed 
to British Columbia, and \\a!' mayor of tllP eïty 
of Xew Westminster in IH7'6-'H, In )[av, 18ì4. he 
was appointed physician anù surgeon to' the Hoyal 
Columbia hospital, and in JuJy, lR7S, medical 
superintenùent of the British Columhia lunatic 
asvlum, Dr, )IcTnnes wa!' elected to the Dominion 
pàrliament for Sew Westminster, anel was its rep- 
resentative from 26 :\Iarch, 18ì8, until he was ap- 
pointed to the !'enate, 24 Dee" U;t;1. He is inùe- 
pendpnt in politics, 
Jrd
TOSH, Jame!oÒ l((,]Ül,', naval officer, b, 
in 
lelntosh county, Ga" in 1792; d, in \Ynrring- 
ton, Fla., 1 
ept" 18(jO, entered the ['", S, navy in 
1Hl1. beeame lieutenant in 1818, commander in 
1
:

, captain in 11"4!I, and flag-ofllcer in 11"3ì, Ill' 
;;;erwd with credit in the war of 1812. anù partici- 
pated in the fight hetween the r, S, ùrig" Enter- 
prise" and the British ,. Boxer" off the coast of 
:\litille in Deeemher, UH3, In 18
0 he was at- 
tacheel to an e:\.pe(Ìition for the e"termination of 
the \Yest Indian coast pirntes, was captured by 
Lafitte, their chief. and. although threatpned with 
burning at the stake if he refused to be the heare-r 
of an illsolent message to his cummander, defied 



124 


l\ldXTOSII 


l\IcI
TOSn 


the as
embly of more than forty pirates, and so cial authority while gowrnor to persecute l\[cIn- 
e"cited their admiration by his COllmg'e that they tush and t'e\ eralmemLer" of hb familv, :\Idntosh 
r('lea
ed him, He comnulllded the U, 
,frigate then aect'ptecl a commantl in the èentral army 
.. Congre
":," of the Brazil sCluadron, in 1
.31-'2. and under Gen, \\-a
hington, who selected him to cum- 
hecame flag-otJicer of the home squadron in 1tí.3i, mand in a campaign again
t the \\ estern Indians 
During this period. under the declared purpose of in 1 ii
, In a letter to the president of congress. 

uppressing the slan'-tradc. the British fleet in the tlated 12 )Iay. Wa...hington said: ., I part with this 
Gulf of )'Il':\.ico hoarded allli searched fortv 
\meri- gentleman with much reluc'tallce, as I esteem him 
can \-e
seis, :\[dnto
h, however, tlenied tlieir right an officer of great. merit and worth, IIis tirm dis- 
to do so. ancI for his prompt aJHI vigorous action in positiun awl 'equal justice, his assiduit.y and good 
the matter rel'f'iH'11 in 1H:)t; the thanks of c'ongress, understanding. point him out as a proper person 
-His sister, U.ilriu .J iln(', author, b, in Sunlmry, to {;o. but I know his ser\Ïces here are and will be 
Ga" IH08: d, in :\Iorristown,
, .T.. 2:) Fd).. ltíit;. materiall\' wanted," :\lcIntosh marched with a 
was educated in the .\.cademv of Sunhurv, removed force of :ioo men to Fort Pitt, as
unwcl commllIld, 
to Kew York in 1t;ð.3. and, liaving lo
t lier fortune and in a short time re
tored peace on the frontier 
in the financial crisis of ltí:
i, adopted authorship of Pennsylvania and \Ïrginia, He completed ar- 
as a means of support. Under the pen-name of rangements for RIl expt.dition against Vt'troit in 
"Aunt Kitty" she puhlished a juvenile story en- the spring of 1..11, but wa
 recalled hy ,ra:-,hing- 
titled ,. Blind Alice" that at once became popular ton. joined Gen, Benjamin Lin<:oln in C'harle-:ton, 
(IR-U), and was followed by others (Xew York, marched to Augu:4a in comIlland of the Georgia 
11:'4:;), the whole series being i,.;sued in one volume troops. and then procet'decl tu Sa\"annah, where he 
as .. 
\.uut Kitty's Tales" (1
-!7), On the reeom- commanded the bt. and .;th :O-;outh Carolina regi- 
menclation of the tnt
edian )Iaere:ulv, the:-;e and IIlPnls, and, after driving the British from tlwir 
many of her suLse(jlient tales werc ì'eprinted in outpo
t
. took an acth-e part in the siege, When 
Londun, Her writings are each illustrati\-e of a the city 
urrenùered he retreated to Charleston, 
moral 
entinwnt, awl inelude .. Conque
t Illul :-;elf- wa
 pre
ent at its surrender to t;ir Henry Clinton, 
Conquest" (1t;4-!): .. Prai
f' and Principle ,. (1t;4,)): aUlI for It long- period was held a prh:oner of war, 
"Two Li\-e
, to Seem Rnd to Be" (1
4(;); "('harms On his return to Georgia he found his property 
and Conn tel' Charm
 " (18-!H); "\V oman in Ameri- wasted, and his household di
per
ed, He wa
 a 
ca: Her Work aIllI Upward" (IH:)O): "The fJofty member of eon
ress in 1784 and the next war a 
and the T..owly" (U
.)2): "E\-enings at Donald
on commis
ioner to treat with the sout}wl"ll IIidians, 
:\[anor" (1H.)2): .. Emily Herhert " (If,t,):i); "Yiolet, IIis later life was pa

ed in comparative powrty 
or the Cross allli Crown " (1t'.)(i); .. :\let.a Gra
" and in retirement.-lIis nephew, .J 011 II, soldier, b, 
(1S,,)H); an(l ., '1'\\0 Pic,tnres" (1
(;3), in :\lcIntosh county, Ga,. in 173.3; d, there. 12 1'0\'" 
Me 1
'fOSH. Lachlull, 
oldier, h, near Haib:, in 1
2(j, was an ottieer in the (reorgia line in 17i,3, 
nlulenodI, Scotland. 17 .:\1:lI'eh, 1 i2.1: II. in 
a\"an- and :IS lieutenant - colonel defended the fort at 
nah, <3a" 20 Feh" l
O(i, lli
 father, John" ),101''' ::;unlmry, in Liberty county, when it was he
ieged 
)[clnto
h, with 100 Highlanders. came to Georgia bv Lieut,-('ol, Fra
er at the heacl of a con
itlemble 
in 17jl; under aov, ,lamf's E, Og-lethorpe. pml set- h;)dy of British troops, .At the battle of Brier 
tIed in the luwer part of the state at the town that Creek, 
 ).[arch, 1 iill, he di
played great hravery, 
is now known only surn'ndering when further re:-:istmwe Wß
 im- 
as Uarien, hut l'o

iule, 
\t the close of the war he removed to 
which was ('alleù Florida and settled on 
t, John'
 rÏ\'er, but was 
bv them Inver- sudflf'nly arre-:ted hy a hand of Spanish troops 
nè:-;s, When Og-le- and im pri
Olll'd in the fortress at ::;1. 
 \. ugu
tine on 
thorpe immled suspieion of having- ùe
ig-ns ßgain
t the Spani:-:h 
Florida in 1740. governmpnt. lle was finally sent to the captain- 
John :\[01' fol- g'eI1f'mlof Cuba and imprisoned in Morro Castle 
lowed him, :nul at llanuut, .\t the end of a year he was relea
ed 
was tah('n pris- and retuI'lwd to GeOI'gia, blÌt not until he had 
oner \'ythc Span- ailled in dl'
troving a fort on the St. John's ri\-er 
iards and sent to opposite Jacksom:ille and done the Sl'ani
h go\'- 
Spain, wlwre he ernment other injurif's, During- the last months 
\HIS confim'd two of tht. war of It;12-'14. he sern'cl under J:lek
on fit 
1 veal's, lIe dil.d :\[ohile as major-geIwml of militia.-John's son. 
\' 'r- of the results of .Jam('s SimllIons, sol(lier, U, in Lil}('l'ty countyJ
a" 
\ this imprison- 1!)' June, 1 7t-ì7: d, in the city of )[e'\.ico, :W Sept., 
ment a few years 184i, entered the U, S, army as lieutenant in Un2, 
after his rèturn was se\-ereh' wounded in the affair neHr Blaek 
to thi
 country, Hoek in uÙ-!, and served throug-hout the Creek 

lor originatètl war, Ill' wa
 commissioned eaptàin in 181 i, majur 
the protest that \\'a
 made by the coloni4s to the in 11-';;n, and lieutenant-colonel in ltí:m, During- 
hoard of trustees in England a
ain
t. the introduc- the .l\le"ican war he participated in the battles of 
tion of African sht\'es into l{eorg-ia, The "l\[or" of Palo Alto and Hl'
al'a de la Palma. \\ here he \\11-- 
his title signitiecl "big," Laclìlan had little early I dangerou
ly wounded, and was snh
e(llll'ntly bre- 
edncation. and at seventeen years of age heeame a vettell colonel. Ill' commanded a brigacle in the 
clerk in a counting-hollse at Charleston. S, C" and valley of :\Iexico, :nul W:IS mOlt:tlly wounded at the 
livcd in the family of Henry Laurens, After 
everal head of hi
 coluIlln in the a

ault on )Iolino del 
years he returneIÌ to Im-eI:nes
, hecame a land-
lIr- He
',-Ilis snn. .J
IIIl('!oÖ JIcQ, IH't'JI solclier, b, on 
\-e)or, and, having rf'cei\'l'cl muc.h n....sistance in the Tmnpa hay, Fla.. in IH

: d, near PL'H Hidge, 
\rk.. 
study of matlH'matic
 from Oglethorpe, interested ì Xov" l
(;
, was graduated at the r, S. military 
himsPlf in ei dl engineering and military ta<,ties, In aea,lemy in lK..t.9, heeHme captain of t hI' 1st U, S, 
8f'ptpmuer, 1 7i(;,he wa
appointed hriga<<lipr-gl'nerai. eH\-alry in 18,37. amI, re:-õigning from the army in 
In 17;i, in a duel, he mortally wounded his political I 1 "'(;(), wa.;; commis
ionecl brigadif'r-genf'ral in the 
opponent, Hutton G\\ inett, who had usell his o1Ii- I Confederate army, anù hilled at the battle of Pea 



....... 

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)ldXTO:-;1l 


l\IA rK 


125 


Ridge, .\rk.-
\nother 
on, Jollll Uailli('. 
()ldier, 1 1H-!2, wag gazetted major of thC' Stormont battalion 
h. on Tampa hay. Fla., Ii J nne, It-:!!I; II. in X ew in 1H,")-1, and on his suhseqtll'nt retirement f!"Om the 
Bmns\\ il'k, X, ,J., 
9 J UJH', 1HH
, was edueatpd at 
l'l"\ ice was granted the rank uf lieutenant-colonel. 
Lawrenceville, X, J" and 
ing- :-;ing, X, Y., cntered On the 
ul'pl'es
ion of the rehellion he rl'sumed 
the IUl'-Y in 1t1-1H, resigne,l in Htj(J, and in IHln en- pradict' at \\ïlliamstown, In 1
-1!J II(' was elee-ted 
tered the U, S, army as 2d lieutenant of eavalry, Ill' warden of the unitell countie
 of StonIwnt, Dun- 
hecHlne ht lieutpnant in 1:::;1i2, serH'd in thC' ]lPnin- das, and (aengarry, re-elC'l'ted in 11'<,0, and in that 
sular l'
tlnpaign, was malle eolonel of the 
d Penn- rear \\itS appuinted sheriff of the united cOllnties, 
s,-l\-ania volunteers in X ovembel', 1
()2, mal COIll- \\ hieh office he has held p'er since, He \\ as an 
IÌlanded a brigade in many important hattles, al'dC'nt rdorrnn', al\(l the friend anci ally of ,fohn 
induding Chancellorsville and <:iettY
\lUrg, He :-;
t.ndfidd )[:tedonald,-11 is son, A 1 f':XUIl df'r }'rn- 
was commis
ionell captain in the .,th cantlry in !o'('I'. Canaclian lawyer, h, in \\ïlliamstown, Ont.. 
.') 
1
U3, engaged in the \\ïlderness eampaign, and Dee" 1t;-1ì. was educated at Cornwall gramlllar- 
the battles around Petersburg, hecame hrigadier- 
chool and ,MeGill uniH>rsity, He then studiC'd 
general of voluntC'er>: in ,July, IHli-t-, commanded a la\\, \\as aclmittC'd to the har in 1H,2. and pra(,tised 
cavalry brigalle at Winchester, and lost a leg at at Cornwall and Ott:ma, From 11-;ì,I till1H78 he 
Opellunn, He was hren.tfell major in the U,
, was 
ltrusted hy the l\lae}..C'nzie administration 
army for his gallantry at White Oak Swamp, lieu- ,\ ith the conduct of important suits against the 
telUlIlt-colonel for Getty
lH1rg-, colonel for 
\sh- government in the t'xeht"juer ('ourt. Ill' has been 
lawl, hrigadiC'r-general for \Vine-hester. major-gen- pngaged prohahly more than any other la\\
er in 
eral of volunteers for distinguish ell gallantry and prosecuting the elaim
 of goYel"llmC'nt contl"aetors 
good manngement in the battle of Olwquan, Va" heton' till' e'\.C'hequpr unl1 supreme eourt
, In 1Hi5 
and, in !tW.j. major-g-eI1eral for meritorious SCI"\'icc he was ele('ted to the Ontario as:'l'mh]y for ('orn- 
during the war, Ill' was commissioned lieutenant- wall, and in 1HH
 was an unsu('C'ess{ul candidate 
colonel of the 1
ll infantry in Il'-\lili. and in 11:',0 in the Liheral interests for the Dominion parlia- 
was rl'tÍIwl \\ith the mnk of brigadier-general. ment, In Scptf'mheJ;, 18H.I. hp \\as C'lectel1 I'resi- 
lUd
TOSH, William, ('reek chief, b, in Cowe- dent of the Ontario Young Lihel"al assol'iation, 
ta, Ua" in 1 ,j,j; d, near there, :.?9 April, 1t\
.j, Ilis anù Ill' has been rre!,idcnt of the Lihl'ml as:-:ocia- 
fMher, \Villiam, was a British otlicer. and his mother tion of Ottawa, lie is widC'lv kno\\ n as H suecess- 
was a Creek Indian, The son wa" earefully edu- fullaw
-pr and Liheral politièian, 
cated and became a prineipal chief of his nution, )1('I
T\'nE. l)ctt'l'. Canal1iun H. (', hishop, h, 
During the \\ ar of 1t;12 he comman(kd the friendly in Cable Ill'ucl, St. PetC'r's bay, PrinC'C' E(hHII'd 
Creeks who were in alliance with the U, t-ì, govern- island,:.?!1 ,lmw, 11-;1H, His father, a native of In- 
ment, did efficient sC'rviee at the hattles of .Autos- verne
s-
hire, 
cotland.emigratC'd to Prince Edward 
see aIllI Horseshoe Bend, was promoted major, and island in lÎR
, The son Tl'ceÏ\ed his preparatory 
was in the Florida campnign, In 11-'2,) L, S, com- education in 
t, 
\IlIlrew'sllC'ademy, Prince ElhH:rd 
mis
ioners were appointed to meet Indian delega- island, \\ as afterward sent to the College of St. 
tions to treat for the 
ale of their lawls within the Hyacinth. and followed a theo]ogie-al cour
C' in the 
limits of the 
tate of Georgin, )leI nto
h agrC'ed ,';eminary of 
uehec, TIe was ordained IJ)'iC'st in 
to sell, sustaining his position with statesmanlike 1t\4:J. and then appointed assistant at the Quebec 
reasons, He said: "The white man is growing, pari
h church, After spwral months he was a
- 
He wants our lands; he will huv them now, Ih- signed to the Tignish mis:,.ion in Prinee Edward 
and hy he will take them, amI the little hand òf isÌand, where he
 continuC'd for 
eventl'ell Yt'HI'S, 
our people will he left to wander without homes, during which he built one of the fhll'st churches in 
poor and despised, and be Leaten like dogs, \\T e Canada, He was consecrated Lh..hop of Charlotte- 
will go to a new home and ]earn ]ike the white town in August, 1t\UO, Under tlH' administration 
man to till the C'arth. grow cattle, anù depend on of Bishop l\II'Int
 re, the Homan Catholic church 
these for food amI Hfe, This knowledge makûs the has made markpd progrC'

 in hi
 IUoC'esC', Ill' has 
white men like leaves; the want of it makes the founded the CoHege of St. Dunstan's, a convent 
red men few and 'H'ak, Let us learn to mHke on one of the )lagdalen islands, and about t\\enty 
books as the white man doe
, and we shaH grow churches a.nd pa.rochial schoo]s, Ill' went to Eu- 
again and become again a great nation," )ldn- rope in 11:'U!1 to attend the General council of the 
to
h's proposition was accepted by the greater part Yatican, and travelled through a part of Europe 
of the Creeks: hut Tuscahaehees, headell Ly the and Asia, In 18i8 he founded a hospital in 
chief Hopothla
 ohola, who had been his opponent Charlottetown, which is considered one of the Lest 
during the war of 1812, refmied to agree, Their managed in the Dominion and is open to all clas
es 
hostility to )[cInto
h culminated in a conspiracy and creeds,-Ilis nephew, Pctt'l' A(loll.hn!o', phy- 
for his assa

ination, Fifty warriors and Hopoth- sician, b, in PeterviUe, Prince Ed \\ ard i:-;land, in 
]ayohola wpre selected for this purpo
e, One night 18-10, was educatcd at 
t, Dunstan's college, the 
they knocked at his door, but, knowing their pur- Quebec seminary, and Lava] university, and graclu- 
pose, he declared to his son that he would meet ated as a physician at )IeWIl university in 1H(íì, 
his doom ]ike a wnrrior, and, taking his rifle, he lIe was a railway commi

ioner for Prince Edward 
opened the door, fired on them a
 he gave the war- island from :May, 18j2, till .August. 1
ìa, eJected to 
whoop, and fell dead, piercecl Lv twenty 1mHs, the Dominion parliament in It;,.!, defeated in l
jH, 
J(c1
T\'nE. ])nui..l EngeiIP. (':uiadian phy- re-eleded in 1

2, Hml again at general eleetion in 

iC'ian, b, in Oban, Argyleshire. :::;cotland, in 11-j]2, Fehruar
', l1-'H;, He is a Liheral. 
After completing his education, he was for a time ...\L\('K..J ohn JIaI'1iu, l\loravian 1Ji
hop, b. in 
employerl in a mercantile e
tablishmpnt in Gla<:- Wiirtemherg, Gernulll
', 1
 April, 1Î15; 11. on the 
gow, but he 
tUlliell medicine in the universities of island of St. Thomas, ,,
, 1., 9 June, 1'ìR4, ITe came 
that I'ity and EdinbUl'gh, and was gralll1ated in to this C'ountry in 1 ,:;.1, amI joined the .:\Ionl\-ian 
the former in 1H:
-t In 1$;,) he rpmo\'ed to ('anulia colony in Georgia, Thence hI' \\ent to Pennsyl- 
ftllli settled in Williamstown, Ont, During tllP 1'1'- '-ania, and a:"sisted at the founding of Bethlehem, 
bellion of 1H:
ì, while acting as surgeon of militia, Soon afterwHrd he was appointed mi

ionarYHmong 
he was taken pri"'OI1Pr b
- the insnrgpnts, lIere- the Imlians, ancl ]nhored with great succpss for 
mained on acti'-e military service at Lancaster till I twenty years in Xe\\ York, Pennsylvania, and Xew 



126 


l\IACKALL 


England, Both in X ew York and X ew Englaml 
the 1Ioraviaus \\el"e al'cllsed of Leiug spie:,-; of the 
Frpnch, and in con,.:elluence their mi,.:siouaries were 
made tu suffer, )Iaek wa:,; arrl",.;ted and imprisoned 
at 1Iilford, Conn" and Laui,.;hed from the province 
of Xew York. But such per,.;ecutions speedily 
eame to an end when, in 1'ì49, thf' rarliament of 
Ureat Britain acknowledged the 1Ioravians to Le 
an ancient episcopal church, amI invited them to 
scttle in this country, 1kanwhile Mack had found- 
ed Gnadenlll1l'tte-n,"a flouri,.;lling Christian Indian 

ettlem('nt in the IJehig-h miley, Pa, .At a later 
time he foundecl Xain, another Christian lmlian 
town, near Bethlehem, ' He- was in the full tide of 
Succl'ssfnl work when he was unexpectedly called 
to the 'Ye:,;t IlHlics as superintendent of the mis- 
siems in the Danish islmlll", Although it cost him 
a hard struggle to gi \ e up his laLors among the 
aborig-ines and le-ave _\me-riea, he ficcepted the call, 
and for twenty-two YC'ars devoted him,.;elf to the 
intere,.;ts of the negro slaves in St, Croix, St, Jan, 
amI St, Thomas, where he resided, In 1 ììU he 'Vis- 
ited Bethlehem, where he was consecrated to the 
episcopaey on 18 Oct, On returning to the 'Ye,.;t 
Indie,.; he continued his work, and in the milbt of 
that war between Eng-land and Francl' that gre-\\ 
out of the American l{evolution he visited all the 
missions on the Briti,.;h islands, and twice narrowly 
eSl'aped capture, The negrol'S loved and revered 
him as a father, 
\ great throng of them, dn'ssed 
in white, followell his remains tò the gra\'e, 
.1L\CK_\LL, William WhanD, soldier, b, in 
the District of Columbia in 181
, II(' was gradu- 
ated at the U, S, military academy in It<:3ì, becmne 
1st lieutenant in 18:J
,alllÌ Ulljutant in HHO, as
i,.;tant 
adjutant-general with the mnk of captain in 1840, 

el'\'ing throughout the 1Iexican war, and ree,'iving 
the brevets of captain, for gallantry at :\Iontere-y, 
and major, for Contreras and Churuhu:5Co, lIe 
was wounded at Chapultepec, He \\as tI'l'asurer 
amI secretary of the military asylum in the Vi,.;trict 
of Columhia in It\,)I-';
, became assistant adjutant- 
general with the mnk of major at the latter date, 
declined promotion to a lieutenant-colonelcy in 
.May, 1
(il, amI resigned to join the Confederate 
army, He sen-ed in Kentucky as assistant aclju- 
tant-W'Ill'ral to Gen, Simon Buckner, with the ran\.. 
of colonel, until after the surrender of FOIt IIelllT 
and Furt Donelson, was subsequpntly appointe
1 
brig-adier-general, commanded at Island Xo, 10 at 
the time of its surrender, and was confined in Fort 
'V:uTPn until exchanged, 
JI.\{' KA IT, Augp' Ut'ué A ..muud, Baron de 
(mal'k-o'), French IHL\-al officer, b, in Paris, 19 Feb" 
1 ì"'H; d, there, 1:1 1lay, IH.):), lIe- belonged to an 
Iri,.;h family that had 
ettled in France, Was edu- 
cated at the Cullege of ,Juilly with Prince Jerome 
Bonaparte, and on entering the na\'y was as,.;igned 
to the ,.;ame ship with the prineI', His prolllotion 
was mpid, awl was not intcl"l'upte-d by the He,.;to- 
ration, In IS1S the" Golo " \Va,.; placed under hi
 
onll'rs, and he was directe-d to study the polit:eaJ 
condition of Colombia and Santo Domingo, which 
mi,.;sion he perfurmed sncl;t-'s,.;fully, In IH
1 he- 
wa,.: lluHle conunalHler of the ., Clorinde" and J':ent 
to :;outh Ameril'a to estahli,.;h political and com- 
mel'eial relations with the Spani
h colonil's, which 
h:lll just become imlepemlf'nt. During the expe- 
dition he saHel1 for ahout eighte-en mont hs along the 
coa4s of Chili and Peru, and exe('uted some im- 
portant hydrographic works, In 1823 he was com- 
mander of the .. Circe," and instructed to open 
negotintion
 with Hu
-ti, with n view to its recog- 
nition bv France, and to demand an il1l1emnitv of 
150,OOO,ÕOO francs in favor of the French colonh:b, 


l\IcKA Y 


whose property had been cnnfiseated, He suc- 
ceeded in both objecb, and wa
 mmle rear-admiral 
after reaehing France, In 1t-\:

 he was 
ent to the 
""tation of the Amille" amI the Gulf of :\Il':\.ico, and 
compdled the government of Xpw Granada to give 
,.;atbfaetion for an outrage, and in It\3J fur a re- 
newecl outrage he bomhanled the f'ity of Cartha- 
gena and de:,;troyed Fort Boca-Chica, In 11'8(; he 
was named go\"Crnor of Martinique, but during 
his administration he was more occupied in set- 
tling difference,.; het\\ een the r niteù 
ta tes and 
France than in attending to the wants of that 
colony, In 11"40 he Was appointed to the com- 
mand uf a fleet of forb'-two \es,.:els, and sent to 
Buenos Ayres to exaet rèparation for outrages that 
had been committed by Ho
as on French suLjects, 
In the succe,.;:,;fuI operations that ensued, which 
were more diplomatic than military, he displayed 
much abilitv. On the return of )Iackau he wa:,; 
made vice-admiraL a peel' of France, and in 1
4a 
minister of the navy and colonies, He published 
a rpport un his crnise of 18lü-'IS (Paris, !S18) and 
.. Happort au Roi Sill' Ia situation véritable des 
nouveaux états de l'
\m{.rique du Sud, et en par- 
ticulie-!' ";111' rîle de- Saint Domingo" (1

1), 
JL\CK,\ Y. Ah'\:ullth'r, jOUl'Jlali:,-;t, b, in Scot- 
land in 1SU
; <1, at .sea in 1849, lIe was a member 
of the London pres
, and in the interest of the 
.. Morning Chronicle" vi:,;ited the rnited 
tates in 
184(; to report the debates in congress on the Ure- 
gon question, lIe suhsequently was sent as com- 
mis
ioner to India by the merchants of )Ianchester 
to inye,.;tigate the cttpahilities of that country for 
an im'rea,.;ed eultinltion of cotton, but died on the 
Yoyage home, lIe published" The \Vestern "
orld, 
or Tim-els through the enited Stutes in 184(;-'7" 
(Lundon, 1849), which the London "fipectator" 
described a
 the" most complete work publi
hed 
on the l7nite-d States," and a posthumous work 
entitled .. Western India;' \\ hich was edited by 
James Hohertson (IH:)3), 
]L\.(,K
\ f, ('hades, author, b, in Perth, Scot- 
land, in ISH, lIe was edul'ate-ll in London awl 
Brussels, W:iS on the staff of the London" )Iorning 
Chroniele" in 1834-'44, amI from the latter date 
till 1847 was p(litor of the .. Glasgow Argus," after 
\\hich he returned to TJondon, where he has since 
resided, Ill' ]e-ctured in the r niteù States in 1t(Jj 
on .. 8'mgs, Kationul, Historical. and Popular," in 
1 k(;O established the .. London Review," and in 
18Ii:!-':) was in the United States as war corrf'
pond- 
ent of the London ., Times," The CnÌ\'ersit\' of 
Glasg-ow ga\-e him the title of LL, D, in 184'ì, 
Among his numerous works are "Songs [HId 
Poems" (London, H'::
4); "Legends of the l,.;lf's, 
and ot her Poems" (IS4,")); "Town IJ
Tics " (1
-l
): 
.. Under Green Leaws" (18:>Î); .. Life and Liherty 
in 
\ml'rica .. (1
,")9) ; .. Lmler the Blue Sky" (1871): 
and" Gaelic .Etymulogyof the English IJanguage" 
(l
ìH), See '\
il
on's "The Poets and Poetry of 
Scotland" (Xew York,18ìli), 
}[(. KA r. ))OIlUltl. ship-builder, b, in Shelburne, 
Xova Sl'otia, 4 Sept" 1810; d, in Hamilton, :\Iass" 
20 Sept" 11"1"0 lIe learned 
hip-bnilaing in Xew 
York, began busine"s in Xe-wburyport, )Ias,.;" and 
in 184:; e:,;tablishell a ship-yard in East Bo,.;ton, 
where he constructed nmny fast. clippers for the 
Dinmond line, and SUbSel[Uently for the California 
anrI AII4raiian tmcll'. In Oeìoher, 18:):1, he launched 
the .. Great Hepuhlic;' of 4,:)00 tons, During- the 
cÌ\'il 'nil" he built the lig-ht - draught monitor 
"Xauset" and the douhle-eml gun-hoat "Ashue- 
Jot," His last work wus the sJoop-of-war .. 
\dalll
" 
(1
ì4ì, At this datl' he retired from ship-building 
and engaged in farming, 



Me KA Y 


,McKEAN 


127 


lUcK..\. Y, Jame
, Canadian legi:;lator, b. in sa...- , to Eng-land and France, The
e cahles are under a 
katche\\ an, ('all1u!a, about 1
1."): d, there, 
 Dec.. system known as the Commercial eable company 
1/",;\1. Ill' was educated at the Red Rh er :-:ettle- although the prh-ate property of ,Mr, Mackay at;ll 
ment, was in the employ of the lImh.on b
ty com- :\11', Bellllett, In l
I-;,") )1r, :\1ackay wa.s offered the 
pany fot, a time, and afterward became a eOlltractor nominal ion as l
, S, senator from Kenlda, under 
awl supermtl'ndell_ the construct
on of 'part o
 the I c
rcum::;tances ,that would have nmde hi: ele?tion 
Dawson route, \\ hen the pronnce of )1amtoha nrtually UIULIllmous, but he refused, as hIS prn-ate 
\\as formed :\[1', )[el
ay beeame a member of its I business rendered. in his opinion, a useful public 
legislative council, and 'HtS speaker for several life impossible, Ill' has ueen liueral in his dona- 
Veal'S, He was appointed a member of the first tions tu charities. and among other gifts to the 
ÌJrovincial administration in January. 1
71. with 1 Roman Catholic church. of which he is a member, 
the, office of pre
ident of the ex
cuti
-e council, ha
 fou.n
Ie-d_an orphan 
sylUI!1 in,K(
\'ada ç'ity, 
whIch he held tIll Decemuer, U;.4, :-;oon after- JI.-\( KA \, Roh('f.t, CanadIan JUl'lst, U, 1Il l\lon- 
warl1 he bt:'came minister of agriculture, uut re- treal in ltHU; d, there, 2
 Feb., l."

, His father 
signed in 1H7
. owing to illness, His intimate ae-- was an army ofJicer in the .Ea<;t Indian depart- 
IJUitintance with the InJians and half-breeds, and ment, The son "as called to the har in 1R37, and 
the great influence he possessed over them.enauled be-came \.lueen's counsel in 1
(iì, Ill' was aPl'oint- 
him to render the gO\'ernment valuaule aid in con- ed a commis
iuner for con
olidating the statutes in 
nection \\ ith the various treaties by whieh Indian It;.jG, and worked upon the Lower Canada and 
land-titles were extin!:uished, general statutI'S, lie beeame puisne judge of the 
JLlCKA Y. .John Willium, capitalist, b, in Duh- supreme court in IH/i
. wa
 a judg-e of the court of 
lin, Ireland,:!t; 
 0"" 1
31. He is of Scotch-Irish \.lueen's bench from 18/i
 till 1ti
a, and WaS presi- 
descent, and came with his parents in H340 to 
ew dent of the )Iontreal bar association and' of the 
York, where his father died soun after their arrival. Art association of that city, 
Young :\Iackayobtained a public-school edueation, JLU' K..\ Y -:"DUl'H, Af('
and{'r, clergyman, b, 
and was apprenticed to the trade of ship-building, in .Kew Haven, Conn" 2 June, 1H,")O, lIe is a. grand- 
On the di
covery of gold in California he went with 
on of 
athan Smith, U, S, senator from Connec- 
the erowd that was then thronging to the Pacifie, ticut, and a younger brother of the He\-', Cornelius 
and lived a miner's life for several years, with vary- B. Smith, D, D" of St. James's church, Xew York 
ing fortunes, acquiring a perfect command of the city, lIe wa
 graduate(! at Trinity in It;72, studied 
technical anù practical knowledge of mining, Be- di,'inity at the Gcneral theological seminary and 
fore he was thirty years old he had madl' and lo
t in England and Germany, and took orders in the 
a small fortune, [n 1
1i0 )1ackay left California Protestant Episcopal church, lIe was rector of 
for Xevada. where he has since made his home, Grace church, South Roston, Mass" in 1
i7-'80, 
In Xevada his fortunes slO\\ly and steadily im- and in the latter year beeame assi
tant rer-tor of 
proveù, and he beeame a leader of men among the St. Thomas's chureh, Xew York city, In ll->H(i he 
rough spirits that formed the mining community: declined the post of assistant bishop of Kansas. and 
He was a man of rigidly temperate habits, which in 1t;t;7 he became first archdeacon of Kew York. 
saved him from the misfortunes that attended so He has taken an acti,e part in the ch-il-sel'Yice re- 
many in the early mining days, In 1t;72 he was form movement, and has puulished occasional 
among the discoverers of the Bonanza mines, on a poems in periodicals, 
ledge of rock in the Sierra Nevallas, under what is .1I('KEAX, JO!o'('IIh, clergyman, b, in Ipswich, 
now Yirginia City, The discO\ery of their vast :\Ia
s" 19 April, 1 ÎÎü; d, in Havana. Cuba, 17 
deposits of silver and gold is the most noted and :\Iarch, 1
18, lIe was graduated at Harvard in 
perhaps the most romantic incident in mining 1 i9-1, and taught in Ipswich and Berwick till 1797, 
history, It changed the face of the silver markets when he wa..; ordained pastor of the C
ngreg-ational 
of the world, and to nations like India and China church in 3Iilton. 
Iass, The failure of his health 
became an important and embarras
ing factor in compelled his resignation in 1804, and he resumed 
modern political economy, The mines that came teaching, He declined the chair of mathematics 
within the Bonanza designation were owned uy John at Harvard in IROn, but two years afterward ac- 
W, 3lackay, James ('. Flood, James G, Fair, after- cepted the Boylston professorship of rhetoric and 
ward senator from Xevada, and \Yilliam O'Brien, oratory, succeeding John Quincy Adams, continu- 
Of this interest :\11', :\Iackay owned two fifths- ing in office until a few months before his death, 
double that of any of his partners, In 1t;7
 the which was the rf'!'tIlt of pulmonary disease, Prince- 
great silver vein was opened, and from one mine ton gave him the degree of LL, D, in ltH8, and 
alone :\11'. 3[ackayand :\11', Fair, the practical min- .\.llegheny college that of D, J), a few months later, 
ing- memuers of the Bonanza firm, took out $150,- He published occasional sermons, and a .. 
lemoir 
000,000 in silver and gold, In 1H75 the working of the Rev, John Eliot," printed in the .31assachu- 
of the mines was interrupted by a fire, but the o\\n- setts hi
torical collections, 
ers continue!! to pay dividends in order that the McKF..-\
, Samuel. senator. b, in Huntingdon 
share-holders, many of whom were their working- county, Pa" in 1 i
O; d, in .MeKean county, Pa" 
men, should not lose their income, Dlll'ing the '.?:J J nne, 1840, He was elected to eongre:,s as a 
acti,-e vield of the mines :\11', 3Iacka,- devoted him- Democrat in 1822. served in 1823-'9, and from 
self pe"rsonally to their superintemlence, working :\larch, J8:33. till ::\Iarch. 1839, was 'Cnited States 
in the lower levels as an ordinary miner, In l
jH, spnator from Pennsylvania, 
with :\11', Flood and :\11', Fair, he founded the Bank Jlc KEAN, Thomas, signer of the Declaration 
of Xl"ada, with its he<H!quartf'rs in San Francisco, of Independence, b, in Xe-w London, Chester co" 
:\11'. Mackay has spent some time in Europe for the Pa" 19 )[arch, 1 i34; d, in Philadelphia. Pa" 24 
education of his children, and, although he has a ,June, 1817, His parents were uoth natiws of Ire- 
special interest in the study of art, he has main- lawI. The son \\ a<; educated by the Rev, Francis 
ta
ne(
 hi.. acti,'e anll personal interest in n
in!ng, I Alli;on. who was at that time a cele
ll':lted teacher 
HIs firm are understood to control the prmelpal of 
ew Ca
tle, Del.. and after 
tudymg law a few 
mines on the Com
tock lode-, In IH1-;4 :\[1', )Iackay, months hecame regi4er of probate of 
ew Ca...tle 
in partnership with James GonIon Bennett,laicl two countv, Del. He was admitted to the uar before 
cables across the 
\.tlantic from the Cnited 
tate:-, he wås twenty-one, appointed deputy attorney- 



general of Sus
ex county a year later, and in I the same year chairman of the PC'nnsylvania COID- 
1,;)7-'\) was clerk of the assembly, With C:l'sar mittcl's of :-,afety and in::::pection awl the Phila- 
ROllney he hecame in 17G2 revi::::er of laws that had I delphia committee of oL
crnttion, A few days 
been l'a,,
ed previous to 1732. and in Oetobe1' of after ::::iglling the Declaration of Independence he 
this year was elect(,11 to the general a
sembly. hold- marched at the head of a battalion tu Perth Am- 
ing office for se\-entel'n boy,
, J.. tu re-cnforce Gen, \Ya
hington until 
_
 succe:,
ive years. during the arrival of the flying' camp, On his return to 
the last of which he 1'1'- Dovcr he found a committee awaiting" him to 
:-:idcd in Philadelphia, urge him tu preLJul'e the constitution of 
the :-:tate, 
He was a tru
tee of the which he drew up on the night of his arrh-al, an